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1.
Soonchunhyang Medical Science ; : 4-9, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002842

ABSTRACT

To overcome the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), COVID-19 vaccination has been developed and distributed. Many people have received the vaccination worldwide. However, there are some vaccinated individuals who complain of side effects due to COVID-19 vaccination. We report the case of a patient who developed adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) after receiving the messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine. A 21-year-old male patient without a previous medical history developed a fever on the day of the first dose of the vaccine. He had persistent fever, arthralgia of the knee and wrist, hyperferritinemia, transient skin rash, and negative test results for rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibody. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed lymphadenopathies with reactive patterns and no malignancy. His symptoms and laboratory abnormalities gradually improved with glucocorticoid, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and tocilizumab treatment. Although its causality is still not confirmed, AOSD should be considered in a case that meets the diagnostic criteria after COVID-19 vaccination.

2.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 507-513, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977084

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the retinal and choroidal vessels of chronic alcoholics with non-alcoholics. @*Methods@#This study included alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) patients admitted between December 2020 and October 2021, along with age-matched controls. Retinal and choroidal vessel densities, measured using image binarization at the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), choriocapillaris, and choroidal layers, were compared between ALD patients and controls. Correlations between clinical parameters and vessel densities in ALD patients were also analyzed. @*Results@#Vessel densities at SCP, DCP, choriocapillaris, and choroidal layers were not significantly different between controls and ALD patients (p = 0.496, 0.988, 0.909, and 0.317, respectively). Platelet time and international normalized ratio (INR) were positively correlated with SCP density in ALD patients (r = 0.393 and 0.393; p = 0.015 and 0.015, respectively). @*Conclusions@#ALD does not significantly affect vessel densities in the retina and choroid. The positive correlations of platelet time and INR with SCP may be related to vessel dilatation, but they require further investigation.

3.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 121-134, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925760

ABSTRACT

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an effective interventional procedure to relieve portal hypertension, which is a main mechanism for the development of complications of liver cirrhosis (LC), such as variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and hepatorenal syndrome. However, the high incidence of adverse events after TIPS implementation limits its application in clinical practice. Esophageal variceal hemorrhage is one of the major indications for TIPS. Recently, preemptively performed TIPS has been recommended, as several studies have shown that TIPS significantly reduced mortality as well as rebleeding or failure to control bleeding in patients who are at high risk of treatment failure for bleeding control with endoscopic variceal ligation and vasoactive drugs. Meanwhile, recurrent ascites is another indication for TIPS with a proven survival benefit. TIPS may also be considered as an effective treatment for other LC complications, usually as an alternative therapy. Although there are concerns about the development of hepatic encephalopathy and hepatic dysfunction after TIPS implementation, careful patient selection using prognostic scores can lead to excellent outcomes. Assessments of cardiac and renal function prior to TIPS may also be considered to improve patient prognosis.

4.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 252-262, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898803

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We compared success rates of 3 surgical techniques (holmium laser enucleation of the prostate [HoLEP], transurethral resection of the prostate [TURP], and photoselective laser vaporization prostatectomy [PVP]) for treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). We aimed to identify preoperative clinical variables and urodynamic parameters that predict surgical success. @*Methods@#A total of 483 patients who underwent surgical treatment for BPO at Samsung Medical Center between 2006 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed; of these 361, 81, and 41 patients underwent HoLEP, TURP, and PVP, respectively. Prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, urodynamic parameters, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)/quality of life (QoL) index were evaluated preoperatively; uroflowmetry, postvoid residual urine, and IPSS/QoL index were measured 6 months postoperatively. Surgical success was defined based on IPSS, maximum flow rate, and QoL index and predictive factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. @*Results@#Success rates of HoLEP, TURP, and PVP were 67.6%, 65.4%, and 34.1%, respectively, and the HoLEP and TURP groups were not significantly different. Regression analysis revealed prostate volume ≥50 mL and bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI) ≥40 to be independent factors predicting HoLEP success. Only high preoperative QoL could predict the success of TURP, whereas other urodynamic parameters remained unrelated. @*Conclusions@#Patients treated with HoLEP and TURP displayed equivalent efficacies, but PVP was relatively less efficient than both. Preoperative variables of prostate volume ≥50 mL and BOOI ≥40 were independent predictive factors for the success of HoLEP but not of TURP.

5.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 402-412, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897669

ABSTRACT

Over the past several decades, entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) have remained the first-line antiviral agents in several international guidelines. These two antiviral agents have shown similar short to intermediateterm efficacy, including virologic, biochemical, serologic, and histologic responses. However, huge controversies regarding the antiviral efficacy of ETV and TDF in preventing the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still exist. In this review, we summarized recent studies that compared the treatment efficacy of ETV and TDF in terms of HCC development.

7.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 252-262, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891099

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We compared success rates of 3 surgical techniques (holmium laser enucleation of the prostate [HoLEP], transurethral resection of the prostate [TURP], and photoselective laser vaporization prostatectomy [PVP]) for treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). We aimed to identify preoperative clinical variables and urodynamic parameters that predict surgical success. @*Methods@#A total of 483 patients who underwent surgical treatment for BPO at Samsung Medical Center between 2006 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed; of these 361, 81, and 41 patients underwent HoLEP, TURP, and PVP, respectively. Prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, urodynamic parameters, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)/quality of life (QoL) index were evaluated preoperatively; uroflowmetry, postvoid residual urine, and IPSS/QoL index were measured 6 months postoperatively. Surgical success was defined based on IPSS, maximum flow rate, and QoL index and predictive factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. @*Results@#Success rates of HoLEP, TURP, and PVP were 67.6%, 65.4%, and 34.1%, respectively, and the HoLEP and TURP groups were not significantly different. Regression analysis revealed prostate volume ≥50 mL and bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI) ≥40 to be independent factors predicting HoLEP success. Only high preoperative QoL could predict the success of TURP, whereas other urodynamic parameters remained unrelated. @*Conclusions@#Patients treated with HoLEP and TURP displayed equivalent efficacies, but PVP was relatively less efficient than both. Preoperative variables of prostate volume ≥50 mL and BOOI ≥40 were independent predictive factors for the success of HoLEP but not of TURP.

8.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 402-412, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889965

ABSTRACT

Over the past several decades, entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) have remained the first-line antiviral agents in several international guidelines. These two antiviral agents have shown similar short to intermediateterm efficacy, including virologic, biochemical, serologic, and histologic responses. However, huge controversies regarding the antiviral efficacy of ETV and TDF in preventing the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still exist. In this review, we summarized recent studies that compared the treatment efficacy of ETV and TDF in terms of HCC development.

9.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 503-516, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903919

ABSTRACT

KCNQ family constitutes slowly-activating potassium channels among voltage-gated potassium channel superfamily. Recent studies suggested that KCNQ4 and 5 channels are abundantly expressed in smooth muscle cells, especially in lower urinary tract including corpus cavernosum and that both channels can exert membrane stabilizing effect in the tissues. In this article, we examined the electrophysiological characteristics of overexpressed KCNQ4, 5 channels in HEK293 cells with recently developed KCNQ-specific agonist. With submicromolar EC50 , the drug not only increased the open probability of KCNQ4 channel but also increased slope conductance of the channel. The overall effect of the drug in whole-cell configuration was to increase maximal whole-cell conductance, to prolongate the activation process, and left-shift of the activation curve. The agonistic action of the drug, however, was highly attenuated by the co-expression of one of the βancillary subunits of KCNQ family, KCNE4. Strong in vitro interactions between KCNQ4, 5 and KCNE4 were found through Foster Resonance Energy Transfer and co-immunoprecipitation. Although the expression levels of both KCNQ4 and KCNE4 are high in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells, we found that 1 μM of the agonist was sufficient to almost completely relax phenylephrine-induced contraction of the muscle strip. Significant expression of KCNQ4 and KCNE4 in corpus cavernosum together with high tonic contractility of the tissue grants highly promising relaxational effect of the KCNQspecific agonist in the tissue.

10.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 55-59, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834061

ABSTRACT

The harmful use of alcohol is associated with significant medical and socioeconomic burdens responsible for approximately 6% ofall deaths worldwide. In Korea, the total alcohol consumption recently decreased slightly from 14.8 L of alcohol per person onaverage in 2011 to 9.1 L in 2015. On the other hand, over the past 10 years (2007-2017), the rates of monthly alcohol consumption,which is defined as drinking more than once a month, and the rates of high-risk alcohol consumption, defined as drinkingmore than seven standard drinks twice a week or more, have increased. In particular, the death rate due to alcoholic liver diseasewas the highest and increasing among those in their 50s who play crucial socioeconomic roles. In addition, the most notablechange over the past 10 years has been the increase in alcohol consumption in young women aged between 20 and 39, and theincrease in deaths among women due to alcoholic liver disease. In Korea, alcoholic liver disease is ranked 2nd-3rd as the causesof chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, having a significant negative socioeconomic impact.

11.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 503-516, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896215

ABSTRACT

KCNQ family constitutes slowly-activating potassium channels among voltage-gated potassium channel superfamily. Recent studies suggested that KCNQ4 and 5 channels are abundantly expressed in smooth muscle cells, especially in lower urinary tract including corpus cavernosum and that both channels can exert membrane stabilizing effect in the tissues. In this article, we examined the electrophysiological characteristics of overexpressed KCNQ4, 5 channels in HEK293 cells with recently developed KCNQ-specific agonist. With submicromolar EC50 , the drug not only increased the open probability of KCNQ4 channel but also increased slope conductance of the channel. The overall effect of the drug in whole-cell configuration was to increase maximal whole-cell conductance, to prolongate the activation process, and left-shift of the activation curve. The agonistic action of the drug, however, was highly attenuated by the co-expression of one of the βancillary subunits of KCNQ family, KCNE4. Strong in vitro interactions between KCNQ4, 5 and KCNE4 were found through Foster Resonance Energy Transfer and co-immunoprecipitation. Although the expression levels of both KCNQ4 and KCNE4 are high in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells, we found that 1 μM of the agonist was sufficient to almost completely relax phenylephrine-induced contraction of the muscle strip. Significant expression of KCNQ4 and KCNE4 in corpus cavernosum together with high tonic contractility of the tissue grants highly promising relaxational effect of the KCNQspecific agonist in the tissue.

12.
The World Journal of Men's Health ; : 240-248, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742353

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current study is aimed to assess whether a longer duration of 5α-reductase inhibitor (5α-RI) exposure was associated with higher rate of permanent erectile dysfunction (ED) in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=76) were assigned to five groups: (i) normal control group; (ii) dutasteride (0.5 mg/rat/d) for 4-weeks group; (iii) dutasteride for 4-weeks plus 2-weeks of resting group; (iv) dutasteride for 8-weeks group; and (v) dutasteride for 8-weeks plus 2-weeks of resting group. In vivo erectile responses to electrical stimulation, and changes of fibrotic factors and smooth muscle/collagen contents in the corpus cavernosum were evaluated in each group. RESULTS: Dutasteride administration for 4 and 8 weeks significantly decreased erectile parameters compared with the control group. Reduced erectile responses were recovered during 2 weeks of drug-free time in the 4-week treatment group, but were not in the 8-week group. Protein levels of fibrosis-related factors transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, and p-Smad/Smad (Smad 2/3) in the corpus cavernosum showed no significant change after 4 weeks of dutasteride oral administration, but were enhanced after 8 weeks. Dutasteride markedly decreased smooth muscle content and increased collagen after 4 and 8 weeks of use, but no nuclear size changes; however, neither group showed significant improvement in the smooth muscle to collagen ratio after the rest period. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that recovery from ED depended on the duration of medication, and administration of dutasteride for more than 8-weeks in rats could result in irreversible ED even after discontinuation of medication.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Collagen , Dutasteride , Electric Stimulation , Erectile Dysfunction , Finasteride , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Oxidoreductases , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factors
13.
The World Journal of Men's Health ; : 364-371, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761880

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We examined the association between thyroid hormone and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5,708 middle aged men were included. LUTS/BPH were assessed using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS), total prostate volume (TPV), maximal flow rate (Qmax), and a full metabolic workup. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. We divided participants into quartiles based on their TSH and FT4 levels: first to fourth quartile (Q1–Q4). RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the percentage of men with IPSS>7, Qmax7 were significantly different between FT4 quartile groups (ORs; [5–95 percentile interval], p; TPV≥30 mL, Q1: 0.000 [references]; Q2: 1.140 [0.911–1.361], p=0.291; Q3: 1.260 [1.030–1.541], p=0.025; Q4: 1.367 [1.122–1.665], p=0.002; IPSS>7: Q1: 0.000 [references]; Q2: 0.969 [0.836–1.123], p=0.677; Q3: 1.123 [0.965–1.308], p=0.133; Q4: 1.221 [1.049–1.420], p=0.010). In men with above median levels of testosterone, the FT4 correlated positively with TPV, even after adjusting for confounders. However, the FT4 was not correlated with TPV in men with below median levels of testosterone. TSH was not related to LUTS/BPH measurements. CONCLUSIONS: TPV, IPSS, and Qmax were significantly related to FT4. TPV and IPSS were significantly and independently related to FT4. Additionally, the relationship between FT4 and TPV was distinct when testosterone levels are high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Immunoassay , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Luminescence , Odds Ratio , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Testosterone , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Urinary Tract , Urologic Diseases
14.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 381-392, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761798

ABSTRACT

Sperm function and male fertility are closely related to pH dependent K⁺ current (KSper) in human sperm, which is most likely composed of Slo3 and its auxiliary subunit leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 52 (LRRC52). Onion peel extract (OPE) and its major active ingredient quercetin are widely used as fertility enhancers; however, the effect of OPE and quercetin on Slo3 has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of quercetin on human Slo3 channels. Human Slo3 and LRRC52 were co-transfected into HEK293 cells and pharmacological properties were studied with the whole cell patch clamp technique. We successfully expressed and measured pH sensitive and calcium insensitive Slo3 currents in HEK293 cells. We found that OPE and its key ingredient quercetin inhibit Slo3 currents. Inhibition by quercetin is dose dependent and this degree of inhibition decreases with elevating internal alkalization and internal free calcium concentrations. Functional moieties in the quercetin polyphenolic ring govern the degree of inhibition of Slo3 by quercetin, and the composition of such functional moieties are sensitive to the pH of the medium. These results suggest that quercetin inhibits Slo3 in a pH and calcium dependent manner. Therefore, we surmise that quercetin induced depolarization in spermatozoa may enhance the voltage gated proton channel (Hv1), and activate non-selective cation channels of sperm (CatSper) dependent calcium influx to trigger sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acrosome Reaction , Calcium , Fertility , HEK293 Cells , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Onions , Phosphatidylinositols , Protons , Quercetin , Sperm Capacitation , Spermatozoa
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 133-136, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741119

ABSTRACT

Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a benign tumor arising from synovial fibroblasts or histiocytes. There are diffuse and localized forms: the former involves the entire synovium and the latter consists of nodules, small tumefactions, or pedunculated masses. The knee is the joint most commonly affected and the clinical diagnosis is difficult, so initial misdiagnosis is common. We report a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis developing in the knee of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient, mistaken for an RA flare-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Fibroblasts , Histiocytes , Joints , Knee , Synovial Membrane , Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 133-136, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938603

ABSTRACT

Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a benign tumor arising from synovial fibroblasts or histiocytes. There are diffuse and localized forms: the former involves the entire synovium and the latter consists of nodules, small tumefactions, or pedunculated masses. The knee is the joint most commonly affected and the clinical diagnosis is difficult, so initial misdiagnosis is common. We report a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis developing in the knee of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient, mistaken for an RA flare-up.

17.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 89-100, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715806

ABSTRACT

Human understanding is one of the three virtues that are expected of physicians in Harrison's principles of internal medicine, and it was emphasized that a Shakespearean breadth is needed to be the true physician. Recently, there has been an increase in the need for human understanding, such as a continuous increase in GB stones, an association between the patient's life events and pancreaticobiliary diseases, an increase in autoimmune disease, and a high recurrence rate after treatment. Therefore, we attempted a holistic and fundamental approach for figuring out the pathogenesis of pancreaticobiliary diseases including human habit loop and adaptive response and suggests the model for the development of pancreaticobiliary disease considering human understanding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Internal Medicine , Recurrence , Virtues
19.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 33-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The concept of the ideal morphology for the alveolar bone form is an important element to reconstruct or restore the in maximizing esthetic profile and functional alveolar bone restoration. The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the normal alveolar bone structure to provide the standard reference and guide template for use in diagnosing for implant placement, determining the correct amount of bone augmentation in actual clinical practice and producing prostheses based on three-dimensional imaging assessment of alveolar bone.@*METHODS@#This study was included 11 men and 11 women (average age, 22.6 and 24.5 years, respectively) selected from among 127 patients. The horizontal widths of alveolar bone of maxilla and mandible were measured at the crestal, mid-root, and root apex level on MDCT (multi-detector computed tomography) images reconstructed by medical imaging software. In addition, tooth dimensions of the central incisors, canines, second premolars, and first molars of maxilla and mandible, including the horizontal width of the interdental alveolar bone crest, were also measured and statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The horizontal alveolar bone width of the palatal side of maxilla showed a distinct increment from the alveolar bone crest to the apical region in both anterior and posterior areas. The average widths of the maxillary alveolar ridge were as follows: central incisor, 7.43 mm; canine, 8.91 mm; second premolar, 9.57 mm; and first molar, 12.38 mm. The average widths of the mandibular alveolar ridge were as follows: central incisor, 6.21 mm; canine, 8.55 mm; second premolar, 8.45 mm; and first molar, 10.02 mm. In the buccal side, the alveolar bone width was not increased from the crest to the apical region. The horizontal alveolar bone width of an apical and mandibular border region was thinner than at the mid-root level.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results of the preliminary study are useful as a clinical guideline when determining dental implant diameter and position. And also, these measurements can also be useful during the production of prefabricated membranes and customized alveolar bone scaffolds.

20.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 47-57, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of non-adherence to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) medication and identify the associated factors for non-adherence in RA patients. METHODS: Among the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis 3,523 patients who completed a questionnaire about the adherence to RA medication were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: 1) adherent group, patients who skipped medication ≤5 days within the past 2 months; and 2) non-adherent group, patients who skipped ≥6 days of medication. The baseline characteristics were compared, and multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors for non-adherence. RESULTS: The non-adherent group had 339 patients (9.6%). The common causes of non-adherence were forgetfulness (45.8%), absence of RA symptoms (24.7%), and discomfort with RA medication (13.1%). Younger age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, p < 0.01) and higher income (OR 1.70, p < 0.01) were associated with an increased risk of non-adherence. Whereas higher functional disability (OR 0.68, p < 0.01) and oral corticosteroid use (OR 0.73, p=0.02) were associated with a decreased risk of non-adherence. The associated factors differed according to cause of non-adherence. Having adverse events (OR 2.65, p=0.02) was associated with the risk of non-adherence due to discomfort with RA medication while a higher level of education (OR 2.37, p=0.03) was associated with the risk of non-adherence due to an absence of RA symptoms. CONCLUSION: The 9.6% of Korean RA patients were non-adherent to RA medication. The associated factors differed according to the cause of non-adherence. Therefore, an individualized approach will be needed to improve the adherence to RA medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Education , Medication Adherence , Observational Study , Prevalence
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