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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1355-1362, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999832

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This phase II, open-label, multicenter study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a rituximab intensification for the 1st cycle with every 21-day of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP-21) among patients with previously untreated advanced-stage or bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). @*Materials and Methods@#Ninety-two patients with stage III/IV or bulky DLBCL from 21 institutions were administered 8 cycles of R-CHOP-21 with an additional one dose of rituximab intensification on day 0 of the 1st cycle (RR-CHOP). The primary endpoint was a complete response (CR) rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy. @*Results@#Among the 92 DLBCL patients assessed herein, the response rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy was 88.0% (38.0% CR+50.0% partial response [PR]). After the completion of 8 cycles of chemotherapy, the overall response rate was observed for 68.4% (58.7% CR+9.8% PR). The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 64.0%, and the 3-year overall survival rate was 70.4%. Febrile neutropenia was one of the most frequent grade 3 adverse events (40.0%) and 5 treatment-related deaths occurred. Compared with the clinical outcomes of patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy as a historical control, the interim CR rate was higher in male patients with RR-CHOP (20.5% vs. 48.8%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Rituximab intensification on days 0 to the 1st cycle of the standard 8 cycles R-CHOP-21 for advanced DLBCL yielded favorable response rates after the 3 cycles of chemotherapy and acceptable toxicities, especially for male patients. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01054781.

2.
Blood Research ; : 83-90, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999728

ABSTRACT

Background@#The goal of induction therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) is to achieve adequate disease control. Current guidelines favor triplet (bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone;VRd) or quadruplet regimens (daratumumab, bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone;D-VTd). In the absence of a direct comparison between two treatment regimens, we conducted this study to compare the outcomes and safety of VRd and D-VTd. @*Methods@#Newly diagnosed MM patients aged >18 years who underwent induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) between November 2020 and December 2021 were identified. Finally, patients with VRd (N=37) and those with D-VTd (N=43) were enrolled. @*Results@#After induction, 10.8% of the VRd group showed stringent complete remission (sCR), 21.6% showed complete response (CR), 35.1% showed very good partial response (VGPR), and 32.4% showed partial response (PR). Of the D-VTd group, 9.3% showed sCR, 34.9% CR, 48.8% VGPR, and 4.2% PR (VGPR or better: 67.6% in VRd vs. 93% in D-VTd, P =0.004). After ASCT, 68.6% of the VRd group showed CR or sCR, while 90.5% of the D-VTd group showed CR or sCR (P=0.016). VRd was associated with an increased incidence of skin rash (P=0.044). Other than rashes, there were no significant differences in terms of adverse events between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Our study supports the use of a front-line quadruplet induction regimen containing a CD38 monoclonal antibody for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed MM.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 693-703, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976718

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A three-drug combination of cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (CVD) shows significant efficacy and manageable toxicity as induction therapy in patients with multiple myeloma. @*Materials and Methods@#In this phase II study, we enrolled 45 patients who achieved a very good partial response (VGPR) or partial response (PR) after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of CVD consolidation. CVD consolidation comprised three cycles of cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 orally on days 1, 8, and 15, and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously on days 1, 8, 15, and 22, along with dexamethasone 20 mg orally or intravenously on days 1 and 2, 8 and 9, 15 and 16, and 22 and 23. @*Results@#At enrollment, 39 patients (86.7%) showed VGPR, and nine (13.3%) presented with PR. Nineteen patients (45.2%) achieved a complete response or better as their best response after the end of consolidation. Overall, 22 of 42 patients (52.4%) experienced an improved response status with CVD consolidation. Three-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 89.0% and 42.7%, respectively. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were peripheral neuropathy and infection (20.5%), with no grade ≥ 3 neuropathy observed. @*Conclusion@#These results showed that CVD consolidation therapy improved the response with reasonable toxicity in patients with residual disease after ASCT. This trial was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea (KCT0001327).

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 684-692, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976690

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We conducted a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registry study for newly diagnosed patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) to better define the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and the role of upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in these patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with PTCL receiving chemotherapy with curative intent were registered and prospectively monitored. All patients were pathologically diagnosed with PTCL. @*Results@#A total of 191 patients with PTCL were enrolled in this prospective registry study. PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the most common pathologic subtype (n=80, 41.9%), followed by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (n=60, 31.4%). With a median follow-up duration of 3.9 years, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 39.5% and 60.4%, respectively. The role of upfront ASCT was evaluated in patients who were considered transplant-eligible (n=59). ASCT was performed as an upfront consolidative treatment in 32 (54.2%) of these patients. There were no significant differences in PFS and OS between the ASCT and non-ASCT groups for all patients (n=59) and for patients with PTCL-NOS (n=26). However, in patients with AITL, the ASCT group was associated with significantly better PFS than the non-ASCT group, although there was no significant difference in OS. @*Conclusion@#The current study demonstrated that the survival outcomes with the current treatment options remain poor for patients with PTCL-NOS. Upfront ASCT may provide a survival benefit for patients with AITL, but not PTCL-NOS.

5.
Blood Research ; : 36-41, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966441

ABSTRACT

Background@#The PLASMIC score is a convenient tool for predicting ADAMTS13 activity of <10%.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is widely used as a marker of haemolysis in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) monitoring, and could be used as a replacement marker for lysis. We aimed to validate the PLASMIC score in a multi-centre Asia Pacific region, and to explore whether LDH could be used as a replacement marker for lysis. @*Methods@#Records of patients with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) were reviewed. Patients’ ADAMTS13 activity levels were obtained, along with clinical/laboratory findings relevant to the PLASMIC score. Both PLASMIC scores and PLASMIC-LDH scores, in which LDH replaced traditional lysis markers, were calculated. We generated a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve and compared the area under the curve values (AUC) to determine the predictive ability of each score. @*Results@#46 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 34 had ADAMTS13 activity levels of <10%. When the patients were divided into intermediate-to-high risk (scores 5‒7) and low risk (scores 0‒4), the PLASMIC score showed a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 58.3%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86.8% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 87.5%. The PLASMIC-LDH score had a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 33.3%, with a PPV of 80.5% and NPV of 80.0%. @*Conclusion@#Our study validated the utility of the PLASMIC score, and demonstrated PLASMIC-LDH as a reasonable alternative in the absence of traditional lysis markers, to help identify high-risk patients for treatment via plasma exchange.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e328-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001206

ABSTRACT

Background@#Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by uncontrolled terminal complement activation. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody C5 inhibitor was introduced in Korea in 2009 and has been the standard treatment option for PNH. @*Methods@#This study assessed the long-term efficacy/safety of eculizumab in PNH using real-world data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Eighty patients who initiated eculizumab from 2009–2020 were enrolled. @*Results@#At eculizumab initiation, the median age was 51.5 years, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 6.8 × upper limit of normal, and granulocyte clone size 93.0%. All patients had at least one PNH-related complication before eculizumab initiation, including renal failure (n = 36), smooth muscle spasm (n = 24), thromboembolism (n = 20), and pulmonary hypertension (n = 15). The median (range) duration of eculizumab treatment was 52.7 (1.0, 127.3) months (338.6 total treated patient-years). Despite high disease activity in the study population before treatment initiation, overall survival was 96.2% and LDH levels were stabilized in most patients during treatment. PNH-related complications at treatment initiation were resolved in 44.4% of patients with renal failure, 95.8% with smooth muscle spasm, 70.0% with thromboembolism, and 26.7% with pulmonary hypertension. Extravascular hemolysis occurred in 28.8% of patients (n = 23; 0.09 per patient-year) and breakthrough hemolysis in 18.8% (n = 15; 0.06 per patient-year). No treatment discontinuation cases related to eculizumab were observed. @*Conclusion@#These data provided evidence for the long-term efficacy and safety of eculizumab in Korean PNH patients with high disease burdens.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e176-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001130

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exercise is an important method to control the progression of diabetes. Since diabetes compromises immune function and increases the risk of infectious diseases, we hypothesized that exercise may affect the risk of infection by its immunoprotective effects.However, population-based cohort studies regarding the association between exercise and the risk of infection are limited, especially regarding changes in exercise frequency. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the change in exercise frequency and the risk of infection among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes. @*Methods@#Data of 10,023 patients with newly diagnosed diabetes were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort. Self-reported questionnaires for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were used to classify changes in exercise frequency between two consecutive two-year periods of health screenings (2009–2010 and 2011–2012). The association between changes in exercise frequency and the risk of infection was evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression. @*Results@#Compared with engaging in ≥ 5 times of MVPA/week during both periods, a radical decrease in MVPA (from ≥ 5 times of MVPA/week to physical inactivity) was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–2.48) and upper respiratory tract infection (aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01–1.31). In addition, a reduction of MVPA from ≥ 5 to < 5 times of MVPA/week was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.02–2.27), whereas the risk of upper respiratory tract infection was not higher. @*Conclusion@#Among patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, a reduction in exercise frequency was related to an increase in the risk of pneumonia. For patients with diabetes, a modest level of physical activity may need to be maintained to reduce the risk of pneumonia.

8.
Blood Research ; : 264-271, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966426

ABSTRACT

Background@#Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is the sole curative option for myelofibrosis (MF). However, it is unknown as to which of the two, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), is a better preconditioning regimen. @*Methods@#Twenty-five patients with MF were treated with alloSCT, 12 of whom underwent RIC.Baseline characteristics, response to alloSCT, adverse events, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and survival outcomes were reviewed. @*Results@#There was no difference in the neutrophil engraftment rate and time to engraftment between MAC vs. RIC. The time to platelet engraftment was significantly longer in the MAC group (median, 112.8 vs. 28.8 days for MAC vs. RIC, respectively, P =0.049). RIC was more advantageous in terms of achieving complete chimerism (38.5% vs. 83.3%, P =0.041). The incidence of acute GVHD was 84.6% (11 of 13) and 58.3% (7 of 12) in the MAC and RIC groups, respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade III‒IV acute GVHD was significantly higher in the MAC group than in the RIC group (P =0.03). No significant differences were observed in progression-free and overall survival. The 17-month probability of progression-free survival was 38.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19.3‒76.5] vs. 47.6% (95% CI, 25.7‒88.2) (P =0.21), and that of overall survival was 53.8% (95% CI, 32.5‒89.1) vs. 48.6% (95% CI, 26.8‒88.3) (P =0.85) for MAC vs. RIC, respectively. @*Conclusion@#RIC offers a significant advantage over MAC, even in younger patients with MF undergoing alloSCT, in terms of cell engraftment, rate of complete chimerism achievement, and incidence of acute GVHD.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 841-850, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939090

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the feasibility and long-term efficacy of the combination of cytarabine, idarubicin, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for treating patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). @*Methods@#We included 87 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and a t(15;17) or promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα) mutation. Patients received 12 mg/m2/day idarubicin intravenously for 3 days and 100 mg/m2/day cytarabine for 7 days, plus 45 mg/m2/day ATRA. Clinical outcomes included complete remission (CR), relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and the secondary malignancy incidence during a 20-year follow-up. @*Results@#The CR, 10-year RFS, and 10-year OS rates were 89.7%, 94.1%, and 73.8%, respectively, for all patients. The 10-year OS rate was 100% for patients that achieved CR. Subjects were classified according to the white blood cell (WBC) count in peripheral blood at diagnosis (low-risk, WBC < 10,000/mm3; high-risk, WBC ≥ 10,000/mm3). The low-risk group had significantly higher RFS and OS rates than the high-risk group, but the outcomes were not superior to the current standard treatment (arsenic trioxide plus ATRA). Toxicities were similar to those observed with anthracycline plus ATRA, and higher than those observed with arsenic trioxide plus ATRA. The secondary malignancy incidence after APL treatment was 2.7%, among the 75 patients that achieved CR, and 5.0% among the 40 patients that survived more than 5 years after the APL diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#Adding cytarabine to anthracycline plus ATRA was not inferior to anthracycline plus ATRA alone, but it was not comparable to arsenic trioxide plus ATRA. The probability of secondary malignancy was low.

10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 229-237, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938673

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy constitutes a revolutionary advancement in personalized cancer treatment. During this treatment, a patient's own T cells are genetically engineered to express a synthetic receptor that binds a tumor antigen. CAR-T cells are then expanded for clinical use and infused back into the patient's body to attack cancer. CAR-T cells have produced remarkable clinical responses with B-cell malignancies. However, CAR-T cells therapy is not without problems. Barriers to effective CAR-T cells therapy include severe life-threatening toxicities and modest anti-tumor activity. In this review, we introduce the concept of CAR-T cells therapy, currently available CAR-T cells therapy options, and how to deal with adverse events.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 179-189, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919195

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is one of the most fatal complications of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and defibrotide is the only curative drug. We conducted this study to confirm the survival rate of VOD/SOS patients diagnosed in Korea and assess the efficacy of defibrotide. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with VOD/SOS after allogenic HCT between 2003 and 2020 were enrolled. We investigated day +100 survival rates and associated risk factors in patients who satisfied the modified Seattle criteria within 50 days of HCT. @*Results@#A total of 110 patients satisfied the modified Seattle criteria, of which 65.5% satisfied the Baltimore criteria. Thirty-seven patients were treated with defibrotide. The day +100 survival rate of the 110 patients was 65.3%. The survival rates in patients who did not meet the Baltimore criteria and in those who did were 86.8% and 53.7%, respectively (p = 0.001). The day +100 survival rate of patients treated with defibrotide was 50.5%. Among the patients receiving defibrotide, those whose creatinine levels were more than 1.2 times the baseline had a significantly lower survival rate at 26.7% (p = 0.014). On multivariate regression analysis, the hazard ratio of satisfaction of the Baltimore criteria was 4.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69 to 12.21; p = 0.003). In patients treated with defibrotide, the hazard ratio was 8.70 (95% CI, 2.26 to 33.45; p = 0.002), when creatinine was more than 1.2 times the baseline on administration. @*Conclusions@#The day +100 survival rate was significantly lower when the Baltimore criteria were satisfied, and when there was an increase in creatinine at the time of defibrotide administration.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e48-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915501

ABSTRACT

Poor graft function (PGF) is a serious, potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Eltrombopag has shown multilineage responses in patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia, supporting the idea that it may improve cytopenia in patients with PGF. This retrospective, single center analysis included 8 Korean patients receiving eltrombopag for PGF. Median interval between transplant and eltrombopag treatment was 73 days, and the median duration treatment was 3.5 weeks.With median maximum daily dose of 50 mg, the time to best response was 93 days. Median hemoglobin increased from 8.2 g/dL to 10.9 g/dL, platelet from 18.5 × 109 /L to 54 × 109 /L, and absolute neutrophil count from 1.25 × 109 /L to 3.32 × 109 /L. In conclusion, eltrombopag is a good option for PGF in Korean patients, even at a lower dose compared to western patients.

13.
Blood Research ; : 13-19, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925648

ABSTRACT

The mutational and epigenetic landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has become increasingly well understood in recent years, informing on biological targets for precision medicine. Among the most notable findings was the recognition of mutational hot-spots in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes. In this review, we provide an overview on the IDH1/2 mutation landscape in Korean AML patients, and compare it with available public data. We also discuss the role of IDH1/2 mutations as biomarkers and drug targets.Taken together, occurrence of IDH1/2 mutations is becoming increasingly important in AML treatment, thus requiring thorough examination and follow-up throughout the clinical course of the disease.

14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 371-381, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938658

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal gammopathy (MG) encompasses a diverse group of disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their light-chain components. The incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) in South Korea is rapidly increasing, and it is important to be aware of its initial clinical presentations and the most efficient laboratory algorithms for early detection. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and urine protein electrophoresis (UPE) are the primary screening tests for patients with clinically suspected MM or amyloid light-chain amyloidosis; these tests are reimbursed in South Korea. We reviewed clinical studies that applied national and international guidelines to evaluate test panels for early detection of MGs, including MM. The serum free light chain (sFLC) with SPE panel is recommended for the initial work up for diagnosis of MGs. In the case of a normal SPE, sFLC should be measured subsequently, so as not to miss the presence of M-protein. Use of this screening panel avoids medical expenses related to delayed diagnosis. Guidelines and recommendations suggest that no single method (SPE, serum immunofixation electrophoresis, sFLC, or UPE) should be used to exclude a diagnosis of MM. We believe that a screening test panel comprising SPE plus sFLC will increase the rate of early and accurate diagnosis of MM and related disorders.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e85-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899838

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complicated disease characterized by genetic heterogeneity and simultaneous alterations in multiple genes. For decades, its only curative method has been intensive induction chemotherapy with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this approach cannot be applied to elderly patients, who make up more than 50% of AML patients. Recent advances in genomics facilitated the elucidation of various mutations related to AML, and the most frequent mutations were discovered in epigenetic regulators. Alterations to epigenetic modifications that are essential for normal cell biology, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, have been identified. As epigenetic dysregulation is an important carcinogenic mechanism and some epigenetic changes are reversible, these epigenetic alterations have become targets for novel drug development against AML. This review summarizes the recent advances in epigenetic therapies for AML and discusses future research directions.

16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 401-412, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875471

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Understanding leukemic stem cell (LSC) is important for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment. However, association of LSC with patient prognosis and genetic information in AML patients is unclear. @*Methods@#Here we investigated the associations between genetic information and the various LSC phenotypes, namely multipotent progenitor (MPP)-like, lymphoid primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP)-like and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP)-like LSC in 52 AML patients. @*Results@#In secondary AML patients, MPP-like LSC was significantly higher than de novo AML (p = 0.0037). The proportion of MPP-like LSC was especially high in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm AML (p = 0.0485). There was no correlation between age and LSC phenotype. Mutations of KRAS and NRAS were observed in MPP-like LSC dominant patients, TP53 and ASXL1 mutations in LMPP-like LSC dominant patients, and CEBPA, DNMT3A and IDH1 mutations in GMP-like LSC dominant patients. Furthermore, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with MPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0540), and TP53 mutation with LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0276). When the patients were separated according to the combined risk including next generation sequencing data, the poorer the prognosis, the higher the LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0052). This suggests that the dominant phenotype of LSC is one of the important factors in predicting the prognosis and treatment of AML. @*Conclusions@#LSC phenotype in AML is closely associated with the recurrent mutations which has prognostic implication. Further research to confirm the meaning of LSC phenotype in the context of genetic aberration is warranted.

17.
Blood Research ; : 243-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913728

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of adult leukemia in Western countries but is rare in the East Asian countries. Due to its rarity and the lack of feasible novel agents and laboratory prognostic tools, there are limited data on the clinical outcomes of this disease in Asia. To clarify the current treatment status, we performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with CLL in Korea. @*Methods@#The medical records of 192 eligible patients between 2008 and 2019 were reviewed for clinical characteristics, treatment courses, and outcomes. The first-line treatment regimens of the patients included in this analysis were as follows: fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab (FCR) (N=117, 52.7%), obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (GC) (N=30, 13.5%), and chlorambucil monotherapy (N=24, 10.8%). @*Results@#The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 55.6 months, and the average 2-year PFS rate was 80.3%. PFS was not significantly different between the patients receiving FCR and those receiving GC; however, chlorambucil treatment was associated with significantly inferior PFS (P <0.001). The median overall survival was 136.3 months, and the average 5- and 10-year OS rates were 82.0% and 57.4%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is one of the largest studies involving Korean patients with CLL. Although the patients had been treated with less favored treatment regimens, the outcomes were not different from those reported in Western studies.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e85-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892134

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complicated disease characterized by genetic heterogeneity and simultaneous alterations in multiple genes. For decades, its only curative method has been intensive induction chemotherapy with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this approach cannot be applied to elderly patients, who make up more than 50% of AML patients. Recent advances in genomics facilitated the elucidation of various mutations related to AML, and the most frequent mutations were discovered in epigenetic regulators. Alterations to epigenetic modifications that are essential for normal cell biology, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, have been identified. As epigenetic dysregulation is an important carcinogenic mechanism and some epigenetic changes are reversible, these epigenetic alterations have become targets for novel drug development against AML. This review summarizes the recent advances in epigenetic therapies for AML and discusses future research directions.

19.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 129-137, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837093

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the clinical usefulness of serum M protein and to establish a rationale for regular follow-up with serum protein electrophoresis in solitary plasmacytoma. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty-nine patients with solitary plasmacytoma and solitary plasmacytoma with minimal marrow involvement according to the International Myeloma Working Group criteria were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#At a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 5-year local control (LC), 5-year multiple myeloma-free survival (MMFS), 5-year failure-free survival (FFS), and 5-year overall survival (OS) were 82.6%, 44.1%, 41.8%, and 85.1%, respectively. Among the patients whose initial serum M protein was present or not evaluated, 37.3% of patients showed disappearance of serum M protein after various treatment. MMFS of these patients were comparable to non-secretory plasmacytoma with undetectable levels of M protein, and significantly better than patients with persistent M protein. Increase of serum M protein ≥0.1 g/dL was most predictive of treatment failure with area under the curve of 0.731. @*Conclusion@#Patients who eventually showed persistence of serum M protein after treatment showed worse MMFS and FFS compared to those whose serum M protein disappeared or who had initially non-secretory disease. The increase of serum M protein level ≥0.1 g/dL from current nadir was predictive of treatment failure. Therefore, regular follow-up with serum M protein is highly recommended especially unless the patient had initially non-secretory disease.

20.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1188-1198, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831914

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A link between oral cavity infections and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) in patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) undergoing intensive chemotherapy (IC) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been suggested. However, conclusive data are lacking, and there are no current guidelines for the prophylactic use of antimicrobials to prevent CIOM in these populations. @*Methods@#The relationships between herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation and Candida colonization in the oral cavity and CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were evaluated. Patients aged ≥ 19 years with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were enrolled. Each patient was evaluated for HSV and Candida in the oral cavity along with CIOM at baseline and during the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks. @*Results@#Seventy presentations among 56 patients were analyzed. CIOM was observed in 23 presentations (32.9%), with a higher incidence associated with HSCT (17 of 35 presentations, 48.6%) than with IC (six of 35 presentations, 8.6%). The reactivation of HSV-1 was significantly associated with an increased incidence of CIOM after adjusting for age, sex, type of disease, and treatment stage. A higher HSV-1 viral load was associated with an increased incidence of CIOM. The presence of Candida was not associated with CIOM. @*Conclusions@#HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity was highly associated with CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing high-dose chemotherapy.

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