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1.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 24-31, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977108

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to estimate the medical expenditures for poisoning patients in Korea using data from National Health Insurance and the Korea Health Panel Survey. @*Methods@#The operational definition of poisoning was the presence of Korean Standard Classification of Diseases codes from T36 to T65. The number of poisoning patients, the amount of legal copayments, and benefit and non-benefit costs were extracted from both databases. The frequency of emergency, inpatient, and outpatient treatment utilization by poisoning patients was determined, and medical expenses were calculated. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate factors affecting the medical expenses of poisoning patients. @*Results@#The number of poisoning patients increased from 97,965 in 2011 to 147,984 persons in 2020. Medical expenses also increased by 74% from Korean won (KRW) 30.1 billion to KRW 52.3 billion, and benefit costs also increased by 79%. The average outpatient cost per person was KRW 67,660, and the inpatient cost was KRW 1,485,103. The average non-benefit medical expenses were KRW 80,298, accounting for about 16.2% of the total expenses. Multivariable analysis showed that the total expenditure was associated with economic status and disabilities. @*Conclusion@#The average medical expenditure per poisoning patient was KRW 534,302 in 2020, and poisoning-related costs gradually increased during the study period. Further research on the economic burden of poisoning should include indirect costs and reflect disease-adjusted life years.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e125-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976928

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in South Korea. We used data from the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. In total, 44,361 patients with CO poisoning were identified across 10 years (2010–2019). The prevalence of CO poisoning was found to be 8.64/10,000 people, with a gradual annual increment. The highest prevalence was 11.01/10,000 individuals, among those aged 30–39 years. In 2010, HBOT was claimed from 15 hospitals, and increased to 30 hospitals in 2019. A total of 4,473 patients received HBOT in 10 years and 2,684 (60%) were treated for more than 2 hours. This study suggested that the prevalence of both CO poisoning and HBOT in Korea gradually increased over the past 10 years, and disparities in prevalence were observed by region.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 404-412, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977434

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Most bee sting injuries are benign, although sometimes they can result in life threatening outcomes, such as anaphylaxis and death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic status of bee sting injuries in Korea and to identify risk factors associated with severe systemic reactions (SSRs). @*Materials and Methods@#Cases were extracted from a multicenter retrospective registry for patients who had visited emergency departments (EDs) for bee sting injuries. SSRs were defined as hypotension or altered mental status upon ED arrival, hospitalization, or death. Patient demographics and injury characteristics were compared between SSR and non-SSR groups. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for bee sting-associated SSRs, and the characteristics of fatality cases were summarized. @*Results@#Among the 9673 patients with bee sting injuries, 537 had an SSR and 38 died. The most frequent injury sites included the hands and head/face. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the occurrence of SSRs was associated with male sex [odds ratio (95% confidence interval); 1.634 (1.133–2.357)] and age [1.030 (1.020–1.041)]. Additionally, the risk of SSRs from trunk and head/ face stings was high [2.858 (1.405–5.815) and 2.123 (1.333–3.382), respectively]. Bee venom acupuncture [3.685 (1.408–9.641)] and stings in the winter [4.573 (1.420–14.723)] were factors that increased the risk of SSRs. @*Conclusion@#Our findings emphasize the need for implementing safety policies and education on bee sting-related incidents to protect high-risk groups.

4.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 230-240, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001868

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study verifies the practicality of the delta neutrophil index to lymphocyte ratio for the prognostic evaluation of sepsis patients. @*Methods@#Records of 2,233 patients diagnosed with sepsis were reviewed; 1,042 patients were included in the final analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve studies were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the delta neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (Delta-NLR). To adjust for skewed distributions, the NLR and Delta-NLR were analyzed after natural logarithm transformations. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine potential predictors for mortality. @*Results@#To predict 30-day mortality, AUCs were performed using the values of days 0, 1, and 2 (0.604, P<0.0001; 0.648, P<0.0001; and 0.684, P<0.0001, respectively). The NLR results were 0.504 (P=0.8624), 0.553 (P=0.0191), and 0.598 (P<0.0001), respectively. The AUC increased significantly when the Delta-NLR at day 0 was combined with age, hemoglobin levels, and lactate levels. Further subgroup analysis was performed by dividing patients into an upper respiratory infection (URI) group, a gastrointestinal tract infection (GI) (including hepatobiliary infection) group, and a urinary tract infection (UTI) group. The predictive ability of the GI group was determined to be much higher than the other two groups. @*Conclusion@#Increase in the Delta-NLR of sepsis patients was found to be an independent predictor of mortality within 30 days.

5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 287-296, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001862

ABSTRACT

Considerable evidence has been published since the 2020 Korean Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Guidelines were reported. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) also publishes the Consensus on CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR) summary annually. This review provides expert opinions by reviewing the recent evidence on CPR and ILCOR treatment recommendations. The authors reviewed the CoSTR summary published by ILCOR in 2021 and 2022. PICO (population, intervention, comparator, outcome) questions for each topic were reviewed using a systemic or scoping review methodology. Two experts were appointed for each question and reviewed the topic independently. Topics suggested by the reviewers for revision or additional description of the guidelines were discussed at a consensus conference. Forty-three questions were reviewed, including 15 on basic life support, seven on advanced life support, two on pediatric life support, 11 on neonatal life support, six on education and teams, one on first aid, and one related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, the current Korean CPR Guideline was maintained for 28 questions, and expert opinions were suggested for 15 questions.

6.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 39-44, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967865

ABSTRACT

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is the standard antidote treatment for preventing hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the treatment of AAP poisoning. Several alternative intravenous regimens of NAC have been suggested to improve patient safety by reducing adverse drug reactions and medication errors. A two-bag NAC infusion regimen (200 mg/kg over 4 h, followed by 100 mg/kg over 16 h) is reported to have similar efficacy with significantly reduced adverse reactions compared to the traditional 3-bag regimen. Massive AAP poisoning due to high concentrations (more than 300-lines in the nomogram) needs to be managed with an increased maintenance dose of NAC. In addition to NAC, the combination therapy of hemodialysis and fomepizole is advocated for severe AAP poisoning cases. In the case of a patient presenting with an altered mental status, metabolic acidosis, elevated lactate, and an AAP concentration greater than 900 mg/L, hemodialysis is recommended even if NAC is used. Fomepizole decreases the generation of toxic metabolites by inhibiting CYP2E1 and may be considered an off-label use by experienced clinicians. Since the nomogram cannot be applied to sustained-release AAP formulations, all potentially toxic sustained-release AAP overdoses should receive a full course of NAC regimen. In case of ingesting less than the toxic dose, the AAP concentration is tested twice at an interval of 4 h or more; NAC should be administered if either value is above the 150-line of the nomogram.

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 279-287, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Biliary decompression through bile drainage is a key treatment for common bile duct obstruction with cholangitis. However, the effectiveness of early interventions has not been studied sufficiently in Korea. This study investigated the effectiveness of fast-track biliary decompression. @*Methods@#A group of patients diagnosed with common bile duct obstruction with cholangitis between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2019, was reviewed retrospectively. We divided them into two groups: before and after the implementation of fast-track biliary decompression. The following items were analyzed in the two groups: time to intervention, number of hospital days, length of stay in the emergency department, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. @*Results@#Between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2019, 418 patients were admitted for common bile duct obstruction, and a total of 369 patients were included in this study. Of these, 168 patients visited the hospital prior to implementation of the treatment, and 201 patients visited after implementation. The time to intervention was 6.1 (4.2-11.0) hours in the fast-track group, which was about 9 hours shorter than the other group (P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the number of hospital days, emergency department length of stay, and ICU admissions (P=0.535, P=0.034, P=0.322). @*Conclusion@#The time to intervention was shortened significantly in the fast-track group. However, we did not observe a significant improvement in patient prognosis. It may be possible that the procedure time may need to be shortened for a better prognosis. This should be investigated in future studies.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 187-194, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919597

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A pilot project using epinephrine at the scene under medical control is currently underway in Korea. This study aimed to determine whether prehospital epinephrine administration is associated with improved survival and neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who received epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the emergency department. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective observational study used a nationwide multicenter OHCA registry. Patients were classified into two groups according to whether they received epinephrine at the scene or not. The associations between prehospital epinephrine use and outcomes were assessed using propensity score (PS)-matched analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed using PS matching. The same analysis was repeated for the subgroup of patients with non-shockable rhythm. @*Results@#PS matching was performed for 1084 patients in each group. Survival to discharge was significantly decreased in the patients who received prehospital epinephrine [odds ratio (OR) 0.415, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.250–0.670, p<0.001]. However, no statistical significance was observed for good neurological outcome (OR 0.548, 95% CI 0.258–1.123, p=0.105). For the patient subgroup with non-shockable rhythm, prehospital epinephrine was also associated with lower survival to discharge (OR 0.514, 95% CI 0.306–0.844, p=0.010), but not with neurological outcome (OR 0.709, 95% CI 0.323–1.529, p=0.382). @*Conclusion@#Prehospital epinephrine administration was associated with decreased survival rates in OHCA patients but not statistically associated with neurological outcome in this PS-matched analysis. Further research is required to investigate the reason for the detrimental effect of epinephrine administered at the scene.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 461-469, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927166

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Given the morphological characteristics of schistocytes, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) score can be beneficial as it can be automatically and accurately measured. This study aimed to investigate whether serial TMA scores until 48 h post admission are associated with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of 185 patients using a prospective registry. We analyzed TMA scores at admission and after 12, 24, and 48 hours. The primary outcome measures were poor neurological outcome at discharge and 30-day mortality. @*Results@#Increased TMA scores at all measured time points were independent predictors of poor neurological outcomes and 30-day mortality, with TMA score at time-12 showing the strongest correlation [odds ratio (OR), 3.008; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.707–5.300; p<0.001 and hazard ratio (HR), 1.517; 95% CI, 1.196–1.925; p<0.001]. Specifically, a TMA score ≥2 at time-12 was closely associated with an increased predictability of poor neurological outcomes (OR, 6.302; 95% CI, 2.841–13.976; p<0.001) and 30-day mortality (HR, 2.656; 95% CI, 1.675–4.211; p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Increased TMA scores predicted neurological outcomes and 30-day mortality in patients undergoing TTM after OHCA. In addition to the benefit of being serially measured using an automated hematology analyzer, TMA score may be a helpful tool for rapid risk stratification and identification of the need for intensive care in patients with return of spontaneous circulation after OHCA.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-479, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927165

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Access block due to the lack of hospital beds causes crowding of emergency departments (ED). We initiated the “boarding restriction protocol” that limits the time of stay in the ED for patients awaiting hospitalization to 24 hours from arrival. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the boarding restriction protocol on ED crowding. @*Materials and Methods@#The primary outcome was ED occupancy rate, which was calculated as the ratio of the number of occupying patients to the total number of ED beds. Time factors, such as length of stay (LOS), treatment time, and boarding time, were investigated. @*Results@#The mean of the ED occupancy rate decreased from 1.532±0.432 prior to implementation of the protocol to 1.273±0.353 after (p<0.001). According to time series analysis, the absolute effect caused by the protocol was -0.189 (-0.277 to -0.110) (p=0.001). The proportion of patients with LOS exceeding 24 hours decreased from 7.6% to 4.0% (p<0.001). Among admitted patients, ED LOS decreased from 770.7 (421.4–1587.1) minutes to 630.2 (398.0–1156.8) minutes (p<0.001); treatment time increased from 319.6 (198.5–482.8) minutes to 344.7 (213.4–519.5) minutes (p<0.001); and boarding time decreased from 298.9 (109.5–1149.0) minutes to 204.1 (98.7–545.7) minutes (p<0.001). In pre-protocol period, boarding patients accumulated in the ED during the weekdays and resolved on Friday, but this pattern was alleviated in post-period. @*Conclusion@#The boarding restriction protocol was effective in alleviating ED crowding by reducing the accumulation of boarding patients in the ED during the weekdays

11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 45-60, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926388

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Early prediction of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and providing early innovative treatment may improve outcomes in patients with severe trauma. Lactate and serum albumin levels, which are widely used markers predicting the severity of critically ill patients, tend to diverge during clinical deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of the lactate/albumin ratio (LAR) as a predictive factor for MODS and 30-day mortality in patients with severe trauma. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational cohort study was performed with patients prospectively integrated into a critical pathway for trauma. We analyzed severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score≥16) admitted to the emergency department (ED), between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2017. The outcomes were the development of MODS and 30-day mortality. @*Results@#In total, 348 patients were enrolled, of which 18 (5.2%) died within 96 hours of ED admission, and the remaining 330 patients (94.8%) were evaluated for the development of MODS. An increase in the LAR at admission (odds ratio, 1.618; P=0.028) was an independent predictor of MODS development. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.755) and Harrell's C-index (0.783) showed that LAR could predict MODS and 30-day mortality. @*Conclusion@#Initial LAR is an independent predictor of MODS development in patients with severe trauma. Our study results suggest that an elevated LAR can be a useful prognostic marker in patients with severe trauma.

12.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 231-241, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901208

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PAKI) and the usefulness of the Mehran score for predicting PAKI in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography (CE-APCT) in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This was a retrospective observational study. Patients who underwent CE-APCT and had a follow-up creatinine test within 72 hours in the period January to June, 2017, were enrolled for the study. PAKI is defined as a 25% or higher increase in the level of serum creatinine (sCr) within 72 hours after receiving contrast, or an increase in the level of sCr by 0.5 mg/dL. The odds ratio (OR) of risk factors and incidence of PAKI after CE-APCT were analyzed according to the Mehran risk group, and compared to expected incidence. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for each risk factor. @*Results@#A total of 1,718 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 203 patients (11.8%) developed PAKI, and 2 patients (0.1%) required dialysis. Hypotension (systolic blood pressure <80 mmHg) was determined to be statistically significant (P=0.029; OR, 3.181) among the considered risk factors of PAKI. In the group having abnormal estimatedglomerular filtration rate (<90 mL/min/1.73 m2), the age and rate of the underlying disease (congestive heart failure, hypertension) was found to be higher in the PAKI group. The receiver operating curve of Mehran score (area under the curve: 0.521 in model A, 0.520 in model B) was statistically not significant in the univariate analysis. A higher Mehran score was associated with a higher proportion of patients who underwent prophylactic treatment. @*Conclusion@#There are no definite useful risk factors, including the Mehran score, for predicting PAKI in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography in the ED.

13.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 315-327, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901197

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common emergency condition, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The delta neutrophil index (DNI), which reflects the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes, is significantly associated with systemic inflammation after infection or sterile injury. Aneurysmal SAH also leads to systemic inflammation after a brain injury. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the DNI and poor neurologic outcomes in patients with aneurysmal SAH. @*Methods@#We retrospectively identified patients (>18 years old) with aneurysmal SAH consecutively admitted to the emergency department (ED) between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2018. The diagnosis of aneurysmal SAH was confirmed using clinical and radiological findings. DNI was determined at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after ED admission. The primary result was a poor neurologic outcome using the modified Rankin scale. @*Results@#A total of 352 patients with aneurysmal SAH were included in this study. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that a high value of DNI at 24 hours after ED admission was a strong independent predictor of poor neurologic outcome upon discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.471; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.081-2.001; P=0.014). Among patients with aneurysmal SAH, DNI >1.0% at 24 hours was significantly associated with poor neurologic outcomes upon discharge (OR, 5.037; 95% CI, 3.153-8.044; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#DNI can be determined easily and rapidly after ED admission without any additional cost or time burden. A high DNI value at 24 hours after ED admission is significantly associated with a poor neurologic outcome upon discharge among patients with aneurysmal SAH.

14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 386-393, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916553

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Endoscopic hemostasis is a key treatment for variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the effects of early endoscopy in variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigated the effects of the use of the critical pathway (CP) for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. @*Methods@#The study was designed as a ‘before and after’ study. A group of patients diagnosed with variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014, and CP activated patients from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2018, were reviewed retrospectively. The study endpoints included an analysis of the following in the two groups: time from emergency department (ED) arrival to endoscopy, number of blood transfusions, hospitalization period, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, 30-day mortality. @*Results@#From January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2018, 207 patients were admitted with variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and 137 patients with a Blatchford score of 7 or higher were included in the study. Of these, 88 patients visited before the implementation of CP and 49 patients visited thereafter. The time from ED arrival to endoscopy was 218.1±201.7 minutes in the CP activated group, which was about 200 minutes shorter (P=0.046) than the non-CP group. There was no statistical difference in 30-day mortality, transfusion, emergency room hospitalization time, number of ICU admissions, and hospitalization days (P=0.348, P=0.394, P=0.651, P=0.164, and P=0.069). @*Conclusion@#After CP, the time to endoscopy was significantly shortened, but it did not reduce mortality.

15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 485-492, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916539

ABSTRACT

Objective@#It is important to identify high-risk elderly patients in the emergency department (ED), and various screening tools should be used. This study aimed to find the most appropriate tool by comparing frailty screening tools used in the ED. @*Methods@#The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed databases for medical literature. Two or more frailty screening tools were studied. Sensitivities and values of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of each tool used in individual studies were compared. @*Results@#After the screening process, six studies using 12 tools were selected. Most of the tools had low sensitivities. The sensitivities were 90% or more in case of the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy (PRISMA-7). Seniors at Risk (ISAR) tools for frailty screening, Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) and Geriatric (G8) tools were identified for predicting postoperative mortality, and CFS, Fried and Stable, Unstable, Help to walk, Bedbound (SUHB) tools were used for determining bad composite outcomes. The areas under the curve values predicting outcome were as follows: 0.63-0.67 for death, 0.52-0.64 for postoperative death, 0.52-0.68 for postoperative adverse outcome, 0.55-0.64 for poor prognosis, 0.65-0.69 for activity daily living disability, 0.66-0.78 for functional decline, 0.58-0.61 for hospitalization, 0.57-0.59 for fall, and 0.77-0.91 for frailty screening. @*Conclusion@#It was difficult to select the most appropriate tool among the 12 frailty tools included in this review. However, Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, Loss of weight (FRAIL), Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF), CFS, VES-13, and PRISMA-7 were relatively useful in the ED.

16.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916491

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the socio-economic benefits of the poison control center (PCC) and to assess whether telephone counseling at the poison control center affects the frequency of emergency room visits, hospitalization, and length of stay of patients with acute poisoning. @*Methods@#The authors conducted a medical literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts for eligibility, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality using a standardized tool. Key results such as the cost-benefit ratio, hospital stay days, unnecessary emergency room visits or hospitalizations, and reduced hospital charges were extracted from the studies. When meta-analysis was possible, it was performed using RevMan software (RevMan version 5.4). @*Results@#Among 299 non-duplicated studies, 19 were relevant to the study questions. The cost-benefit ratios of PCC showed a wide range from 0.76 to 36 (average 6.8) according to the level of the medical expense of each country and whether the study included intentional poisoning. PCC reduced unnecessary visits to healthcare facilities. PCC consultation shortened the length of hospital stay by 1.82 (95% CI, 1.07-2.57) days. @*Conclusion@#The systematic review and meta-analysis support the hypothesis that the PCC operation is cost-beneficial. However, when implementing the PCC concept in Korea in the future, it is necessary to prepare an institutional framework to ensure a costeffective model.

17.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 65-71, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916487

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of acute fatal poisoning and the time of death by analyzing the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) of South Korea. @*Methods@#The NEDIS data from 2014 to 2018 excluding non-medical visits were used for this study. The patients with acute poisoning were extracted using diagnostic codes. The toxic substances were classified into pharmaceuticals, pesticides, gases, artificial poisonous substances, and natural toxic substances. Patients were classified according to the time of death, place of death, and region. In each case, the most causative substances of poisoning were identified. @*Results@#There were 380,531 patients including poisoning-related diagnoses, of which 4,148 (1.1%) died, and the WHO age-standardized mortality rate was 4.8 per 100,000. Analysis of 2,702 death patients whose primary diagnosis was acute poisoning, the most common cause of poisoning death was pesticides (62%), followed by therapeutic drugs, gas, and artificial toxic substances. Herbicides were the most common pesticides at 64.5%. The proportion of mortality by time, hyperacute (7 d) were 9.8%. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the most common cause of poisoning death was pesticides, and 60% of deaths occurred within 24 hours. The 71% of mortality from pesticides occurred within 6-24 hours, but mortality from gas was mostly within 6 hours. According to the geographic region, the primary cause of poisoning death was varied to pesticides or pharmaceuticals.

18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 231-241, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893504

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PAKI) and the usefulness of the Mehran score for predicting PAKI in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography (CE-APCT) in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This was a retrospective observational study. Patients who underwent CE-APCT and had a follow-up creatinine test within 72 hours in the period January to June, 2017, were enrolled for the study. PAKI is defined as a 25% or higher increase in the level of serum creatinine (sCr) within 72 hours after receiving contrast, or an increase in the level of sCr by 0.5 mg/dL. The odds ratio (OR) of risk factors and incidence of PAKI after CE-APCT were analyzed according to the Mehran risk group, and compared to expected incidence. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for each risk factor. @*Results@#A total of 1,718 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 203 patients (11.8%) developed PAKI, and 2 patients (0.1%) required dialysis. Hypotension (systolic blood pressure <80 mmHg) was determined to be statistically significant (P=0.029; OR, 3.181) among the considered risk factors of PAKI. In the group having abnormal estimatedglomerular filtration rate (<90 mL/min/1.73 m2), the age and rate of the underlying disease (congestive heart failure, hypertension) was found to be higher in the PAKI group. The receiver operating curve of Mehran score (area under the curve: 0.521 in model A, 0.520 in model B) was statistically not significant in the univariate analysis. A higher Mehran score was associated with a higher proportion of patients who underwent prophylactic treatment. @*Conclusion@#There are no definite useful risk factors, including the Mehran score, for predicting PAKI in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography in the ED.

19.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 315-327, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893493

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common emergency condition, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The delta neutrophil index (DNI), which reflects the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes, is significantly associated with systemic inflammation after infection or sterile injury. Aneurysmal SAH also leads to systemic inflammation after a brain injury. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the DNI and poor neurologic outcomes in patients with aneurysmal SAH. @*Methods@#We retrospectively identified patients (>18 years old) with aneurysmal SAH consecutively admitted to the emergency department (ED) between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2018. The diagnosis of aneurysmal SAH was confirmed using clinical and radiological findings. DNI was determined at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after ED admission. The primary result was a poor neurologic outcome using the modified Rankin scale. @*Results@#A total of 352 patients with aneurysmal SAH were included in this study. A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that a high value of DNI at 24 hours after ED admission was a strong independent predictor of poor neurologic outcome upon discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.471; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.081-2.001; P=0.014). Among patients with aneurysmal SAH, DNI >1.0% at 24 hours was significantly associated with poor neurologic outcomes upon discharge (OR, 5.037; 95% CI, 3.153-8.044; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#DNI can be determined easily and rapidly after ED admission without any additional cost or time burden. A high DNI value at 24 hours after ED admission is significantly associated with a poor neurologic outcome upon discharge among patients with aneurysmal SAH.

20.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 346-354, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834901

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Prior studies have explored the relationship between initial body temperature (BT) and mortality in patients with sepsis in the emergency department (ED). However, there has been no study on whether or not changes in BT are associated with prognosis in these patients. We hypothesize that BT measured upon ED arrival and septic shock registry enroll time are related to the prognosis of patients with septic shock. @*Methods@#We conducted a prospective, observational, registry-based study. Each patient was assigned to 1 of 4 groups according to BT upon ED arrival and registry enrollment. Odds ratios for 28-day mortality according to the patient group were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. We also conducted logistic regression sensitivity analysis, except for patients whose time interval between arrival and enrollment was less than 1 hour. @*Results@#A total of 2,138 patients with septic shock were included. The 28-day mortalities were 13.7%, 11.2%, 13.0%, and 25.8% in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (P<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, mean atrial pressure, respiratory rate, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, lactate concentration, comorbidity, and suspicious infection focus, the risk of mortality was significantly low in patients from group 1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.433; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.310-0.604) and group 2 (aOR, 0.540; 95% CI, 0.336-0.868) compared with group 4. In the sensitivity analysis, group based on BT measured upon ED arrival and registry enrollment also remained an independent predictor of mortality. @*Conclusion@#Afebrile status upon ED arrival and registry enrollment were strongly associated with higher 28-day mortality in patients with septic shock.

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