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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In Vitro follicular maturation (IVFM) of ovarian follicles is an emerging option for fertility preservation. Many paracrine factors and two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) environments have been used for optimization. However, since most studies were conducted using the murine model, the physiological differences between mice and humans limit the interpretation and adaptation of the results. Marmoset monkey is a non-human primate (NHPs) with more similar reproductive physiology to humans. In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D matrix (Matrtigel)-based IVFM condition for marmoset ovarian follicles in combination with anti-apoptotic factor, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). @*METHODS@#Marmoset follicles were isolated as individual follicles and cultured in a single drop with the addition of 0, 10, and 100 lg/mL of XIAP molecules. Matured oocytes and granulosa cells from mature follicles were collected and analyzed. The average number of isolated follicles was less than 100, and primordial and antral follicles were abundant in the ovaries. @*RESULTS@#IVFM of marmoset follicles in 3D matrix conditions with XIAP increased the rates of survival and In Vitro follicle development. Furthermore, oocytes from the 3D cultures were successfully fertilized and developed In Vitro. The addition of XIAP increased the secretion of estradiol and aromatase. Furthermore, expression of granulosa-specific genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein 15, Oct4, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor were upregulated in the In Vitro-matured follicles than in normal, well-grown, and atretic follicles. Apoptosis-related B-cell lymphoma-2 was highly expressed in the atretic follicles than in the XIAP-treated follicles, and higher caspase-3 was localized in the XIAP-treated follicles. @*CONCLUSION@#In this study, we attempted to establish a 3D-matrix-based marmoset IVFM condition and demonstrated the synergistic effects of XIAP. The use of a 3D matrix may be applied as an optimal culture condition for marmoset ovarian follicles.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874525

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of social distancing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We retrospectively analyzed the change in glycosylated hemoglobin level (ΔHbA1c) in people with T2DM who undertook social distancing because of COVID-19. We compared the ΔHbA1c between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts that were enrolled at the same time of year. The ΔHbA1c of the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than that of two non-COVID-19 cohorts. Subgroup analysis according to age and baseline HbA1c level showed that social distancing significantly increased the mean HbA1c level of participants of <50 years. The ΔHbA1c of participants of <50 years and with HbA1c <7.0% in the COVID-19 cohort showed larger changes than other subgroups. In adjusted model, adjusted ΔHbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort remained significantly higher than those in the two other cohorts. Social distancing negatively impacts blood glucose control in people with T2DM, especially those who are younger and have good blood glucose control.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898196

ABSTRACT

Background@#Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. @*Methods@#This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. @*Results@#The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. @*Conclusion@#Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890492

ABSTRACT

Background@#Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. @*Methods@#This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. @*Results@#The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. @*Conclusion@#Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. @*Methods@#We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. @*Results@#Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. @*Conclusion@#DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.

9.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 306-318, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831410

ABSTRACT

Background@#Skin diseases characterized by epithelial barrierdysfunction show altered sphingolipid metabolism,which results in changes in the stratum corneum intercellularlipid components and structure. Under pathological conditions,1-deoxysphingolipids form as atypical sphingolipidsfrom de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. @*Objective@#Thisstudy investigated the potential role of 1-deoxysphingolipidsin skin barrier dysfunction secondary to X-ray and ultravioletB (UVB) irradiation in vitro and in vivo. It was also evaluatedchanges in the expression of 1-deoxysphingolipids in lesionalhuman skin of atopic dermatitis. @*Methods@#In thisstudy, the changes in these 1-deoxysphingolipids levels ofskin and serum samples were investigated in skin barrier dysfunctionassociated with X-ray and UVB irradiation in vitroand in vivo. @*Results@#Increased 1-deoxysphingolipids were observed in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytesafter X-ray irradiation. X-ray or UVB irradiation increased theproduction of 1-deoxysphingosine in a reconstituted 3-dimensional(3D) skin model. Interestingly, treatment with aphysiological lipid mixture (multi-lamellar emulsion containedpseudoceramide), which can strengthen the epidermalpermeability barrier function, resulted in decreased1-deoxysphingosine formation in a reconstituted 3D skinmodel. Further investigation using a hairless mouse modelshowed similar preventive effects of physiological lipid mixtureagainst 1-deoxysphingosine formation after X-ray irradiation.An increased level of 1-dexoysphingosine in the stratumcorneum was also observed in lesional skin of atopic dermatitis. @*Conclusion@#1-deoxysphingosine might be a novelbiomarker of skin barrier dysfunction and a physiological lipidmixture treatment could prevent 1-deoxysphingosine productionand consequent skin barrier dysfunction.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vaginal progesterone for luteal phase support (LPS) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles via a meta-analysis. @*Methods@#We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective studies that met our selection criteria. Four online databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library) were searched between January 2017 and May 2017. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria and meta-analyzed using R software version 2.14.2. The main outcome measure was CPR. @*Results@#A total of 18 studies were reviewed and assessed for eligibility. One RCT (n=435) and three retrospective studies (n=3,033) met the selection criteria. In a meta-analysis of the selected studies, we found no significant difference in the CPR (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–1.55) between the vaginal progesterone and control groups. An analysis of the two retrospective cohort studies that reported the live birth rate (LBR) following FET showed a significantly higher LBR in the vaginal progesterone group (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.46). A subgroup meta-analysis of FET conducted 5 days after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin showed no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the CPR (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.90–1.55) or miscarriage rate (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.36–1.47). @*Conclusion@#The results of this meta-analysis of the currently available literature suggest that LPS with vaginal progesterone in natural FET cycles does not improve the CPR.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763675

ABSTRACT

Abnormal thyroid function is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis. This study aimed to determine whether free thyroxine (FT4) influences the prevalence of prediabetes in euthyroid subjects using a cross-sectional survey derived from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2015. We studied 2,399 male participants of >20 years of age who were euthyroid and non-diabetic. Prediabetic participants had lower FT4 concentrations than those without prediabetes, but their thyrotropin concentrations were similar. We stratified the population into tertiles according to FT4 concentration. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels significantly decreased with increasing FT4 tertile, whereas fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were not associated with FT4 tertiles (HbA1c, P<0.01 in T3 vs. T1; FPG, P=0.489 in T3 vs. T1). The prevalence of prediabetes was significantly higher in T1 (odds ratio, 1.426; 95% confidence interval, 1.126 to 1.806; P<0.01) than in T3. In conclusion, subjects with low-normal serum FT4 had high HbA1c and were more likely to have prediabetes. These results suggest that low FT4 concentration is a risk factor for prediabetes in male, even when thyroid function is within the normal range.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Homeostasis , Humans , Korea , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Prediabetic State , Prevalence , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 285-290, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742533

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To elucidate the correlation between ovarian reserve and the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET) cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational study, 430 fresh IVF/ET cycles were examined from patient data of two university hospital infertility clinics. All included patients were positive for β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at 2 weeks after oocyte retrieval via controlled ovarian stimulation. For each cycle, information on age, duration of infertility, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), days of ovarian stimulation, numbers of retrieved oocytes and transferred embryos, and pregnancy outcomes was collected. Patients with AMH lower than 1.0 ng/dL or basal FSH higher than 10 mIU/mL were classified into the decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) group, and the remaining patients were classified into the normal ovarian reserve (NOR) group. RESULTS: In total, 355 cycles showed NOR, and 75 cycles DOR. There were no significant differences between the DOR and NOR groups regarding intrauterine (74.7% vs. 83.4%, respectively) or chemical (14.7% vs. 14.1%, respectively) pregnancies. The DOR group had a higher EP than that of NOR group [10.7% (8/75) vs. 2.5% (9/355), p=0.004]. In both univariate [odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–9.6, p=0.011] and multivariate (adjusted OR 5.1, 95 % CI 1.1–18.7, p=0.012) analysis, DOR was associated with a higher risk of EP. CONCLUSION: DOR may be associated with a higher risk of EP in IVF/ET cycles with controlled ovarian stimulation. More careful monitoring may be necessary for pregnant women with DOR.


Subject(s)
Chorionic Gonadotropin , Embryo Transfer , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Infertility , Observational Study , Oocyte Retrieval , Oocytes , Ovarian Reserve , Ovulation Induction , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Pregnant Women
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate DNA fragmentation status in human spermatozoa according to specific tail swelling patterns determined via hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST).METHODS: Frozen semen samples from 21 healthy donors were thawed and prepared by the swim-up technique for use in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The semen samples were treated for 5 minutes as part of the HOST procedure and then underwent the sperm chromatin dispersion test using a Halosperm kit. DNA fragmentation status (large halo, medium halo, small halo, no halo, or degraded) and the specific tail swelling pattern (“a”–“g”) were assessed at the level of a single spermatozoon. A total of 42,000 spermatozoa were analyzed, and the percentage of spermatozoa without DNA fragmentation (as evidenced by a large or medium halo) was assessed according to the specific tail swelling patterns observed.RESULTS: The HOST examinations showed that >93% of spermatozoa across all types displayed no DNA fragmentation. The percentage of spermatozoa without DNA fragmentation was 100% in type “d”, 98.67% in type “g”, and 98.17% in type “f” spermatozoa.CONCLUSION: We found that the type “d” spermatozoa displayed no DNA fragmentation, but the other types of spermatozoa also displayed very low rates of DNA fragmentation. This result may be associated with the processing of the spermatozoa by density gradient centrifugation and the swim-up technique.


Subject(s)
Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Chromatin , DNA Fragmentation , DNA , Humans , Infertility , Semen , Semen Preservation , Sperm Head , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Spermatozoa , Tail , Tissue Donors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor. PCSK9 has emerged as a target for lipid-lowering therapy, but the predictive value of the serum level of PCSK9 for the severity of coronary disease is largely unknown. METHODS: From December 2009 to July 2012, 121 individuals who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) because of clinically suspected acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of PCSK9 and metabolic parameters were measured. SYNTAX (SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with [paclitaxel-eluting] TAXUS stent and cardiac surgery) and GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) scores were calculated. RESULTS: Individuals with CAG lesions (n=100) had significantly higher levels of PCSK9 than those without lesions (n=21). The study population was stratified into three groups according to serum levels of PCSK9. The odds radio for occurrence of one or more CAG lesions was significantly higher in the group with the highest level of PCSK9 (odds ratio, 7.468; P=0.011) than in the group with the lowest level of PCSK9. Serum PCSK9 was positively associated with the number of involved coronary arteries. Multivariable linear regression indicated that levels of PCSK9 were positively correlated with GRACE risk scores and SYNTAX scores. CONCLUSION: Serum PCSK9 concentrations are higher in patients with coronary artery lesions, and are associated with SYNTAX and GRACE scores, suggesting that PCSK9 is a potential biomarker of the severity of coronary artery disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Disease , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Linear Models , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Proprotein Convertases , Receptors, LDL , Stents , Taxus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a recently established therapeutic target for treating metabolic syndromes, which include potential precursors to cardiovascular disease, suggesting a link between FGF21 and atherosclerosis. However, the association between serum FGF21 concentrations and coronary artery disease remain controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between circulating FGF21 concentrations and coronary artery lesions and clinical severity. METHODS: We enrolled 137 subjects who underwent coronary angiography, due to suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), from December 2009 to July 2012. Serum FGF21 levels were measured. Coronary artery lesions and clinical severities of the subjects were evaluated using the SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with (paclitaxel-eluting) TAXus stent and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) scoring system, respectively. RESULTS: After adjusting for established cardiovascular disease risk factors, including age, body mass index, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, patients with coronary artery lesions (n=112 men) had significantly higher levels of FGF21 than individuals without such lesions (n=25; men) (377.1±20.1 pg/mL vs. 267.1±43.5 pg/mL; p=0.026). However, no correlations were found between serum levels of FGF21 and either the calculated STNTAX score (r=0.117; p=0.176) or GRACE risk score, which is a risk prediction tool applicable for ACS subjects (r=0.113; p=0.193). CONCLUSION: Although serum levels of FGF21 were higher in individuals with coronary lesions than in those without such lesions, FGF21 levels were not associated with angiographic severity.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Humans , Lipoproteins , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Risk Factors , Stents , Taxus , Thoracic Surgery
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of swim-up and density gradient centrifugation (DGC) for reducing the amount of sperm with fragmented DNA, sex chromosome aneuploidy, and abnormal chromatin structure. METHODS: Semen samples were obtained from 18 healthy male partners who attended infertility clinics for infertility investigations and were processed with swim-up and DGC. The percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA measured by the sperm chromatin dispersion test, normal sex chromosomes assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and abnormal chromatin structure identified by toluidine blue staining were examined. RESULTS: The percentage of sperm cells with fragmented DNA was significantly lower in the swim-up fraction (9.7%, p=0.001) than in the unprocessed fraction (27.0%), but not in the DGC fraction (27.8%, p=0.098). The percentage of sperm cells with normal X or Y chromosomes was comparable in the three fractions. The percentage of sperm cells with abnormal chromatin structure significantly decreased after DGC (from 15.7% to 10.3%, p=0.002). The swim-up method also tended to reduce the percentage of sperm cells with abnormal chromatin structure, but the difference was not significant (from 15.7% to 11.6%, p=0.316). CONCLUSION: The swim-up method is superior for enriching genetically competent sperm.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Chromatin , DNA Fragmentation , DNA , Fluorescence , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Infertility , Male , Methods , Semen , Sex Chromosomes , Spermatozoa , Tolonium Chloride , Y Chromosome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49254

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the influence of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the weight and body mass index (BMI) of girls who were diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) or early puberty (EP). METHODS: Patients who were younger than 8 years of age at diagnosis were classified as CPP and patients aged between 8 and 9 years at diagnosis were classified as EP. Of 129 patients, 34 were diagnosed with CPP and 95 were diagnosed with EP. The patients were divided according to pretreatment weight status into normal weight group, an overweight group, or an obese group. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed with respect to the weight standard deviation score (SDS) before and after 1 year, 2 years of treatment, respectively (P>0.05, P>0.05) in all patient groups. No significant changes were observed in relation to the BMI SDS before and after 1 year, 2 years of treatment, respectively (P>0.05, P>0.05) in all patient group. Depending on the degree of obesity, differences with respect to the weight SDS and BMI SDS were observed. CONCLUSION: BMI SDS increased in the GnRHa-treated patients as a whole group, but was not statistically significant. But BMI SDS increased significantly in the normal weight group after 2 years of GnRHa treatment. So, GnRHa treatment may affect the change of BMI SDS depending on degree of obesity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Diagnosis , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , Obesity , Overweight , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of single-person households has rapidly increased in Korea. Individuals living alone and in rural areas may have a higher risk of various metabolic diseases due to differences in lifestyle. However, few studies have investigated the association of household size and residential area with health-related problems. This study aimed to evaluate the association of household size and residential area with risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 3,058 postmenopausal women from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We examined the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and household size and residential area. RESULTS: Individuals living in rural areas had significantly lower BMD of the lumbar spine than those living in an urban area. Subsequently, we divided the participants into four groups according to household size and residential areas. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly lower in individuals living in rural single-person households than those in urban households with two or more individuals, even after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. In addition, individuals in rural single-person households had significantly greater odds of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine than those in urban households with two or more residents. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in rural single-person households had significantly lower BMD and greater odds of osteoporosis in lumbar spine than urban households with two or more individuals. The results of this study suggest that individuals living in rural single-person households may benefit from more careful screening for osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Korea , Life Style , Mass Screening , Metabolic Diseases , Nutrition Surveys , Osteoporosis , Prevalence , Spine
20.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 116-120, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123069

ABSTRACT

Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis (DNH) is characterized by multiple capillary or cavernous hemangiomas on the skin and internal organs occurring during the neonatal period. It is a life-threatening condition due to high-output heart failure with a mortality rate of 60-85% without proper treatment. The areas that are most commonly involved include the skin (100%), liver (64-100%), and central nervous system (52%). Corticosteroids are the drugs of choice as an initial treatment and have a response rate of 30-60%. We present here a case of a newborn baby with multiple hemangiomas on her skin (scalp, lips, neck, back, shoulder, arm, buttock, and leg), brain (right cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata), lungs, liver, kidney, and bones. She suffered from 6th, 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerve palsy resulting from hemorrhage of the hemangiomas in the brain. The first-line treatment of prednisolone (4 mg/kg/day) was not effective and propranolol (2 mg/kg/day) was administered as a second-line treatment. After 2 weeks of treatment, the hemangiomas had decreased in size with no associated acute hemorrhage. The infant is now 10 months old and both the multiple hemangiomas and cranial nerve palsy have improved. Propranolol was effective without significant adverse effects in treating DNH resistant to corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Arm , Brain , Buttocks , Capillaries , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Cranial Nerves , Facial Paralysis , Heart Failure , Hemangioma , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kidney , Lip , Liver , Lung , Mortality , Neck , Pons , Prednisolone , Propranolol , Shoulder , Skin
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