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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e96-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967394

ABSTRACT

In mid-2022, as the wave of pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases escalated in South Korea, a public-private partnership was made to establish a Pediatric COVID-19 Module Clinic (PMC). We describe the utilization of the first prototype children’s modular clinic in Korea University Anam Hospital functioning as the COVID-19 PMC. Between August 1 and September 30, 2022, a total of 766 children visited COVID-19 PMC. Daily number of patient visits to the COVID-19 PMC ranged between 10 and 47 in August; and less than 13 patients per day in September 2022. Not only the model provided timely care for the COVID-19 pediatric patients, but it also enabled safe and efficacious care for the non-COVID-19 patients in the main hospital building while minimizing exposure risk to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission. Current description highlights the importance of spatial measures for mitigating in-hospital transmission of COVID-19, in specifically on pediatric care.

2.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 1-16, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977110

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the actual incidence of acute poisoning in Korea on a nationwide scale, with the aim of laying the groundwork for future initiatives in prevention, strategic antidote distribution, and the development of effective emergency treatment for acute poisoning. @*Methods@#The study analyzed data from 3,038 patients who presented to emergency departments with poisoning-related conditions from June 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022 at 10 sites in nine cities across the country. We extracted data on general characteristics of the poisoning cases, including demographic characteristics (age and gender), place of exposure, reason for poisoning, route of exposure, and the substance involved in the poisoning incident. Age-related patterns in reasons for poisoning, medical outcomes, frequent and primary poisoning substances, and deaths were also analyzed. @*Results@#The population analyzed in our study was predominantly female, with women constituting 54.74% of all cases. Among infants and children, non-intentional poisoning due to general accidents was the most common cause, accounting for 71.43% of cases. Conversely, suicidal poisoning was more prevalent among teenagers and adults over 20. Fifty-two patients died during the study period, with males comprising approximately two-thirds (67.31%) of these fatalities. Pesticides were the most common poisoning substance among those who died, accounting for 55.77% of such cases. Notably, a significant majority of the victims were elderly individuals aged 60 and above. @*Conclusion@#This study holds substantial significance, since it represents the first comprehensive investigation and analysis of the symptoms, treatment, and causes of death due to poisoning in Korea on a national scale. By substantially expanding the range and types of poisonous substances examined, we were able to more precisely identify the characteristics and clinical patterns of poisoning cases nationwide.

3.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 39-55, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977106

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Korea University Anam Hospital Seoul Poison Control Center (SeoulPCC) was established in accordance with Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance No. 7524 “Seoul Metropolitan Government Ordinance on the Prevention of Toxic Substances Poisoning and Accident Safety.” Herein, the center’s annual performance in terms of project results and consultation information for 2022 are reported. @*Methods@#SeoulPCC operates a helpline (Help Call, 1855-2221) that the general public can use from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM on weekdays, as well as chatting and chatbot counseling through KakaoTalk’s “Seoul Poison Control Center,” and one-on-one online counseling through the website. Additionally, it has constructed a system for communicating with the general public through social media. Poisoning disease information collected from SeoulPCC from January to December 2022 was analyzed according to the number of requests, age of exposure, gender, location, and reason. Requests from the general public were summarized, and a brief image presenting information on poisoning disease-related consultations was produced. @*Results@#SeoulPCC has a database containing information on 188,065 toxic substances collected by public institutions and provides this information to the general public and medical staff through its website. In 2022, consultations were performed through phone calls and SNS (social networking service) for 577 cases of poison information and first aid treatment due to exposure to toxic substances. There were 1,431 instances of providing poison information services. The annual requests included 512 exposure cases and 65 non-exposure cases. Furthermore, 366 cases were in Seoul, 145 cases were outside of Seoul, and 66 had an unknown location. The exposure cases included 161 requests from the general public and 351 requests from medical staff. @*Conclusion@#This is the first annual report in Korea to analyze the occurrence of poisoning based on consultations. It is of major significance that this report serves as a starting point for identifying and tracking the aspects and characteristics of poisoning cases in the pre-hospital stage. In the future, poisoning-related disease information provided through consultations and at the emergency room should be linked, and through real-time collection and analysis, this information should be used as basic data for poisoning disease management policies.

4.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 69-83, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926386

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The length of stay in the emergency department (ED) is a major contributor to ED overcrowding, which in turn negatively affects the quality of emergency care. Several efforts have been made to reduce the ED length of stay (ED-LOS), including a mandatory target to limit ED-LOS within certain parameters. However, the association between ED-LOS and treatment results is yet to be clarified. The authors investigated the influence of ED-LOS on patient survival by comparing severity-adjusted survival. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective analysis of data registered in 2018 in the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). Cases registered by the regional and local emergency centers were included for analysis. The standardized W scores (Ws) based on the Emergency Department Initial Evaluation Score were used to assess treatment outcomes represented by severity-standardized survival, and the correlation between the Ws and the ED-LOS was analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 2,281,526 cases were included for analysis. The overall mortality comprised 52,284 cases (2.3%) and the median ED-LOS was 165 minutes (interquartile range, 96-301). Although a longer ED-LOS was associated with poorer outcomes overall, the association was not apparent when an analysis of cases eligible for ED-LOS evaluation in the national evaluation program was carried out. Moreover, in the analysis of severe cases with a predicted survival probability of less than 0.9, an ED-LOS shorter than 6 hours was associated with significantly poorer severity-adjusted survival. @*Conclusion@#The study revealed that the current ED-LOS criteria used in the national evaluation program were not associated with better survival.

5.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 128-136, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897530

ABSTRACT

Objective@#With trends in population aging an increasing number of older patients are visiting the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to identify the characteristics of ED utilization and risk factors for in-hospital mortality in older patients who visited EDs. @*Methods@#This nationwide observational study used National Emergency Department Information System data collected during a 2-year period from January 2016 to December 2017. The characteristics of older patients aged 70 years or older were compared with those of younger patients aged 20 to 69 years. Risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. @*Results@#A total of 6,596,423 younger patients and 1,737,799 older patients were included. In the medical and nonmedical older patient groups, significantly higher proportions of patients were transferred from another hospital, utilized emergency medical services, had Korean Triage and Acuity Scale scores of 1 and 2, required hospitalization, and required intensive care unit admission in the older patient group than in the younger patient group. ED and post-hospitalization mortality rates increased with age; in particular, older medical patients aged 90 or older had an in-hospital mortality rate of 9%. Older age, male sex, transfer from another hospital, emergency medical service utilization, a high Korean Triage and Acuity Scale score, systolic blood pressure 20/min, heart rate >100/min, body temperature <36°C, and altered mental status were associated with in-hospital mortality. @*Conclusion@#Development of appropriate decision-making algorithms and treatment protocols for high risk older patients visiting the ED might facilitate appropriate allocation of medical resources to optimize outcomes.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e172-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899955

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inter-hospital transfer (IHT) for emergency department (ED) admission is a burden to high-level EDs. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and ED utilization patterns of patients who underwent single and double IHTs at high-level EDs in South Korea. @*Methods@#This nationwide cross-sectional study analyzed data from the National Emergency Department Information System for the period of 2016–2018. All the patients who underwent IHT at Level I and II emergency centers during this time period were included. The patients were categorized into the single-transfer and double-transfer groups. The clinical characteristics and ED utilization patterns were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#We found that 2.1% of the patients in the ED (n = 265,046) underwent IHTs; 18.1% of the pediatric patients (n = 3,556), and 24.2% of the adult patients (n = 59,498) underwent double transfers. Both pediatric (median, 141.0 vs. 208.0 minutes, P < 0.001) and adult (median, 189.0 vs. 308.0 minutes, P < 0.001) patients in the double-transfer group had longer duration of stay in the EDs. Patient's request was the reason for transfer in 41.9% of all IHTs (111,076 of 265,046). Unavailability of medical resources was the reason for transfer in 30.0% of the double transfers (18,920 of 64,054). @*Conclusion@#The incidence of double-transfer of patients is increasing. The main reasons for double transfers were patient's request and unavailability of medical resources at the firsttransfer hospitals. Emergency physicians and policymakers should focus on lowering the number of preventable double transfers.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e173-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899954

ABSTRACT

Background@#Survival and post-cardiac arrest care vary considerably by hospital, region, and country. In the current study, we aimed to analyze mortality in patients who underwent cardiac arrest by hospital level, and to reveal differences in patient characteristics and hospital factors, including post-cardiac arrest care, hospital costs, and adherence to changes in resuscitation guidelines. @*Methods@#We enrolled adult patients (≥ 20 years) who suffered non-traumatic cardiac arrest from 2006 to 2015. Patient demographics, insurance type, admission route, comorbidities, treatments, and hospital costs were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service database. We categorized patients into tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups according to the level of the hospital where they were treated. We analyzed the patients' characteristics, hospital factors, and mortalities among the three groups. We also analyzed post-cardiac arrest care before and after the 2010 guideline changes. The primary end-point was 30 days and 1 year mortality rates. @*Results@#The tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups represented 32.6%, 49.6%, and 17.8% of 337,042 patients, respectively. The tertiary and general hospital groups were younger, had a lower proportion of medical aid coverage, and fewer comorbidities, compared to the hospital group. Post-cardiac arrest care, such as percutaneous coronary intervention, targeted temperature management, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, were provided more frequently in the tertiary and general hospital groups. After adjusting for age, sex, insurance type, urbanization level, admission route, comorbidities, defibrillation, resuscitation medications, angiography, and guideline changes, the tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 1-year mortality (tertiary hospital vs. general hospital vs. hospital, adjusted odds ratios, 0.538 vs. 0.604 vs. 1; P < 0.001). After 2010 guideline changes, a marked decline in atropine use and an increase in post-cardiac arrest care were observed in the tertiary and general hospital groups. @*Conclusion@#The tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 30 days and 1 year mortality rates than the hospital group, after adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital factors. Higher-level hospitals provided more post-cardiac arrest care, which led to high hospital costs, and showed good adherence to the guideline change after 2010.

8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1298-1306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914248

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly associated with several kidney diseases. However, no studies have evaluated the potential renal hazards of serum mitochondria-inhibiting substance (MIS) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand (AhRL) levels. @*Methods@#We used serum level of MIS and AhRL and clinical renal outcomes from 1,511 participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Ansung. MIS was evaluated based on intracellular adenosine triphosphate (MIS-ATP) or reactive oxygen species (MIS-ROS) generation measured using cell-based assays. @*Results@#During a mean 6.9-year follow-up, 84 participants (5.6%) developed a rapid decline in kidney function. In the lowest quartile group of MIS-ATP, patients were older and had metabolically deleterious parameters. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher MIS-ATP was associated with decreased odds for rapid decline: the odds ratio (OR) of 1% increase was 0.977 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.957 to 0.998; P=0.031), while higher MIS-ROS was marginally associated with increased odds for rapid decline (OR, 1.014; 95% CI, 0.999 to 1.028; P=0.055). However, serum AhRL was not associated with the rapid decline in kidney function. In subgroup analysis, the renal hazard of MIS was particularly evident in people with hypertension and low baseline kidney function. @*Conclusion@#Serum MIS was independently associated with a rapid decline in kidney function, while serum AhRL was not. The clinical implication of renal hazard on serum MIS requires further evaluation in future studies.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e172-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892251

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inter-hospital transfer (IHT) for emergency department (ED) admission is a burden to high-level EDs. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and ED utilization patterns of patients who underwent single and double IHTs at high-level EDs in South Korea. @*Methods@#This nationwide cross-sectional study analyzed data from the National Emergency Department Information System for the period of 2016–2018. All the patients who underwent IHT at Level I and II emergency centers during this time period were included. The patients were categorized into the single-transfer and double-transfer groups. The clinical characteristics and ED utilization patterns were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#We found that 2.1% of the patients in the ED (n = 265,046) underwent IHTs; 18.1% of the pediatric patients (n = 3,556), and 24.2% of the adult patients (n = 59,498) underwent double transfers. Both pediatric (median, 141.0 vs. 208.0 minutes, P < 0.001) and adult (median, 189.0 vs. 308.0 minutes, P < 0.001) patients in the double-transfer group had longer duration of stay in the EDs. Patient's request was the reason for transfer in 41.9% of all IHTs (111,076 of 265,046). Unavailability of medical resources was the reason for transfer in 30.0% of the double transfers (18,920 of 64,054). @*Conclusion@#The incidence of double-transfer of patients is increasing. The main reasons for double transfers were patient's request and unavailability of medical resources at the firsttransfer hospitals. Emergency physicians and policymakers should focus on lowering the number of preventable double transfers.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e173-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892250

ABSTRACT

Background@#Survival and post-cardiac arrest care vary considerably by hospital, region, and country. In the current study, we aimed to analyze mortality in patients who underwent cardiac arrest by hospital level, and to reveal differences in patient characteristics and hospital factors, including post-cardiac arrest care, hospital costs, and adherence to changes in resuscitation guidelines. @*Methods@#We enrolled adult patients (≥ 20 years) who suffered non-traumatic cardiac arrest from 2006 to 2015. Patient demographics, insurance type, admission route, comorbidities, treatments, and hospital costs were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service database. We categorized patients into tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups according to the level of the hospital where they were treated. We analyzed the patients' characteristics, hospital factors, and mortalities among the three groups. We also analyzed post-cardiac arrest care before and after the 2010 guideline changes. The primary end-point was 30 days and 1 year mortality rates. @*Results@#The tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups represented 32.6%, 49.6%, and 17.8% of 337,042 patients, respectively. The tertiary and general hospital groups were younger, had a lower proportion of medical aid coverage, and fewer comorbidities, compared to the hospital group. Post-cardiac arrest care, such as percutaneous coronary intervention, targeted temperature management, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, were provided more frequently in the tertiary and general hospital groups. After adjusting for age, sex, insurance type, urbanization level, admission route, comorbidities, defibrillation, resuscitation medications, angiography, and guideline changes, the tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 1-year mortality (tertiary hospital vs. general hospital vs. hospital, adjusted odds ratios, 0.538 vs. 0.604 vs. 1; P < 0.001). After 2010 guideline changes, a marked decline in atropine use and an increase in post-cardiac arrest care were observed in the tertiary and general hospital groups. @*Conclusion@#The tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 30 days and 1 year mortality rates than the hospital group, after adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital factors. Higher-level hospitals provided more post-cardiac arrest care, which led to high hospital costs, and showed good adherence to the guideline change after 2010.

11.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 128-136, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889826

ABSTRACT

Objective@#With trends in population aging an increasing number of older patients are visiting the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to identify the characteristics of ED utilization and risk factors for in-hospital mortality in older patients who visited EDs. @*Methods@#This nationwide observational study used National Emergency Department Information System data collected during a 2-year period from January 2016 to December 2017. The characteristics of older patients aged 70 years or older were compared with those of younger patients aged 20 to 69 years. Risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. @*Results@#A total of 6,596,423 younger patients and 1,737,799 older patients were included. In the medical and nonmedical older patient groups, significantly higher proportions of patients were transferred from another hospital, utilized emergency medical services, had Korean Triage and Acuity Scale scores of 1 and 2, required hospitalization, and required intensive care unit admission in the older patient group than in the younger patient group. ED and post-hospitalization mortality rates increased with age; in particular, older medical patients aged 90 or older had an in-hospital mortality rate of 9%. Older age, male sex, transfer from another hospital, emergency medical service utilization, a high Korean Triage and Acuity Scale score, systolic blood pressure 20/min, heart rate >100/min, body temperature <36°C, and altered mental status were associated with in-hospital mortality. @*Conclusion@#Development of appropriate decision-making algorithms and treatment protocols for high risk older patients visiting the ED might facilitate appropriate allocation of medical resources to optimize outcomes.

12.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 77-88, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875094

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of emergency department length of stay (ED LOS) on the prognosis of patients classified in 28 severe illness diagnosis code groups. @*Methods@#We used data from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) from 2016 to 2017. Patients with severe illness diagnosis codes as per the discharge diagnosis reports of the emergency department were included and classified into 28 diagnosis code groups. We used multiple logistic regression analysis on the various diagnosis groups to determine whether 6 hours of ED LOS was a factor influencing mortality. @*Results@#Of the 18,217,034 patients in the NEDIS data, 553,918 patients were hospitalized with a severe illness code at regional or local emergency medical centers. The average ED LOS was 389 minutes in the non-survivor group and 420 minutes in the survivor group. After adjusting for confounders, ED LOS >6 hours was associated with lower mortality (odds ratio, 0.737; 95% confidence interval, 0.715-0.759). The association of ED LOS >6 hours with lower mortality was found in the diagnosis groups for acute myocardial infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, major trauma, aortic dissection, gastrointestinal bleeding/foreign bodies, intoxication, acute kidney injury, and post-resuscitation status. @*Conclusion@#In the analysis for the 28 severe disease illness code groups, ED LOS of more than 6 hours was not a factor that adversely affects the in-hospital mortality.

13.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 89-101, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875093

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigates the characteristics of patients who were re-transferred from other hospitals to regional or local emergency medical centers. @*Methods@#Data from 2016 to 2017 was obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). The study population was classified as ‘transferred group’ and ‘direct visit group.’ The transferred group was further subdivided into the ‘re-transfer group’ (patients transferred out to another hospital) and ‘single transfer group’ (patients not transferred out). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with re-transfer. @*Results@#The re-transfer rate (3.7%) of the ‘transferred group’ was higher than the transfer rate (1.3%) of the ‘direct visit group’. Multiple regression analysis revealed that older age, male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.082; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.606-1.105), medical aid (aOR, 1.231; 95% CI, 1.191-1.105), injury origin (aOR, 1.063; 95% CI, 1.006-1.122), and Korean Triage and Acuity Scale level 1 or 2 (aOR, 1.214; 95% CI, 1.182-1.247), are associated with re-transfer. The Korean Standard Classification of Diseases group having the highest re-transfer rate was determined to be the neoplasm disease group. @*Conclusion@#Data from the current study reveals that factors associated with an increased likelihood of re-transfer were high severity, old age, medical aid, and neoplasm diagnosis. Considering these characteristics of re-transferred patients, it is necessary to improve the transfer system to reduce re-transfers. However, further research is required, including the reasons for the transfer.

14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 518-525, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901171

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a global trend that has negative impacts on the clinical outcomes, especially on critically ill patients. Reducing the portion of these critical patients by limiting the ED length of stay (LOS) to less than 6 hours has become one of the most crucial targets of government policy. This could be valuable for resolving overcrowding, but the clinical impacts and applicability had not been evaluated. @*Methods@#Consecutive emergency patients registered on the National Emergency Department Information System from January 2016 to December 2017 were analyzed. This study included critically ill patients who had a severe illness code, as defined by the government. The in-hospital mortality rate was compared by under or over six hours of ED LOS, in patients with a severe illness code, and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. @*Results@#Among 18,217,034 patients, 436,219 patients had a severe illness code. The ED LOS in the less than six hours group showed a higher in-hospital mortality rate than that of more than six-hours group (7.1% vs. 6.5%, respectively). When the rule for the severe illness code to ICU admission was changed, the in-hospital mortality rate showed a remarkable difference between the under and over six-hour group (12.8% vs. 15.0%, respectively). The proportion of critically ill patients admitted within six hours increased when the standard for outlier removal was set higher than the current. @*Conclusion@#A more suitable quality indicator or criterion for severe illness code is required for improving the clinical outcomes.

15.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 57-65, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901147

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Since 2012, acetaminophen can be accessed easily not only at pharmacies but also at convenience stores. The relationship between the easy access of acetaminophen and the risk of poisoning has been controversial. Several studies also reported different results regarding the risk of acetaminophen poisoning after access to acetaminophen was relaxed. This study examined the long-term effects on the risk of acetaminophen poisoning after easy access to acetaminophen was implemented. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of an emergency department (ED)-based in-depth Injury Surveillance Cohort by the Korea Center for Disease Control and prevention from 2011 to 2018. Poisoning cases were selected from the Cohort, and the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning and the characteristics of the cases of acetaminophen poisoning were analyzed. The purchase path and the amount of ingestion in acetaminophen poisoning were sub-analyzed from data of six EDs. @*Results@#Of 57,326 poisoning cases, 4.0% (2,272 cases) were acetaminophen poisoning. Of 2,272 cases of acetaminophen poisoning, 42.8% (974 cases) required in-patient care after ED management. Two hundred and sixty-four of these 964 cases required intensive care. The rates of cases that required in-patient treatment and the rates of cases that required intensive care increased from 29.4% in 2011 to 48.1% in 2018, and from 3.1% in 2011 to 15.2% in 2018, respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001). In the poisoning group with in-depth toxic surveillance (n=15,908), the incidence and proportion of acetaminophen (AAP) poisoning increased from 55 cases per year to 187 cases per year and 4.9% to 6.1%, respectively (p=0.009, p<0.001, respectively). The most common age group of acetaminophen poisoning was teenagers, which is different from the most common age group of other pharmaceutical agents: the middle age group of 40-49 years (p<0.001). Of 15,908 in-depth toxic surveillance patients, 693 patients had AAP poisoning, of whom 377 cases (54.2%) purchased acetaminophen from a non-pharmacy. The proportions of the purchase path from non-pharmacy were 41.4% at 2011-12 and 56.4% (2013-18) (p=0.004). The amount of acetaminophen ingestion was 13.5±14.3 g at 2011-12 and 13.9±15.1 g at 2013-18 (p=0.794). @*Conclusion@#Although the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning did not increase remarkably in the short term after the implementation of the new regulation, the incidence of acetaminophen poisoning has increased slightly during the study period of 2017-18. In addition, the proportion of the purchase path from non-pharmacies has increased since the emergence of new regulations for the easy access of acetaminophen in 2012. The incidence of acetaminophen poisoning might have been affected after the increasing accessibility of acetaminophen in convenience stores. Continuous control of acetaminophen poisoning is required. Furthermore, the prevention of acetaminophen poisoning should be focused on teenagers with specialized school education programs.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e2-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few studies have examined the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.@*METHODS@#We reviewed data of 1,897 patients in a large-scale multicenter prospective Korean study. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.@*RESULTS@#The mean relative wall thickness (RWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were 0.38 and 42.0 g/m2.7, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) and early diastolic mitral inflow to annulus velocity ratio (E/e′) were 64.1% and 9.9, respectively. Although EF and E/e′ were not associated with high serum hepcidin, RWT and LVMI were significantly associated with high serum hepcidin levels in univariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for variables related to anemia, bone mineral metabolism, comorbidities, and inflammation, however, only each 0.1-unit increase in RWT was associated with increased odds of high serum hepcidin (odds ratio, 1.989; 95% confidence interval, 1.358–2.916; P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the independent relationship between RWT and high serum hepcidin level was valid only in women and patients with low transferrin saturation (TSAT).@*CONCLUSION@#Although the relationship was not cause-and-effect, increased RWT was independently associated with high serum hepcidin, particularly in women and patients with low TSAT. The relationship between cardiac geometry and serum hepcidin in CKD patients needs to be confirmed in future studies.

17.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 699-710, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832381

ABSTRACT

Background@#We sought to explore whether reduced pulmonary function is an independent risk factor for incident diabetes in Koreans. @*Methods@#We conducted a prospective cohort study of pulmonary function as a risk factor for incident diabetes using 10-year follow-up data from 3,864 middle-aged adults from the Ansung cohort study in Korea. The incidence of diabetes was assessed using both oral glucose tolerance tests and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. @*Results@#During 37,118 person-years of follow-up, 583 participants developed diabetes (incidence rate: 15.7 per 1,000 personyears). The mean follow-up period was 8.0±3.7 years. Forced vital capacity (FVC; % predicted) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; % predicted) were significantly correlated with incident diabetes in a graded manner after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, exercise, and metabolic parameters. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and confidence interval (CI) for diabetes were 1.408 (1.106 to 1.792) and 1.469 (1.137 to 1.897) in the first quartiles of FVC and FEV1, respectively, when compared with the highest quartile. Furthermore, the FVC of the lowest first and second quartiles showed a significantly higher 10-year panel homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, with differences of 0.095 (95% CI, 0.010 to 0.018; P=0.028) and 0.127 (95% CI, 0.044 to 0.210; P=0.003), respectively, when compared to the highest quartiles. @*Conclusion@#FVC and FEV1 are independent risk factors for developing diabetes in Koreans. Pulmonary factors are possible risk factors for insulin resistance and diabetes.

18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1173-1187, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831915

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to investigate long-term temporal trends and outcomes of biopsy-proven kidney diseases in a multicenter kidney biopsy cohort, focusing on hypertension and diabetes, the leading causes of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). @*Methods@#The study included a total of 21,426 patients who underwent kidney biopsy from 1979 to 2018 in 18 hospitals in Korea. We selected subgroups of adults with diabetes (n = 2,813) or clinically presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HTN, n = 2,917). Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected in conjunction with pathologic findings. The prevalence of pathologically confirmed kidney diseases over time and their associations with clinical outcomes were evaluated. @*Results@#The prevalence of biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy (DN) has increased significantly from 2.5% to 6.0% in the total cohort in the recent 30 yearswith an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. Approximately 68% of total diabeticpatients had non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD); the proportion was retained since 2000s. DN showed a significantly higher risk of ESKD than NDRD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 1.88). The prevalence of biopsy- proven HT-N remained < 2% in the total cohort for several decades. There was no difference in risks of ESKD between patients with or without biopsy-proven HT-N (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.59). @*Conclusions@#In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes and DN has significantlyincreased in the kidney biopsy cohort, showing an increased risk of ESKD. Despite the large numbers of patients meeting the clinical criteria of HT-N, most of those were diagnosed with pathologic diagnoses other than HT-N.

19.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 1-10, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836426

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutical agents are the most common causes of poisoning in Korea. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are commonly used in Korea for the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but are associated with a risk of mortality due to overdose. Due to the frequent fatalities associated with CCB overdose, it is essential that the emergency physician is capable of identifying CCB intoxication, and has the knowledge to manage CCB overdose. This article reviews the existing clinical guidelines, retrospective studies, and systematic reviews on the emergency management of CCB overdose. The following are the varied treatments of CCB overdose currently administered. 1) For asymptomatic patients: observation with enough time and decontamination, if indicated. 2) For symptomatic patients: infusion of calcium salt, high dose insulin therapy, and vasopressor (norepinephrine) or atropine for bradycardia. 3) For patients refractory to the first line therapy or with refractory shock or impending arrest: lipid emulsion therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 4) As adjunct therapy: phosphodiesterase inhibitors, glucagon, methylene blue, pacemaker for AV block. Small CCB ingestion is known to be fatal for pediatric patients. Hence, close observation for sufficient time is required.

20.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 184-186, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834737

ABSTRACT

Since 2003, the national evaluation program for emergency medical centers (EMCs) has been managed by the Central Emergency Medical center which is controlled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Although the evaluation system for EMC has contributed to the development of the structure of emergency centers and the expansion of emergency resources (emergency medical person and equipment), it has some limitations in terms of quality control for both EMCs and emergency medical systems. One of the purposes of the evaluation program is to assess the performance of EMC in different levels. However, both regional and local emergency centers have same role that is offering of final treatment to severe emergency patients. There is no role for local emergency rooms in the emergency care of patients. In addition, the national evaluation program does not have outcome indicators that assess the performance of the EMC in emergency care. The improvement of the national evaluation system for EMC is required for the appropriate assessment of the performance of EMCs in the future.

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