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1.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 148-158, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976736

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of steroid-impregnated spacers to that of conventional management after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). @*Methods@#. Six databases were searched from inception until November 2022. Sixteen studies were found that compared the improvement of chronic sinusitis-related symptoms and postoperative outcomes between a steroid-impregnated spacer group and a control group (non-steroid-impregnated spacers). The Cochrane risk of bias tool (for randomized controlled studies) and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (for non-randomized controlled studies) were used to assess the quality of the works included. @*Results@#. Regarding the endoscopic findings, the degree of mucosal edema, ethmoid inflammation, crust formation at 2–3 months postoperatively, nasal discharge, polyposis, and scarring/synechia were significantly lower in the steroid-impregnated spacer group. The steroid-impregnated spacer group also showed significantly lower Lund–Kennedy scores and perioperative sinus endoscopy scores than the control group at 2–3 weeks postoperatively. Furthermore, the steroid-impregnated spacer group had lower rates of adhesions, middle turbinate lateralization, polypoid changes, the need for oral steroid use, the need for postoperative therapeutic interventions, and lysis of adhesions than controls. However, no significant between-group differences were found in short-term (2–3 weeks postoperatively) endoscopic findings regarding nasal discharge, postoperative crusting, polyposis, or scarring/synechia. @*Conclusion@#. Steroid-impregnated nasal packing reduced the rates of postoperative intervention and recurrent polyposis and inflammation in CRS patients undergoing ESS.

2.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 31-36, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967696

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#We compared pain levels, cardiovascular parameters, and complications according to whether patients underwent nasal packing with non-absorbable or biodegradable materials. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent septoplasty from May 2015 to April 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Numeric rating scale (NRS) scores for pain, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured three times (immediately after surgery, 6 hours later, and on postoperative day [POD] 1). We collected data on complications, including postoperative bleeding, septal hematoma, adhesions, septal perforation, and the recurrence of septal deviation. @*Results@#In total, 200 patients underwent septoplasty, of whom 100 underwent nasal packing with Merocel and 100 underwent packing with Nasopore. The summed NRS scores over the three time points did not differ significantly between the groups. The NRS scores at 6 hours after surgery were highest in both groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate immediately after surgery were significantly higher than before surgery in both groups. The blood pressure and heart rate at 6 hours after surgery and on POD 1 did not differ significantly from those before surgery in either group. The incidence of sleep disturbance, postoperative bleeding, septal hematoma, adhesions, septal perforation, and recurrence of septal deviation did not differ significantly between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Although the level of postoperative pain and the cardiovascular parameters changed over time, we found no significant differences in pain, blood pressure, heart rate, or the complication rate according to whether patients underwent nasal packing with Nasopore or Merocel.

3.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 49-57, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Enhancing blood flow and cell proliferation in the hair dermis is critical for treating hair loss. This study was designed to aid the development of alternative and effective solutions to overcome alopecia. Specifically, we examined the effects of Morus alba.L root extract (MARE, which has been used in traditional medicine as a stimulant for hair proliferation) on dermal fibroblasts and other cell types found in the epidermis. @*METHODS@#We first optimized the concentration of MARE that could be used to treat human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) without causing cytotoxicity. After optimization, we focused on the effect of MARE on HDFs since these cells secrete paracrine factors related to cell proliferation and angiogenesis that affect hair growth. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from MARE-treated HDFs (MARE HDF-CM) was used to treat human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). @*RESULTS@#Concentrations of MARE up to 20 wt% increased the expression of proliferative and anti-apoptotic genes in HDFs. MARE HDF-CM significantly improved the tubular structure formation and migration capacity of HUVECs. Additionally, MARE HDF-CM treatment upregulated the expression of hair growth-related genes in HFDPCs. CM collected from MARE-treated HDFs promoted the proliferation of HFDPCs and the secretion of angiogenic paracrine factors from these cells. @*CONCLUSION@#Since it can stimulate the secretion of pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic paracrine factors from HDFs, MARE has therapeutic potential as a hair loss preventative.

4.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 76-81, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938162

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#YouTube is a widely used web site. In general, many people search for medical information on YouTube. We evaluated the septoplasty and turbinoplasty videos on YouTube from an expert’s point of view. @*Methods@#We used “septoplasty,” “turbinoplasty,” and “septoplasty turbinoplasty” to search YouTube. Of the 150 videos, we eventually viewed 83. Two researchers assessed the sources, lengths, and numbers of likes, dislikes, and views. The videos were classified as “excellent,” “moderate,” or “poor” in terms of utility; we also evaluated the uploaded material and content. @*Results@#Of the 83 videos, 18 (21.7%) were excellent, 27 (32.5%) were moderate, and 38 (45.8%) were poor. We found no significant differences in length and mean likes, dislikes, and views between the groups classified as useful. Fifteen (39.5%) of 38 poor videos were by patients, and 13 (34.2%) of 38 poor videos were by physicians. When organized by content type, videos on personal experiences were significantly longer than the others. Of 20 videos on personal experiences, 15 (75%) were poor and all 5 advertisement videos (100%) were poor. @*Conclusion@#Information from YouTube on septoplasty and turbinoplasty is not yet adequate. However, since YouTube content cannot be controlled, it is necessary to upload objective and accurate videos for patients and experts in professional groups such as the medical society. Such videos should be promoted and used actively.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 233-243, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937754

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated changes in attitudes toward marriage and childbearing assuming a BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status among healthy, unmarried individuals in Korea. @*Methods@#A nationally representative sample of healthy, unmarried individuals aged 20–39 years was surveyed. A questionnaire on marriage and childbearing intentions was administered to the participants before and after providing them with information on BRCA1/2 mutation carriers’ breast and ovarian cancer risks and their autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The participants were asked about their attitudes toward childbearing through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). @*Results@#Of the participants who initially wanted to marry, the assumption that they or their partners had BRCA1/2 mutation caused 25.3% to no longer want to get married and 36.2% to change their attitude from wanting to bear children to no longer wanting them. Females were more likely than males to change their attitudes toward marriage and childbearing. The participants who had negative attitudes toward genetic testing were more likely to change their attitudes regarding marriage and childbearing than those who were favorable toward both disclosure and testing. More than 50% of the participants who did not want children were willing to bear children through PGD when it was assumed that they were BRCA mutation carriers. @*Conclusion@#On the assumption of being carriers, general, young, and healthy females were more likely than males to negatively change their attitudes toward marriage and childbearing. Public education on the implications of living with mutation carriers and reproductive options may be required.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 375-382, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925672

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the attitudes toward risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) as cancer prevention options for BRCA1/2 carriers in healthy, young, unmarried Korean women. @*Materials and Methods@#A nationally representative sample of 600 women, aged 20-39 years, completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, preference for genetic testing, and intention to undergo risk-reducing surgeries after receiving information on the cancer risk of BRCA1/2 mutations and benefits of risk-reducing surgeries. @*Results@#A total of 54.7% and 57.7% had the intention to undergo RRM and RRSO, respectively, on the assumption that they were BRCA1/2 carriers. Older age and no intention to undergo genetic testing were associated with a reduced likelihood of undergoing RRM (odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.61 for age 35-39 years and OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.62 for no intention for genetic testing) and RRSO (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.79 for age 35-39 years and OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.53 for no intention for genetic testing). Women who chose to be single were likely to undergo risk-reducing surgeries (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.60 for RRM and OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.44 for RRSO). @*Conclusion@#More than 50% of healthy, unmarried, young Korean women were inclined to undergo prophylactic surgeries if they were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Further studies on decision-making process for cancer prevention in individuals at high risk for cancer need to be conducted.

7.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 55-59, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898743

ABSTRACT

For safe thyroidectomy, preservation of the parathyroid gland is mandatory. However, until recently, there has been no reliable method of identifying the parathyroid glands. Thus, the identification of the parathyroid gland has mainly depended on the surgeon’s personal experience. To overcome this limitation, near infrared autofluorescence (NIRAF) imaging technique has been introduced. Many reports support the claim that NIRAF imaging can help surgeons identify the parathyroid gland. However, there have been no reports on the feasibility of NIRAF imaging in detecting the intrathyroidal parathyroid glands that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Recently, we experienced two cases in which intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were identified and auto-transplanted with the use of NIRAF. We would like to share this experience and hope this paper helps thyroid surgeons identify the parathyroid gland more easily which is always a matter of concern.

8.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 200-209, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897599

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate hypotensive agents in terms of their adverse effects and associations with perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing nasal surgery. @*Methods@#. Two authors independently searched databases (Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases) up to February 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing the perioperative administration of a hypotensive agent with a placebo or other agent. The outcomes of interest for this analysis were intraoperative morbidity, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, hypotension, postoperative nausea/vomiting, and postoperative pain. Both a standard pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were conducted. @*Results@#. Our analysis was based on 37 trials. Treatment networks consisting of six interventions (placebo, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, beta-blockers, opioids, and nitroglycerine) were defined for the network meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine resulted in the greatest differences in intraoperative bleeding (−0.971; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.161 to −0.781), intraoperative fentanyl administration (−3.683; 95% CI, −4.848 to −2.518), and postoperative pain (−2.065; 95% CI, −3.170 to −0.960) compared with placebo. The greatest difference in operative time compared with placebo was achieved with clonidine (−0.699; 95% CI, −0.977 to −0.421). All other agents also had beneficial effects on the measured outcomes. Dexmedetomidine was less likely than other agents to cause adverse effects. @*Conclusion@#. This study demonstrated the superiority of the systemic use of dexmedetomidine as a perioperative hypotensive agent compared with the other five tested agents. However, the other agents were also superior to placebo in improving operative time, intraoperative bleeding, and postoperative pain.

9.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 312-320, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897580

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of various symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in screening for this disease. @*Methods@#. Two authors (working independently) comprehensively reviewed six databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) from their dates of inception until November 2020. The predictive value of patient-reported symptoms, including otolaryngologic and general symptoms, was evaluated in adults who underwent testing for COVID-19. True-positive, true-negative, false-positive, and false-negative data were extracted from each study. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool (ver. 2). @*Results@#. Twenty-eight prospective and retrospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of a change in olfaction and/or taste was 10.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.43–12.34). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8. Olfactory and/or taste changes had a low sensitivity (0.57; 95% CI, 0.47–0.66) but moderate negative (0.78; 95% CI, 0.69–0.85] and positive (0.78; 95% CI, 0.66–0.87) predictive values and a high specificity (0.91; 95% CI, 0.83–0.96). Olfactory and/or taste changes had a higher diagnostic value than the other otolaryngologic symptoms, a higher DOR and specificity, and a similar or higher diagnostic value than the other general symptoms. @*Conclusion@#. Among otolaryngologic symptoms, olfactory and/or taste dysfunction was the most closely associated with COVID-19 and its general symptoms, and should therefore be considered when screening for the disease.

10.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 416-421, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920209

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Variable types of electrodes for intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during thyroid surgery have been introduced to make up for the shortcomings of conventional endotracheal electromyogram tube. In this study, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous adhesive skin electrodes for IONM of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroidectomy.Subjects and Method A total 97 nerves at risk of 80 patients were enrolled in this study. Two disposable adhesive skin electrodes were attached at both upper margins of thyroid cartilage. Using NIM 3.0 system (Medtronic), we recorded the amplitude and latency of signals of vagus nerve and RLN following the standard procedure of IONM. Clinicopathologic factors as well as the preoperative and postoperative vocal cord functions of the patients were analyzed. @*Results@#IONM was successful in all nerves at risk without any false loss of signals. There were no complications nor any significant time delay due to adhesive skin electrodes. The mean amplitudes from the vagus nerve (V1) and RLN (R1) were 230.64 µV and 293.48 µV, respectively. Two nerves at risk showed loss of signal and the two patients showed postoperative temporary vocal cord paralysis. The amplitude of signals from the vagus nerve (V1, V2) was significantly higher in the lower body mass index (BMI) group compared to that of the higher BMI group. @*Conclusion@#IONM using transcutaneous skin electrodes may be considered as an alternative technique for IONM during thyroid surgery.

11.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 941-951, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to validate a pilot study of photodiagnosis using near infrared (NIR) transillumination and assess the clinical efficacy of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HYP-PDT) in a rabbit laryngeal cancer model in order to develop a novel therapeutic modality with complete remission and preservation of the functional organ. @*METHODS@#(1) In vitro study: VX tumor cells were subcultured and subjected to HYP-PDT. (2) In vivo study: A laryngeal cancer model was developed in which 12 rabbits were inoculated with a VX tumor suspension in the submucosal area of the left vocal fold using a transoral approach. All rabbits underwent NIR transillumination using light with a wavelength of 780 nm. The survival periods of the three treatment groups (6 rabbits in Group A: HYP-PDT, 3 each in Groups B and C: laser irradiation or HYP administration only) were analyzed. @*RESULTS@#The higher the HYP concentration, the lower the VX cell viability in response to HYP-PDT using 590 nm LED. Following HYP-PDT, small tumors in Group A-1 rabbits healed completely and the animals demonstrated a long survival period, and larger tumors in Group A-2 healed partially with a survival period that extended over 3 weeks after inoculation. The survival of Groups B and C were not different over the first 3 weeks of the study, and were shorter than in Group A. @*CONCLUSION@#We found HYP-PDT could be a curative therapy for early-stage cancers that may also preserve organ function, and may inhibit tumor progression and metastasis during advanced stages of laryngeal cancer.

12.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 61-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) provides the unique advantage of being able to measure the optical characteristics of tissues by using polarized light. Although the well-organized fibers of healthy muscle can change the polarization states of passing light, damaged tissue has different behaviors. There are studies on optical imaging methods applied to the respiratory organs; however, they are restricted to structural imaging. In particular, the intercostal muscle situated under the pleura is very challenging to visualize due to the difficulty of access.METHOD: In this study, PS-OCT was used to identify subpleural cancer in male New Zealand white rabbits (3.2–3.4 kg) and to assess the phase retardation changes in normal and cancerous chest walls. VX2 cell suspension was injected between the intercostal muscle and parietal pleura and a tented area was observed by thoracic scope. A group of rabbits (n = 3) were sacrificed at day 7 after injection and another group (n = 3) at day 14. @*RESULTS@#In the PS-OCT images, pleura thickness changes and muscle damage were criteria to understand the stages of the disease. The results of image and phase retardation analysis matched well with the pathologic examinations. @*CONCLUSION@#We were able to visualize and analyze subpleural cancer by PS-OCT, which provided structural and functional information. The measured phase retardation could help to identify the margin of the tumor. For further studies, various approaches into other diseases using polarization light are expected to have positive results.

13.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 81-87, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The vocal cord tissue consists of three anatomical layers from the surface to deep inside: the epithelium that contains almost no collagen, the lamina propria that is composed of abundant collagen, and the vocalis muscle layer. It is clinically important to visualize the tissue microstructure using a non-invasive method, especially in the case of vocal cord nodules or cancer, since histological changes in each layer of the vocal cord cause changes in the voice. Polarizationsensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) enables phase retardation measurement to evaluate birefringence of tissue with varied organization of collagen fibers in different tissue layers. Therefore, PS-OCT can visualize structural changes between normal and abnormal vocal cord tissue.METHOD: A rabbit laryngeal tumor model with different stages of tumor progression was investigated ex-vivo by PSOCT. A phase retardation slope-based analysis, which quantifies the birefringence in different layers, was conducted to distinguish the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscle layers. @*RESULTS@#The PS-OCT images showed a gradual decrease in birefringence from normal tissue to advanced tumor tissue.The quantitative analysis provided a more detailed comparison among different stages of the rabbit laryngeal tumor model, which was validated by the corresponding histological findings. @*CONCLUSION@#Differences in tissue birefringence was evaluated by PS-OCT phase retardation measurement. It is also possible to indirectly infer the dysplastic changes based on the mucosal and submucosal alterations.

14.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 55-59, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891039

ABSTRACT

For safe thyroidectomy, preservation of the parathyroid gland is mandatory. However, until recently, there has been no reliable method of identifying the parathyroid glands. Thus, the identification of the parathyroid gland has mainly depended on the surgeon’s personal experience. To overcome this limitation, near infrared autofluorescence (NIRAF) imaging technique has been introduced. Many reports support the claim that NIRAF imaging can help surgeons identify the parathyroid gland. However, there have been no reports on the feasibility of NIRAF imaging in detecting the intrathyroidal parathyroid glands that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Recently, we experienced two cases in which intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were identified and auto-transplanted with the use of NIRAF. We would like to share this experience and hope this paper helps thyroid surgeons identify the parathyroid gland more easily which is always a matter of concern.

15.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 200-209, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889895

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate hypotensive agents in terms of their adverse effects and associations with perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing nasal surgery. @*Methods@#. Two authors independently searched databases (Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases) up to February 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing the perioperative administration of a hypotensive agent with a placebo or other agent. The outcomes of interest for this analysis were intraoperative morbidity, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, hypotension, postoperative nausea/vomiting, and postoperative pain. Both a standard pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were conducted. @*Results@#. Our analysis was based on 37 trials. Treatment networks consisting of six interventions (placebo, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, beta-blockers, opioids, and nitroglycerine) were defined for the network meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine resulted in the greatest differences in intraoperative bleeding (−0.971; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.161 to −0.781), intraoperative fentanyl administration (−3.683; 95% CI, −4.848 to −2.518), and postoperative pain (−2.065; 95% CI, −3.170 to −0.960) compared with placebo. The greatest difference in operative time compared with placebo was achieved with clonidine (−0.699; 95% CI, −0.977 to −0.421). All other agents also had beneficial effects on the measured outcomes. Dexmedetomidine was less likely than other agents to cause adverse effects. @*Conclusion@#. This study demonstrated the superiority of the systemic use of dexmedetomidine as a perioperative hypotensive agent compared with the other five tested agents. However, the other agents were also superior to placebo in improving operative time, intraoperative bleeding, and postoperative pain.

16.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 312-320, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889876

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of various symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in screening for this disease. @*Methods@#. Two authors (working independently) comprehensively reviewed six databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) from their dates of inception until November 2020. The predictive value of patient-reported symptoms, including otolaryngologic and general symptoms, was evaluated in adults who underwent testing for COVID-19. True-positive, true-negative, false-positive, and false-negative data were extracted from each study. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool (ver. 2). @*Results@#. Twenty-eight prospective and retrospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of a change in olfaction and/or taste was 10.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.43–12.34). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8. Olfactory and/or taste changes had a low sensitivity (0.57; 95% CI, 0.47–0.66) but moderate negative (0.78; 95% CI, 0.69–0.85] and positive (0.78; 95% CI, 0.66–0.87) predictive values and a high specificity (0.91; 95% CI, 0.83–0.96). Olfactory and/or taste changes had a higher diagnostic value than the other otolaryngologic symptoms, a higher DOR and specificity, and a similar or higher diagnostic value than the other general symptoms. @*Conclusion@#. Among otolaryngologic symptoms, olfactory and/or taste dysfunction was the most closely associated with COVID-19 and its general symptoms, and should therefore be considered when screening for the disease.

17.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 61-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) provides the unique advantage of being able to measure the optical characteristics of tissues by using polarized light. Although the well-organized fibers of healthy muscle can change the polarization states of passing light, damaged tissue has different behaviors. There are studies on optical imaging methods applied to the respiratory organs; however, they are restricted to structural imaging. In particular, the intercostal muscle situated under the pleura is very challenging to visualize due to the difficulty of access.METHOD: In this study, PS-OCT was used to identify subpleural cancer in male New Zealand white rabbits (3.2–3.4 kg) and to assess the phase retardation changes in normal and cancerous chest walls. VX2 cell suspension was injected between the intercostal muscle and parietal pleura and a tented area was observed by thoracic scope. A group of rabbits (n = 3) were sacrificed at day 7 after injection and another group (n = 3) at day 14. @*RESULTS@#In the PS-OCT images, pleura thickness changes and muscle damage were criteria to understand the stages of the disease. The results of image and phase retardation analysis matched well with the pathologic examinations. @*CONCLUSION@#We were able to visualize and analyze subpleural cancer by PS-OCT, which provided structural and functional information. The measured phase retardation could help to identify the margin of the tumor. For further studies, various approaches into other diseases using polarization light are expected to have positive results.

18.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 81-87, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The vocal cord tissue consists of three anatomical layers from the surface to deep inside: the epithelium that contains almost no collagen, the lamina propria that is composed of abundant collagen, and the vocalis muscle layer. It is clinically important to visualize the tissue microstructure using a non-invasive method, especially in the case of vocal cord nodules or cancer, since histological changes in each layer of the vocal cord cause changes in the voice. Polarizationsensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) enables phase retardation measurement to evaluate birefringence of tissue with varied organization of collagen fibers in different tissue layers. Therefore, PS-OCT can visualize structural changes between normal and abnormal vocal cord tissue.METHOD: A rabbit laryngeal tumor model with different stages of tumor progression was investigated ex-vivo by PSOCT. A phase retardation slope-based analysis, which quantifies the birefringence in different layers, was conducted to distinguish the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscle layers. @*RESULTS@#The PS-OCT images showed a gradual decrease in birefringence from normal tissue to advanced tumor tissue.The quantitative analysis provided a more detailed comparison among different stages of the rabbit laryngeal tumor model, which was validated by the corresponding histological findings. @*CONCLUSION@#Differences in tissue birefringence was evaluated by PS-OCT phase retardation measurement. It is also possible to indirectly infer the dysplastic changes based on the mucosal and submucosal alterations.

19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898959

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

20.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 71-75, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920074

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Surgical resection is the basic treatment for benign laryngeal tumors and transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been used effectively. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery (TOVS) is another method of surgical resection that has been introduced. However, there have not been any studies related to the usefulness of TOVS in benign laryngeal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and surgical outcomes of TLM and TOVS.Subjects and Method A retrospective chart review of 85 patients were conducted. This review included two groups (TLM group, n=44 versus TOVS group, n=41) of patients who underwent transoral surgery for benign laryngeal tumors. Clinicopathologic factors of the patients and surgical outcomes such as the operation time, amount of intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay, and complications were compared between two groups. @*Results@#There were no significant differences between two groups regarding the clinicopathologic factors and surgical outcomes. The TOVS group presented relatively larger tumor size (p=0.067) and showed a tendency of shorter operation time (36.8±34.5 min) compared to that of TLM (45.6±27.9 min), but with no statistical significance (p=0.199). @*Conclusion@#TOVS may be considered as an alternative surgical method for benign laryngeal tumors.

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