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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 48-53, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968888

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sleep apnea (SA) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), and SA and CAD increase the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). This study aimed to investigate the effect of SA on the incidence of SCA and explore the effect of varying degrees of SA with or without CAD on the incidence of SCA. @*Materials and Methods@#This prospective multi-center, case-control study was performed using the phase II Cardiac Arrest Pursuit Trial with Unique Registry and Epidemiologic Surveillance (CAPTURES-II) database for SCA cases and community-based controls in Korea. The matching ratio of cases to controls was 1:1, and they were randomly matched within demographics, including age, sex, and residence. The primary variable was a history of SA, and the second variable was a history of CAD. We conducted a conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of SA and CAD on the SCA risk, and an interaction analysis between SA and CAD. @*Results@#SA was associated with an increased risk of SCA [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval, CI): 1.54 (1.16–2.03)], and CAD was associated with an increased risk of SCA [AOR (95% CI): 3.94 (2.50–6.18)]. SA was a risk factor for SCA in patients without CAD [AOR (95% CI): 1.62 (1.21–2.17)], but not in patients with CAD [AOR (95% CI): 0.56 (0.20–1.53)]. @*Conclusion@#In the general population, SA is risk factor for SCA only in patients without CAD. Early medical intervention for SA, especially in populations without pre-existing CAD, may reduce the SCA risk.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03700203)

2.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 394-402, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001880

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common cause of death and serious neurological morbidity. Efforts to reduce the mortality due to OHCA focus on the “chain of survival.” The survival rates of OHCA patients are known to be related to prehospital conditions. @*Methods@#Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) provide a variety of procedures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other advanced interventions that may improve the prognosis of OHCA patients. HEMS can respond quickly to long-distance or difficult-to-access places. This study attempted to investigate the characteristics of OHCA patients who had utilized inter-hospital air transport. The study was an observational cohort study using prospective data from a single suburban tertiary care hospital over a period of 7 years. The study data were analyzed using the SPSS version 28 software. @*Results@#In the survival group, the cause was more cardiac-related than in the death group (54% vs. 23.4%; P<0.001). CPR by bystanders and defibrillation by the emergency medical technicians were more frequent than in the death group. Also, the initial rhythm of the survivors was mainly VT or VF (48.0% vs. 14.9%; P<0.003). @*Conclusion@#In the HEMS mission with OHCA arrest, the patients with a cardiac origin, witnessed arrest, those with a shockable rhythm and shorter CPR time had a trend towards better survival and neurological outcomes in this study.

3.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 287-296, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001862

ABSTRACT

Considerable evidence has been published since the 2020 Korean Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Guidelines were reported. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) also publishes the Consensus on CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR) summary annually. This review provides expert opinions by reviewing the recent evidence on CPR and ILCOR treatment recommendations. The authors reviewed the CoSTR summary published by ILCOR in 2021 and 2022. PICO (population, intervention, comparator, outcome) questions for each topic were reviewed using a systemic or scoping review methodology. Two experts were appointed for each question and reviewed the topic independently. Topics suggested by the reviewers for revision or additional description of the guidelines were discussed at a consensus conference. Forty-three questions were reviewed, including 15 on basic life support, seven on advanced life support, two on pediatric life support, 11 on neonatal life support, six on education and teams, one on first aid, and one related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, the current Korean CPR Guideline was maintained for 28 questions, and expert opinions were suggested for 15 questions.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e260-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001074

ABSTRACT

Background@#We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to analyze the effect of circulating vitamin D level on the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. @*Methods@#Prospective cohort studies evaluating the association between circulating vitamin D and risk of SCD and CVD mortality were systematically searched in the PubMed and Embase. Extracted data were analyzed using a random effects model and results were expressed in terms of hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to estimate the dose-response relationships. @*Results@#Of the 1,321 records identified using the search strategy, a total of 19 cohort studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of HR (95% CI) for low vs. high circulating vitamin D level was 1.75 (1.49–2.06) with I 2 value of 30.4%. In subgroup analysis, strong effects of circulating vitamin D were observed in healthy general population (pooled HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.43–2.38) and the clinical endpoint of SCD (pooled HRs, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.48– 4.83). The dose-response analysis at the reference level of < 50 nmol/L showed a significant negative association between circulating vitamin D and risk of SCD and CVD mortality. @*Conclusion@#Our meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies showed that lower circulating vitamin D level significantly increased the risk of SCD and CVD mortality.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 129-136, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875593

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) caused by ischemic heart disease is associated with higher mortality and requires immediate diagnosis. Recently, novel methods to diagnose non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin have been applied. We compared the clinical utility of high-sensitivity troponin I (hS-TnI), delta troponin I, and other traditional methods to diagnose NSTEMI in patients with ADHF. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze patients with ADHF who underwent hS-TnI evaluation of 0–2-h protocol in our emergency department. Patients were grouped according to a diagnosis of NSTEMI. @*Results@#A total of 524 ADHF [ADHF with NSTEMI, n=109 (20.8%)] patients were enrolled in this analysis. The mean values of hS-TnI (ng/mL) in the ADHF with and without NSTEMI groups were 2.44±5.60 and 0.25±0.91, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that regional wall-motion abnormality, T-wave inversion/hyperacute T wave, and initial and delta hS-TnI were predictive factors for NSTEMI. Laboratory values related to cardiac biomarkers, including hS-TnI [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI): 2.18], and the delta hS-TnI [OR (95% CI): 1.55] were significant predictors of NSTEMI. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for electrocardiographic abnormalities, initial hS-TnI, and delta hS-TnI were 0.794, 0.802, and 0.773, respectively. @*Conclusion@#For diagnosis of suspected NSTEMI in patients with ADHF, initial hS-TnI assay has similar predictive value as ischemic changes on electrocardiogram and superior predictive value than delta hS-TnI calculated by the 0–2-h protocol.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 591-600, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916528

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is essential for preventing serious complications in the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit. Contrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest is used for confirming pulmonary embolism, but there is a low specificity and radiation- or contrast-related side effects. We developed a novel nomogram to facilitate decision-making for performing contrast CT of the chest in the ED. @*Methods@#A retrospective observational study was conducted to develop a prediction model of PTE. The prediction model was derived from demographic characteristics, clinical history data and results of laboratory tests, ultrasonography and echocardiography. A nomogram was constructed from the variables of the prediction model and validated. @*Results@#A total of 326 patients were analyzed (a training cohort, 260; a validation cohort, 66). Wells’ score, D-dimer level>1,100 ng/dL, positive McConnell’s sign and D-shaped left ventricle were associated with the occurrence of PTE. The overall predictive accuracy of the prediction model was 0.802 (0.748-0.849) (area under the curve with 95% confidence interval). The calibration plots for the probability of PTE showed good agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual probability among cohorts. @*Conclusion@#A novel nomogram using risk stratification, laboratory test and sonographic examination findings is a good screening tool for predicting PTE, and it can be helpful to decide whether an ED physician should perform a contrastenhanced chest CT in the ED.

7.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 41-44, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830629

ABSTRACT

In general, patients with neurofibromatosis type I have a higher risk than those with other types of neurofibromatosis of developing soft-tissue sarcomas related to the nervous system. We here present a 42-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type I who developed a protruding mass over only 2 weeks. The histopathological diagnosis was epithelioid sarcoma. Epithelioid sarcomas are rare and, to the best of our knowledge, no epithelioid sarcomas have been reported in patients with neurofibromatosis type I. Radical excision of the primary lesion was performed and postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy administered, as is recommended for epithelioid sarcoma. Our case emphasizes that patients with neurofibromatosis type I may develop malignant tumors

8.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 73-76, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830622

ABSTRACT

Cranial implant removal is recommended if implants become exposed owing to scalp necrosis after cranioplasty. However, it carries the risk of extensive bleeding, and the resultant cranial defects can cause both aesthetic and functional problems. We present a case of a scalp defect exposing a cranial prosthetic implant that was reconstructed with a local flap and salvaged using an indwelling antibiotic irrigation system. A 73-year-old man presented with scalp necrosis after undergoing cranioplasty due to intracranial hemorrhage. The cranial implant was exposed through the scalp defect. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the culture from the open wound. After debridement of the necrotic tissue and burring of the superficial layer of the implant, a transposition flap was used to cover the defect and an indwelling antibiotic irrigation system was installed. Continuous irrigation with vancomycin was conducted for 5 days, and intravenous vancomycin was continued for 4 weeks. The flap was in good condition at 4 months postoperatively, with no infection. The convex contour of the scalp was well maintained. The patient’s neurological status was stable. Exposed cranial implants can be salvaged with continuous antibiotic irrigation as an alternative to implant removal; thus, the risk of bleeding and possible disfigurement may be avoided.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e134-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythms, particularly shockable rhythms, are crucial for planning cardiac arrest treatment. There are varying opinions regarding treatment guidelines depending on ECG rhythm types and documentation times within pre-hospital settings or after hospital arrivals. We aimed to determine survival and neurologic outcomes based on ECG rhythm types and documentation times. METHODS: This prospective observational study of 64 emergency medical centers was performed using non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry data between October 2015 and June 2017. From among 4,608 adult participants, 4,219 patients with pre-hospital and hospital ECG rhythm data were enrolled. Patients were divided into 3 groups: those with initial-shockable, converted-shockable, and never-shockable rhythms. Patient characteristics and survival outcomes were compared between groups. Further, termination of resuscitation (TOR) validation was performed for 6 combinations of TOR criteria confirmed in previous studies, including 2 rules developed in the present study. RESULTS: Total survival to discharge after cardiac arrest was 11.7%, and discharge with good neurologic outcomes was 7.9%. Survival to discharge rates and favorable neurologic outcome rates for the initial-shockable group were the highest at 35.3% and 30.2%, respectively. There were no differences in survival to discharge rates and favorable neurologic outcome rates between the converted-shockable (4.2% and 2.0%, respectively) and never-shockable groups (5.7% and 1.9%, respectively). Irrespective of rhythm changes before and after hospital arrival, TOR criteria inclusive of unwitnessed events, no pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation, and asystole in the emergency department best predicted poor neurologic outcomes (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.911) with no patients classified as Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2 (specificity = 1.000). CONCLUSION: Survival outcomes and TOR predictions varied depending on ECG rhythm types and documentation times within pre-hospital filed or emergency department and should, in the future, be considered in treatment algorithms and prognostications of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03222999


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Heart Arrest , Observational Study , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prospective Studies , Resuscitation , ROC Curve
10.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 165-176, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the conceptualization, development, and implementation processes of the newly established Korean Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation Consortium (KoCARC) to improve out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes. METHODS: The KoCARC was established in 2014 by recruiting hospitals willing to participate voluntarily. To enhance professionalism in research, seven research committees, the Epidemiology and Preventive Research Committee, Community Resuscitation Research Committee, Emergency Medical System Resuscitation Research Committee, Hospital Resuscitation Research Committee, Hypothermia and Postresuscitation Care Research Committee, Cardiac Care Resuscitation Committee, and Pediatric Resuscitation Research Committee, were organized under a steering committee. The KoCARC registry was developed with variables incorporated in the currently existing regional OHCA registries and Utstein templates and were collected via a web-based electronic database system. The KoCARC study population comprises patients visiting the participating hospitals who had been treated by the emergency medical system for OHCA presumed to have a cardiac etiology. RESULTS: A total of 62 hospitals volunteered to participate in the KoCARC, which captures 33.0% of the study population in Korea. Web-based data collection started in October 2015, and to date (December 2016), there were 3,187 cases compiled in the registry collected from 32 hospitals. CONCLUSION: The KoCARC is a self-funded, voluntary, hospital-based collaborative research network providing high level evidence in the field of OHCA and resuscitation. This paper will serve as a reference for subsequent KoCARC manuscripts and for data elements collected in the study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Data Collection , Emergencies , Epidemiology , Heart Arrest , Hypothermia , Korea , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Professionalism , Registries , Resuscitation
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1232-1239, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent basic life support (BLS) guidelines recommend a 30:2 compression-to-ventilation ratio (CV2) or chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CC); however, there are inevitable risks of interruption of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in CV2 and hypoxemia in CC. In this study, we compared the short-term outcomes among CC, CV2, and 30:1 CV ratio (CV1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 42 pigs were randomly assigned to CC, CV1, or CV2 groups. After induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF), we observed pigs for 2 minutes without any intervention. Thereafter, BLS was started according to the assigned method and performed for 8 minutes. Defibrillation was performed after BLS and repeated every 2 minutes, followed by rhythm analysis. Advanced cardiac life support, including continuous chest compression with ventilation every 6 seconds and intravenous injection of 1 mg epinephrine every 4 minutes, was performed until the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or 22 minutes after VF induction. Hemodynamic parameters and arterial blood gas profiles were compared among groups. ROSC, 24-hour survival, and neurologic outcomes were evaluated at 24 hours. RESULTS: The hemodynamic parameters during CPR did not differ among the study groups. Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and arterial oxygen saturation were lowest in the CC group, compared to those in the other groups, during the BLS period (p=0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). The CV1 groups showed a significantly higher rate of favorable neurologic outcome (swine CPC 1 or 2) than the other groups (p=0.044). CONCLUSION: CPR with CV1 could promote better neurologic outcome than CV2 and CC.


Subject(s)
Advanced Cardiac Life Support , Hypoxia , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Epinephrine , Heart Arrest , Hemodynamics , Injections, Intravenous , Methods , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Swine , Thorax , Treatment Outcome , Ventilation , Ventricular Fibrillation
12.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 256-263, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to validate the effectiveness of the Korean criteria for trauma team activation (TTA) and compared its results with a two-tiered system. METHODS: This observational study was based on data from the Korean Trauma Data Bank. Within the study period, 1,628 trauma patients visited our emergency department, and 739 satisfied the criteria for TTA. The rates of overtriage and undertriage in the Korean one-tiered system were compared with the two-tiered system recommended by the American College of Surgery-Committee on Trauma. RESULTS: Most of the patient’s physiologic factors reflected trauma severity levels, but anatomical factors and mechanism of injury did not show consistent results. In addition, while the rate of overtriage (64.4%) was above the recommended range according to the Korean criteria, the rate of undertriage (4.0%) was within the recommended range. In the simulated two-tiered system, the rate of overtriage was reduced by 5.5%, while undertriage was increased by 1.8% compared to the Korean activation system. CONCLUSION: The Korean criteria for TTA showed higher rates of overtriage and similar undertriage rates compared to the simulated two-tier system. Modification of the current criteria to a two-tier system with special considerations would be more effective for providing optimum patient care and medical resource utilization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Emergency Service, Hospital , Observational Study , Patient Care , Patient Care Team , Trauma Centers , Triage
13.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 76-83, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Clinically, consumptive coagulopathy, such as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), is the most important among the common venomous snakebite complications owing to the serious hemorrhage risk associated with this condition. We evaluated the predictive value of the delta neutrophil index (DNI)—a new indicator for immature granulocytes—for DIC diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective observational study consecutively assessed adult patients with venomous snakebites for over 51 months. Patients were categorized into the no DIC and DIC groups. DNI values were measured within 24 hours after snakebite. RESULTS: Thirty patients (26.3%) developed DIC. The DIC group had significantly higher median initial DNI than the no DIC group (0% vs. 0.2%, P < 0.001). When the DIC group was divided into early and late groups (within and over 24 hours after snakebite, respectively), the DNI of the former was significantly higher than that of the latter and no DIC group. The late DIC group had significantly higher DNI than the no DIC group. Furthermore, DNI positively correlated with the DIC score (r=0.548, P < 0.001). The initial DNI (odds ratio, 4.449; 95% confidence interval, 1.738 to 11.388; P=0.002) was an early DIC predictor. The area under the curve based on the initial DNI’s receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.724. CONCLUSION: DNI values were significantly higher in the DIC group. Additionally, DNI was an early predictor of DIC development in patients with venomous snakebites in the emergency department.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Dacarbazine , Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hemorrhage , Neutrophils , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Snake Bites , Venoms
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1187-1194, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176874

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence has demonstrated the survival benefits of helicopter transport for trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-based helicopter emergency medical services (H-HEMS) in comparison with ground ambulance transport in improving mortality outcomes in patients with major trauma. Study participants were divided into 2 groups according to type of transport to the trauma center; that is, either via ground emergency medical services (GEMS) or via H-HEMS. The study was conducted from October 2013 to July 2015. Mortality outcomes in the H-HEMS group were compared with those in the GEMS group by using the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) analysis. The number of participants finally included in the study was 312. Among these patients, 63 were adult major trauma patients transported via H-HEMS, and 47.6% were involved in traffic accidents. For interhospital transport, the Z and W statistics revealed significantly higher scores in the H-HEMS group than in the GEMS group (Z statistic, 2.02 vs. 1.16; P = 0.043 vs. 0.246; W statistic, 8.87 vs. 2.85), and 6.02 more patients could be saved per 100 patients when H-HEMS was used for transportation. TRISS analysis revealed that the use of H-HEMS for transporting adult major trauma patients was associated with significantly improved survival compared to the use of GEMS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Accidents, Traffic , Air Ambulances , Aircraft , Ambulances , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Injury Severity Score , Mortality , Transportation , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries
15.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 41-45, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Adverse cardiovascular events (ACVEs) account for a large proportion of the morbidities and mortalities associated with drug overdose emergencies. However, there are no published reports regarding outcomes of ACVEs associated with acute dapsone poisoning. Here, the authors retrospectively analyzed ACVEs reported within 48 hours of treatment in patients with acute dapsone poisoning and assessed the significance of ACVEs as early predictors of mortality. METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive cases of acute dapsone poisoning that were diagnosed and treated at a regional emergency center between 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. An ACVE was defined as myocardial injury, shock, ventricular dysrhythmia, cardiac arrest, or any combination of these occurring within the first 48 hours of treatment for acute dapsone poisoning. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (31.1%) had evidence of myocardial injury (elevation of serum troponin-I level or electrocardiography signs of ischemia) after dapsone overdose, and there were a total of 19 ACVEs (31.1%), including one case of shock (1.6%). Fourteen patients (23.0%) died from pneumonia or multiple organ failure, and the incidence of ACVEs was significantly higher among non-survivors than among survivors (64.3% vs. 21.3%, P=0.006). ACVE was a significant predictor of mortality (odds ratio, 5.690; 95% confidence interval, 1.428 to 22.675; P=0.014). CONCLUSION: The incidence of ACVE was significantly higher among patients who died after acute dapsone poisoning. ACVE is a significant predictor of mortality after dapsone overdose, and evidence of ACVE should be carefully sought in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Dapsone , Drug Overdose , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Incidence , Mortality , Multiple Organ Failure , Pneumonia , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Shock , Survivors , Troponin I
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