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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892815

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and validity of subgingival bacterial sampling using a retraction cord, and to evaluate how well this sampling method reflected changes in periodontal conditions after periodontal therapy. @*Methods@#Based on clinical examinations, 87 subjects were divided into a healthy group (n=40) and a periodontitis group (n=47). Clinical measurements were obtained from all subjects including periodontal probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and the plaque index. Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as a subgingival bacterial sample were sampled before and 3 months after periodontal therapy. The salivary and subgingival bacterial samples were analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify the following 11 periodontal pathogens: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythus (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Pavimonas micra (Pm), Campylobacter rectus (Cr), Prevotella nigrescens (Pn), Eikenella corrodens (Ec), and Eubacterium nodatum (En). @*Results@#Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in significant decreases in PD (P<0.01), CAL (P<0.01), and BOP (P<0.05) after 3 months. Four species (Pg, Tf, Pi, and Pm) were significantly more abundant in both types of samples in the periodontitis group than in the healthy group. After periodontal therapy, Cr was the only bacterium that showed a statistically significant decrease in saliva, whereas statistically significant decreases in Cr, Pg, and Pn were found in GCF. @*Conclusions@#Salivary and subgingival bacterial sampling with a gingival retraction cord were found to be equivalent in terms of their accuracy for differentiating periodontitis, but GCF reflected changes in bacterial abundance after periodontal therapy more sensitively than saliva.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892808

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and the mechanical properties of ultraviolet (UV) cross-linked and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)-added collagen membranes and to compare the clinical results of ridge preservation to those obtained using chemically cross-linked collagen membranes. @*Methods@#The study comprised an in vitro test and a clinical trial for membrane evaluation. BCPadded collagen membranes with UV cross-linking were prepared. In the in vitro test, scanning electron microscopy, a collagenase assay, and a tensile strength test were performed. The clinical trial involved 14 patients undergoing a ridge preservation procedure. All participants were randomly divided into the test group, which received UV cross-linked membranes (n=7), and the control group, which received chemically cross-linked membranes (n=7). BCP bone substitutes were used for both the test group and the control group. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were performed and alginate impressions were taken 1 week and 3 months after surgery. The casts were scanned via an optical scanner to measure the volumetric changes. The results were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. @*Results@#The fastest degradation rate was found in the collagen membranes without the addition of BCP. The highest enzyme resistance and the highest tensile strength were found when the collagen-to-BCP ratio was 1:1. There was no significant difference in dimensional changes in the 3-dimensional modeling or CBCT scans between the test and control groups in the clinical trial (P>0.05). @*Conclusions@#The addition of BCP and UV cross-linking improved the biocompatibility and the mechanical strength of the membranes. Within the limits of the clinical trial, the sites grafted using BCP in combination with UV cross-linked and BCP-added collagen membranes (test group) did not show any statistically significant difference in terms of dimensional change compared with the control group.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900519

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and validity of subgingival bacterial sampling using a retraction cord, and to evaluate how well this sampling method reflected changes in periodontal conditions after periodontal therapy. @*Methods@#Based on clinical examinations, 87 subjects were divided into a healthy group (n=40) and a periodontitis group (n=47). Clinical measurements were obtained from all subjects including periodontal probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and the plaque index. Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as a subgingival bacterial sample were sampled before and 3 months after periodontal therapy. The salivary and subgingival bacterial samples were analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify the following 11 periodontal pathogens: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythus (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Pavimonas micra (Pm), Campylobacter rectus (Cr), Prevotella nigrescens (Pn), Eikenella corrodens (Ec), and Eubacterium nodatum (En). @*Results@#Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in significant decreases in PD (P<0.01), CAL (P<0.01), and BOP (P<0.05) after 3 months. Four species (Pg, Tf, Pi, and Pm) were significantly more abundant in both types of samples in the periodontitis group than in the healthy group. After periodontal therapy, Cr was the only bacterium that showed a statistically significant decrease in saliva, whereas statistically significant decreases in Cr, Pg, and Pn were found in GCF. @*Conclusions@#Salivary and subgingival bacterial sampling with a gingival retraction cord were found to be equivalent in terms of their accuracy for differentiating periodontitis, but GCF reflected changes in bacterial abundance after periodontal therapy more sensitively than saliva.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900512

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and the mechanical properties of ultraviolet (UV) cross-linked and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)-added collagen membranes and to compare the clinical results of ridge preservation to those obtained using chemically cross-linked collagen membranes. @*Methods@#The study comprised an in vitro test and a clinical trial for membrane evaluation. BCPadded collagen membranes with UV cross-linking were prepared. In the in vitro test, scanning electron microscopy, a collagenase assay, and a tensile strength test were performed. The clinical trial involved 14 patients undergoing a ridge preservation procedure. All participants were randomly divided into the test group, which received UV cross-linked membranes (n=7), and the control group, which received chemically cross-linked membranes (n=7). BCP bone substitutes were used for both the test group and the control group. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were performed and alginate impressions were taken 1 week and 3 months after surgery. The casts were scanned via an optical scanner to measure the volumetric changes. The results were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. @*Results@#The fastest degradation rate was found in the collagen membranes without the addition of BCP. The highest enzyme resistance and the highest tensile strength were found when the collagen-to-BCP ratio was 1:1. There was no significant difference in dimensional changes in the 3-dimensional modeling or CBCT scans between the test and control groups in the clinical trial (P>0.05). @*Conclusions@#The addition of BCP and UV cross-linking improved the biocompatibility and the mechanical strength of the membranes. Within the limits of the clinical trial, the sites grafted using BCP in combination with UV cross-linked and BCP-added collagen membranes (test group) did not show any statistically significant difference in terms of dimensional change compared with the control group.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766110

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on new bone formation and angiogenesis after 8 weeks of healing. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) were split into 2 groups according to the application of adjunctive HBO therapy: a group that received HBO therapy (HBO group [n=14]) and another group that did not receive HBO therapy (NHBO group [n=14]). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the type of bone graft material: a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) subgroup and an Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-coated BCP (mBCP) subgroup. Two identical circular defects with a 6-mm diameter were made in the right and left parietal bones of each rat. One defect was grafted with bone graft material (BCP or mBCP). The other defect was not grafted. The HBO group received 2 weeks of adjunctive HBO therapy (1 hour, 5 times a week). The rats were euthanized 8 weeks after surgery. The specimens were prepared for histologic analysis. RESULTS: New bone (%) was higher in the NHBO-mBCP group than in the NHBO-BCP and control groups (P<0.05). Blood vessel count (%) and vascular endothelial growth factor staining (%) were higher in the HBO-mBCP group than in the NHBO-mBCP group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HBO therapy did not have a positive influence on bone formation irrespective of the type of bone graft material applied after 8 weeks of healing. HBO therapy had a positive effect on angiogenic activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Vessels , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Bone Substitutes , Calcium , Escherichia , Humans , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Osteogenesis , Oxygen , Parietal Bone , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transplants , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the enhancement of osteogenic potential of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bone substitute coated with Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). METHODS: The cell viability, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts was tested with ErhBMP-2-/EGCG solution. Coated BCP surfaces were also investigated. Standardized, 6-mm diameter defects were created bilaterally on the maxillary sinus of 10 male New Zealand white rabbits. After removal of the bony windows and elevation of sinus membranes, ErhBMP-2-/EGCG-coated BCP was applied on one defect in the test group. BCP was applied on the other defect to form the control group. The animals were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks after surgery. Histologic and histometric analyses of the augmented graft and surrounding tissue were performed. RESULTS: The 4-week and 8-week test groups showed more new bone (%) than the corresponding control groups (P<0.05). The 8-week test group showed more new bone (%) than the 4-week test group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ErhBMP-2-/EGCG-coated BCP was effective as a bone graft material, showing enhanced osteogenic potential and minimal side effects in a rabbit sinus augmentation model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Bone Substitutes , Calcium , Cell Survival , Escherichia , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Maxillary Sinus , Membranes , Miners , Osteoblasts , Rabbits , Transplants
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766091

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a histologic evaluation of irradiated calvarial defects in rats 4 weeks after applying fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) with hyaluronan or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block in the presence or absence of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. METHODS: Twenty rats were divided into HBO and non-HBO (NHBO) groups, each of which was divided into FGF-2 and BCP-block subgroups according to the grafted material. Localized radiation with a single 12-Gy dose was applied to the calvaria of rats to simulate radiotherapy. Four weeks after applying this radiation, 2 symmetrical circular defects with a diameter of 6 mm were created in the parietal bones of each animal. The right-side defect was filled with the materials mentioned above and the left-side defect was not filled (as a control). All defects were covered with a resorbable barrier membrane. During 4 weeks of healing, 1 hour of HBO therapy was applied to the rats in the HBO groups 5 times a week. The rats were then killed, and the calvarial specimens were harvested for radiographic and histologic analyses. RESULTS: New bone formation was greatest in the FGF-2 subgroup, and improvement was not found in the BCP subgroup. HBO seemed to have a minimal effect on new bone formation. There was tendency for more angiogenesis in the HBO groups than the NHBO groups, but the group with HBO and FGF-2 did not show significantly better outcomes than the HBO-only group or the NHBO group with FGF-2. CONCLUSIONS: HBO exerted beneficial effects on angiogenesis in calvarial defects of irradiated rats over a 4-week healing period, but it appeared to have minimal effects on bone regeneration. FGF-2 seemed to enhance new bone formation and angiogenesis, but its efficacy appeared to be reduced when HBO was applied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Regeneration , Calcium , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Hyaluronic Acid , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Membranes , Osteogenesis , Oxygen , Parietal Bone , Radiotherapy , Rats , Skull , Transplants
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two different implant-abutment connection structures with identical implant design on peri-implant bone level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This clinical study was a patient-blind randomized controlled trial following the CONSORT 2010 checklists. This trial was conducted in 24 patients recruited between March 2013 and July 2015. Implants with internal friction connection were compared to those with external hex connection. One implant for each patient was installed, replacing the second molar. Implant-supported crowns were delivered at four months after implant insertion. Standardized periapical radiographs were taken at prosthesis delivery (baseline), and one year after delivery. On the radiographs, distance from implant shoulder to first bone-to-implant contact (DIB) and peri-implant area were measured, which were the primary and secondary outcome, respectively. RESULTS: Eleven external and eleven internal implants were analyzed. Mean changes of DIB from baseline to 1-year postloading were 0.59 (0.95) mm for the external and 0.01 (0.68) mm for the internal connection. Although no significant differences were found between the two groups, medium effect size was found in DIB between the connections (Cohen's d = 0.67). CONCLUSION: Considering the effect size in DIB, this study suggested the possibility of the internal friction connection structure for more effective preservation of marginal bone.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss , Checklist , Clinical Study , Crowns , Dental Implant-Abutment Design , Friction , Humans , Molar , Prostheses and Implants , Shoulder
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) share a similar inflammatory pathogenesis. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) can induce anticyclic-citrullinated peptide autoantibodies (anti-CCP antibodies), a key factor in the development of RA. This study aimed at evaluating the relationships between the 2 diseases and identifying the clinical implications thereof, with a focus on periodontal pathogens in Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 260 RA patients and 86 age- and sex-matched control patients without arthritis were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Periodontal indices and the prevalence and amount of periodontal pathogens were compared between the groups. Correlations between periodontal and RA indices were examined, as were correlations between 9 periodontal pathogens and RA indices. RESULTS: The RA group had significantly higher values than the control group for all investigated periodontal indices (P < 0.05) except the number of teeth. The gingival index (GI) was correlated with the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) (r = 0.125, P = 0.049), RA disease duration (r = 0.253, P < 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = 0.162, P = 0.010), and anti-CCP antibody titer (r = 0.205, P = 0.004). Probing pocket depth (PPD) was correlated with ESR (r = 0.139, P = 0.027) and anti-Pg antibody titer (r = 0.203, P = 0.001). Bleeding on probing (BOP) was correlated with DAS28 (r = 0.137, P = 0.030), RA disease duration (r = 0.202, P = 0.001), ESR (r = 0.136, P = 0.030), anti-Pg antibody titer (r = 0.177, P = 0.005), and anti-CCP antibody titer (r = 0.188, P = 0.007). Clinical attachment level (CAL) and periodontitis severity were correlated with anti-Pg antibody titer (the former r = 0.201, P = 0.002; the latter r = 0.175, P = 0.006). The quantity of Pg was positively correlated with the serum anti-Pg antibody titer (r = 0.148, P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: The GI, BOP, and PPD showed positive relationships with several RA indices. The anti-Pg antibody titer had positive relationships with PPD, BOP, CAL, and periodontitis severity. Thus, increasing values of periodontal indices could be used as a risk indicator of disease development in RA patients, and an increasing anti-Pg antibody titer could be considered as a warning sign in RA patients suffering with periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoantibodies , Blood Sedimentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Periodontal Index , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Tooth
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to propose a technique for periodontal biotype modification through thickening of the entire facial aspect using a volume-stable collagen matrix and autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) for the treatment of gingival recession. METHODS: Four systemically healthy patients showing Miller class I or class II gingival recession in the mandibular incisor area were included in this study. Full-mouth scaling and root planing procedures were performed at least 4 weeks prior to periodontal plastic surgery. A split-thickness flap with a horizontal intrasulcular incision and 2 vertical incisions was used in cases 1–3, and the modified tunnel technique was used in case 4 for coronal advancement of the mucogingival complex. After the exposed root surfaces were debrided thoroughly, double-layered volume-stable collagen matrix was placed on the apical part of the recession and a subepithelial CTG harvested from the palatal area was placed on the coronal part. The amount of root coverage at 3 months postoperatively was evaluated in cases 1–3, and facio-lingual volumetric changes were analyzed in cases 1 and 2. RESULTS: Healing was uneventful in all 4 cases and complete root coverage was shown in cases 1–3. In case 4, reduction of gingival recession was observed at 3 months after surgery. In cases 1 and 2, a comparison of stereolithographic files from the preoperative and postoperative time points demonstrated that the entire facio-lingual volume had increased. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical technique suggested herein, using a volume-stable collagen matrix and autogenous subepithelial CTG, may be an effective method for periodontal biotype modification through thickening of the entire facial aspect for the treatment of gingival recession.


Subject(s)
Collagen , Connective Tissue , Gingival Recession , Humans , Incisor , Methods , Root Planing , Surgery, Plastic , Transplantation , Transplants
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766053

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study with 4–12 years of follow-up was to compare the marginal bone loss (MBL) between external-connection (EC) and internal-connection (IC) dental implants in posterior areas without periodontal or peri-implant disease on the adjacent teeth or implants. Additional factors influencing MBL were also evaluated. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed using dental records and radiographic data obtained from patients who had undergone dental implant treatment in the posterior area from March 2006 to March 2007. All the implants that were included had follow-up periods of more than 4 years after loading and satisfied the implant success criteria, without any peri-implant or periodontal disease on the adjacent implants or teeth. They were divided into 2 groups: EC and IC. Subgroup comparisons were conducted according to splinting and the use of cement in the restorations. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for comparisons between 2 groups and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons among more than 2 groups. RESULTS: A total of 355 implants in 170 patients (206 EC and 149 IC) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in this study. The mean MBL was 0.47 mm and 0.15 mm in the EC and IC implants, respectively, which was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Comparisons according to splinting (MBL of single implants: 0.34 mm, MBL of splinted implants: 0.31 mm, P=0.676) and cement use (MBL of cemented implants: 0.27 mm, MBL of non-cemented implants: 0.35 mm, P=0.178) showed no statistically significant differences in MBL, regardless of the implant connection type. CONCLUSIONS: IC implants showed a more favorable bone response regarding MBL in posterior areas without peri-implantitis or periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss , Dental Implant-Abutment Design , Dental Implants , Dental Records , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Peri-Implantitis , Periodontal Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Splints , Tooth
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90430

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the internal abutment length affected screw stability in an internal connection implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty long internal connection implants (Replus system, 4.7 × 11.5 mm) were selected for this investigation. Abutments were assigned to four groups depending on the length of the internal connection (abutments with internal lengths of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm, respectively). Each implant fixture specimen was embedded in resin medium and connected to an abutment with an abutment screw. A load of 100 N, applied at an angle of 30° to the long axis of the implant, was repeated for 1.0 × 10⁶ cycles. Reverse torque values (RTV) were recorded before and after loading, and the change in RTV was calculated. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: The change in RTV was not significantly different among the groups (P>.05). Screw loosening and fractures were not observed in any groups, and joint stability was maintained. CONCLUSION: The internal length of the abutment may not significantly affect the degree of screw loosening.


Subject(s)
Joints , Torque
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222864

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to radiographically and clinically compare the effect of extracellular matrix (ECM) membranes on dimensional alterations following a ridge preservation procedure. METHODS: One of 2 different ECM membranes was applied during a ridge preservation procedure. A widely used ECM membrane (WEM; Bio-Gide, Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhusen, Switzerland) was applied in the treatment group and a newly developed ECM membrane (NEM; Lyso-Gide, Oscotec Inc., Seongnam, Korea) was applied in the control group. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and alginate impressions were obtained 1 week and 6 months after the ridge preservation procedure. Results were analyzed using the independent t-test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the ECM membranes in the changes in the dimension, width, and height of the extraction socket or the quantity of bone tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The NEM showed comparable clinical and radiographic results to the WEM following the ridge preservation procedure.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Grafting , Alveolar Process , Biocompatible Materials , Bone and Bones , Bone Regeneration , Clinical Study , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Extracellular Matrix , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Membranes , Tooth Socket
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196794

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of regenerative therapy with a collagenated bone graft and resorbable membrane in intrabony defects, and to evaluate the effects of the novel extracellular matrix (ECM)-based membrane clinically and radiologically. METHODS: Periodontal tissue regeneration procedure was performed using an ECM-based resorbable membrane in combination with a collagenated bovine bone graft in intrabony defects around the teeth and implants. A novel extracellular matrix membrane (NEM) and a widely-used membrane (WEM) were randomly applied to the test group and the control group, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography images were obtained on the day of surgery and 6 months after the procedure. Alginate impressions were taken and plaster models were made 1 week and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The quantity of bone tissue, the dimensional changes of the surgically treated intrabony defects, and the changes in width and height below the grafted bone substitutes showed no significant difference between the test and control groups at the 6-month examination. CONCLUSIONS: The use of NEM for periodontal regeneration with a collagenated bovine bone graft showed similar clinical and radiologic results to those obtained using WEM.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Bone Regeneration , Bone Substitutes , Clinical Study , Collagen , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Extracellular Matrix , Guided Tissue Regeneration , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Membranes , Regeneration , Tooth , Transplants
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196792

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate volumetric and histologic changes in edentulous alveolar ridge areas after ridge preservation using basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (bFGF-2) in combination with collagenated biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). METHODS: The experiments were performed in 6 adult male beagle dogs. The following 3 groups were created: 1) ridge preservation with bFGF-2 and collagenated BCP (experimental group), 2) ridge preservation with collagenated BCP (positive control group), and 3) a negative control group in which no ridge preservation procedure was performed. Volumetric change analysis was performed using an optical scanner and casts. Histological observations were made using light microscopy. RESULTS: After the initial swelling subsided, the magnitude of the volumetric change in the experimental group and positive control group was smaller than in the negative control group. In the experimental group, a distinct trend was observed for the resorption of residual bone and collagen fibers at 4 weeks and for more mature bone and faster healing at 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of the present study, bFGF-2 may be considered for use as a therapeutic molecule in ridge preservation procedures.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alveolar Process , Animals , Calcium , Collagen , Dogs , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Fibroblasts , Humans , Male , Microscopy , Tooth Extraction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34282

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness by means of a noninvasive and relatively accurate digital registration method. METHODS: In 20 periodontally healthy subjects, cone-beam computed tomographic images and intraoral scanned files were obtained. Measurements of buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness at the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were performed at points 0–5 mm from the alveolar crest on the superimposed images. The Friedman test was used to compare buccal bone and gingival thickness for each depth between the 3 tooth types. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness. RESULTS: Of the central incisors, 77% of all sites had a buccal thickness of 0.5–1.0 mm, and 23% had a thickness of 1.0–1.5 mm. Of the lateral incisors, 71% of sites demonstrated a buccal bone thickness <1.0 mm, as did 63% of the canine sites. For gingival thickness, the proportion of sites <1.0 mm was 88%, 82%, and 91% for the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Significant differences were observed in gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level (G0) between the central incisors and canines (P=0.032) and between the central incisors and lateral incisors (P=0.013). At 1 mm inferior to the alveolar crest, a difference was found between the central incisors and canines (P=0.025). The lateral incisors and canines showed a significant difference for buccal bone thickness 5 mm under the alveolar crest (P=0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The gingiva and buccal bone of the anterior maxillary teeth were found to be relatively thin (<1 mm) overall. A tendency was found for gingival thickness to increase and bone thickness to decrease toward the root apex. Differences were found between teeth at some positions, although the correlation between buccal bone thickness and soft tissue thickness was generally not significant.


Subject(s)
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Gingiva , Healthy Volunteers , Incisor , Maxilla , Methods , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Tooth
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180736

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: On maxillofacial tumor patients, oral implant placement prior to postoperative radiotherapy can shorten the period of prosthetic reconstruction. There is still lack of research on effects of post-implant radiotherapy such as healing process or loading time, which is important for prosthodontic treatment planning. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of post-implant local irradiation on the osseointegration of implants during different healing stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Custom-made implants were placed bilaterally on maxillary posterior edentulous area 4 weeks after extraction of the maxillary first molars in Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental group (exp.) received radiation after implant surgery and the other group (control) didn't. Each group was divided into three sub-groups according to the healing time (2, 4, and 8 week) from implant placement. The exp. group 1, 2 received 15-Gy radiation 1 day after implant placement (immediate irradiation). The exp. group 3 received 15-Gy radiation 4 weeks after implant placement (delayed irradiation). RESULTS: The bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in the immediate irradiation groups. BMD was similar in the delayed irradiation group and the control group. The irradiated groups exhibited a lower bone-to-implant contact ratio, although the difference was not statistically significant. The irradiated groups also exhibited a significantly lower bone volume and higher empty lacuna count than the control groups. No implant failure due to local irradiation was found in this study. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, the timing of local irradiation critically influences the bone healing mechanism, which is related to loading time of prostheses.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Molar , Osseointegration , Pilot Projects , Prostheses and Implants , Radiotherapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the healing in the grafted calvarial defects of rats after adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight, 250–300 g) were randomly divided into two treatment groups: with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO; n=14) and without HBO (NHBO; n=14). Each group was further subdivided according to the bone substitute applied: biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP; n=7) and surface-modified BCP (mBCP; n=7). The mBCP comprised BCP coated with Escherichia-coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Two symmetrical circular defects (6-mm diameter) were created in the right and left parietal bones of each animal. One defect was assigned as a control defect and received no bone substitute, while the other defect was filled with either BCP or mBCP. The animals were allowed to heal for 4 weeks, during which those in the HBO group underwent 5 sessions of HBO. At 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the defects were harvested for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: Well-maintained space was found in the grafted groups. Woven bone connected to and away from the defect margin was formed. More angiogenesis was found with HBO and EGCG/BMP-2 (P<0.05). None of the defects achieved complete defect closure. Increased new bone formation with HBO or EGCG/BMP-2 was evident in histologic evaluation, but it did not reach statistical significance in histometric analysis. A synergic effect between HBO and EGCG/BMP-2 was not found. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, the present findings indicate that adjunctive HBO and EGCG/BMP-2 could be beneficial for new bone formation in rat calvarial defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Substitutes , Calcium , Humans , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Male , Osteogenesis , Parietal Bone , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transplants
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84877

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This article describes a case of the successful non-surgical management of a periodontally compromised maxillary premolar. METHODS: A combination therapy, including root planing, occlusal adjustment, and tooth splinting, was applied. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed during the 16-month follow-up period. RESULTS: All periodontal parameters were improved. There were dramatic decreases (3–6 mm) in the probing pocket depth, tooth mobility, and marginal bone loss. Interestingly, gradual resolution of the periapical radiolucency and alveolar bone regeneration were observed in the radiographs, and the periodontal condition was maintained during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this study, these results demonstrate the importance of natural tooth preservation through proper periodontal treatment and occlusal adjustment of the periodontally compromised tooth, which is typically targeted for tooth extraction and dental implantation.


Subject(s)
Bicuspid , Bone Regeneration , Dental Implantation , Dental Implants , Dental Occlusion, Traumatic , Follow-Up Studies , Occlusal Adjustment , Periodontitis , Root Planing , Splints , Tooth Extraction , Tooth Mobility , Tooth
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202425

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of powered toothbrushes for plaque control in patients with peri-implant mucositis, in comparison with manual toothbrushes. METHODS: This randomized, prospective, controlled, clinical parallel study compared the efficacy of manual and powered toothbrushes for plaque control in implant restorations. Patients with bleeding on probing, no residual pocket depth (as indicated by a pocket probing depth > or = 5 mm), and no radiological peri-implant bone loss were eligible for this study. Patients were requested to complete a questionnaire describing their oral hygiene habits. The duration and frequency of tooth brushing were recorded by subjects in order to assess their compliance. Clinical parameters, including the modified plaque index (mPI), the modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI), and clinical photographs (buccal and lingual views) were recorded at baseline and at one-month and two-month follow-up visits. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between patients who used manual toothbrushes and those who used powered toothbrushes were found regarding the frequency of tooth brushing per day and the duration of brushing at one-month and two-month follow-up visits, while no statistically significant differences were found relating to other oral hygiene habits. A statistically significant difference in patient compliance for tooth brushing was found at one month, while no difference was found at two months. Statistically significant decreases in the mPI and the mSBI were observed in both groups from baseline to the one- and two-month follow-ups. The overall reduction of these parameters was not significantly different between the two groups, except for mPI reduction between baseline and one month of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Sonic-powered toothbrushes may be a useful device for plaque control in patients with peri-implant mucositis.


Subject(s)
Compliance , Dental Implants , Dental Plaque , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Mucositis , Oral Hygiene , Patient Compliance , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tooth
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