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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients with sepsis in a country with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and a national health insurance system. METHODS: In a multi-center randomized controlled trial, patients were randomly assigned to a PCT group (stopping antibiotics based on a predefined cut-off range of PCT) or a control group. The primary end-point was antibiotic duration. We also performed a cost-minimization analysis of PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation. RESULTS: The two groups (23 in the PCT group and 29 in the control group) had similar demographic and clinical characteristics except for need for renal replacement therapy on ICU admission (46% vs. 14%; P = 0.010). In the per-protocol analysis, the median duration of antibiotic treatment for sepsis was 4 days shorter in the PCT group than the control group (8 days; interquartile range [IQR], 6–10 days vs. 14 days; IQR, 12–21 days; P = 0.001). However, main secondary outcomes, such as clinical cure, 28-day mortality, hospital mortality, and ICU and hospital stays were not different between the two groups. In cost evaluation, PCT-guided therapy decreased antibiotic costs by USD 30 (USD 241 in the PCT group vs. USD 270 in the control group). The results of the intention-to-treat analysis were similar to those obtained for the per-protocol analysis. CONCLUSION: PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients with sepsis could reduce the duration of antibiotic use and its costs with no apparent adverse outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02202941


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biomarkers , Calcitonin , Costs and Cost Analysis , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Renal Replacement Therapy , Sepsis
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pressure ulcers are important indicators of perioperative care quality, and are serious and expensive complications during critical care. This study aimed to identify perioperative risk factors for postoperative pressure ulcers. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study evaluated 2,498 patients who underwent major surgery. Forty-three patients developed postoperative pressure ulcers and were matched to 86 control patients based on age, sex, surgery, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The pressure ulcer group had lower baseline hemoglobin and albumin levels, compared to the control group. The pressure ulcer group also had higher values for lactate levels, blood loss, and number of packed red blood cell (pRBC) units. Univariate analysis revealed that pressure ulcer development was associated with preoperative hemoglobin levels, albumin levels, lactate levels, intraoperative blood loss, number of pRBC units, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Braden scale score, postoperative ventilator care, and patient restraint. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only preoperative low albumin levels (odds ratio [OR]: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05–0.82; P < 0.05) and high lactate levels (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.07–2.71; P < 0.05) were independently associated with pressure ulcer development. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the predictive power of the logistic regression model, and the area under the curve was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79–0.97; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that preoperative low albumin levels and high lactate levels were significantly associated with pressure ulcer development after surgery.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Erythrocytes , Humans , Lactic Acid , Logistic Models , Perioperative Care , Pressure Ulcer , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Ventilators, Mechanical
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Postoperative pressure ulcers are important indicators of perioperative care quality, and are serious and expensive complications during critical care. This study aimed to identify perioperative risk factors for postoperative pressure ulcers.@*METHODS@#This retrospective case-control study evaluated 2,498 patients who underwent major surgery. Forty-three patients developed postoperative pressure ulcers and were matched to 86 control patients based on age, sex, surgery, and comorbidities.@*RESULTS@#The pressure ulcer group had lower baseline hemoglobin and albumin levels, compared to the control group. The pressure ulcer group also had higher values for lactate levels, blood loss, and number of packed red blood cell (pRBC) units. Univariate analysis revealed that pressure ulcer development was associated with preoperative hemoglobin levels, albumin levels, lactate levels, intraoperative blood loss, number of pRBC units, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Braden scale score, postoperative ventilator care, and patient restraint. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only preoperative low albumin levels (odds ratio [OR]: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05–0.82; P < 0.05) and high lactate levels (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.07–2.71; P < 0.05) were independently associated with pressure ulcer development. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the predictive power of the logistic regression model, and the area under the curve was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79–0.97; P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The present study revealed that preoperative low albumin levels and high lactate levels were significantly associated with pressure ulcer development after surgery.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 843-851, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716928

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe sepsis is associated with functional disability among patients surviving an acute phase of infection. Efforts to improve functional impairment are important. We assessed the effects of early exercise rehabilitation on functional outcomes in patients with severe sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, single-center, case-control study was conducted between January 2013 and May 2014 at a tertiary care center in Korea. Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock were enrolled and randomized to receive standard sepsis treatment or intervention. Intervention involved early targeted physical rehabilitation with sepsis treatment during hospitalization. Participants were assessed at enrollment, hospital discharge, and 6 months after enrollment. Functional recovery was measured using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). RESULTS: Forty participants (21 intervention patients) were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. There were no significant differences in baseline MBI, FIM, and IADL between groups. Intervention yielded greater improvement of MBI, FIM, and IADL in the intervention group at hospital discharge, but not significantly. Subgroup analysis of patients with APACHE II scores ≥10 showed significantly greater improvement of physical function at hospital discharge (MBI and FIM) in the intervention group, compared to the control group (55.13 vs. 31.75, p=0.048; 52.40 vs. 31.25, p=0.045). Intervention was significantly associated with improvement of MBI in multiple linear regression analysis (standardized coefficient 0.358, p=0.048). CONCLUSION: Early physical rehabilitation may improve functional recovery at hospital discharge, especially in patients with high initial severity scores.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , APACHE , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , Linear Models , Prospective Studies , Rehabilitation , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1260-1270, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79765

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Owing to the recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines, protocol-based resuscitation or goal-directed therapy (GDT) is broadly advocated for the treatment of septic shock. However, the most recently published trials showed no survival benefit from protocol-based resuscitation in septic shock patients. Hence, we aimed to assess the effect of GDT on clinical outcomes in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review that included a meta-analysis. We used electronic search engines including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database to find studies comparing protocol-based GDT to common or standard care in patients with septic shock and severe sepsis. RESULTS: A total of 13269 septic shock patients in 24 studies were included [12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 12 observational studies]. The overall mortality odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for GDT versus conventional care was 0.746 (0.631-0.883). In RCTs only, the mortality OR (95% CI) for GDT versus conventional care in the meta-analysis was 0.93 (0.75-1.16). The beneficial effect of GDT decreased as more recent studies were added in an alternative, cumulative meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was found. CONCLUSION: The result of this meta-analysis suggests that GDT reduces mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. However, our cumulative meta-analysis revealed that the reduction of mortality risk was diminished as more recent studies were added.


Subject(s)
Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Septic/mortality
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78042

ABSTRACT

Opioid-induced chest wall rigidity is an uncommon complication of opioids. Because of this, it is often difficult to make a differential diagnosis in a mechanically ventilated patient who experiences increased airway pressure and difficulty with ventilation. A 76-year-old female patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery for periprosthetic fracture of the femur neck. On completion of the surgery, airway pressure was increased, and oxygen saturation fell below 95% after a bolus dose of fentanyl. After ICU admission, the same event recurred. Manual ventilation was immediately started, and a muscle relaxant relieved the symptoms. There was no sign or symptom suggesting airway obstruction or asthma on physical examination. Early recognition and treatment should be made in a mechanically ventilated patient experiencing increased airway pressure in order to prevent further deterioration.


Subject(s)
Aged , Airway Obstruction , Analgesics, Opioid , Asthma , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Femur Neck , Fentanyl , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Muscle Rigidity , Oxygen , Periprosthetic Fractures , Physical Examination , Thoracic Wall , Thorax , Ventilation
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79148

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications following liver transplantation are more common than after other organ transplants. These complications include seizure in about 8% of cases, which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Seizure should be treated immediately, and the process of differential diagnosis has to be performed appropriately in order to avoid permanent neurologic deficit. We herein report a case of status epilepticus after liver transplantation. The status epilepticus was treated promptly and the cause of seizure was assessed. The patient was discharged without any complication.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mortality , Neurologic Manifestations , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Transplants
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770937

ABSTRACT

Opioid-induced chest wall rigidity is an uncommon complication of opioids. Because of this, it is often difficult to make a differential diagnosis in a mechanically ventilated patient who experiences increased airway pressure and difficulty with ventilation. A 76-year-old female patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery for periprosthetic fracture of the femur neck. On completion of the surgery, airway pressure was increased, and oxygen saturation fell below 95% after a bolus dose of fentanyl. After ICU admission, the same event recurred. Manual ventilation was immediately started, and a muscle relaxant relieved the symptoms. There was no sign or symptom suggesting airway obstruction or asthma on physical examination. Early recognition and treatment should be made in a mechanically ventilated patient experiencing increased airway pressure in order to prevent further deterioration.


Subject(s)
Aged , Airway Obstruction , Analgesics, Opioid , Asthma , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Femur Neck , Fentanyl , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Muscle Rigidity , Oxygen , Periprosthetic Fractures , Physical Examination , Thoracic Wall , Thorax , Ventilation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770918

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications following liver transplantation are more common than after other organ transplants. These complications include seizure in about 8% of cases, which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Seizure should be treated immediately, and the process of differential diagnosis has to be performed appropriately in order to avoid permanent neurologic deficit. We herein report a case of status epilepticus after liver transplantation. The status epilepticus was treated promptly and the cause of seizure was assessed. The patient was discharged without any complication.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mortality , Neurologic Manifestations , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Transplants
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 238-246, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220776

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oxidative stress during CO2 pneumoperitoneum is reported to be associated with decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO). However, the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase during CO2 pneumoperitoneum have not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. After anesthesia induction, the abdominal cavities of the rats of groups intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)-10 and IAP-20 were insufflated with CO2 at pressures of 10 mm Hg and 20 mm Hg, respectively, for 2 hours. The rats of group IAP-0 were not insufflated. After deflation, plasma NO was measured, while protein expression levels and activity of eNOS, iNOS, arginase (Arg) I, and Arg II were analyzed with aorta and lung tissue samples. RESULTS: Plasma nitrite concentration and eNOS expression were significantly suppressed in groups IAP-10 and IAP-20 compared to IAP-0. While expression of iNOS and Arg I were comparable between the three groups, Arg II expression was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in group IAP-0. Activity of eNOS was significantly lower in groups IAP-10 and IAP-20 than in group IAP-0, while iNOS activity was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in groups IAP-0 and IAP-10. Arginase activity was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in groups IAP-0 and IAP-10. CONCLUSION: The activity of eNOS decreases during CO2 pneumoperitoneum, while iNOS activity is significantly increased, a change that contributes to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, arginase expression and activity is increased during CO2 pneumoperitoneum, which seems to act inversely to the NO system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/physiology , Arginase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inflammation/etiology , Injections, Subcutaneous , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pneumoperitoneum/complications , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114275

ABSTRACT

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Blood Group Incompatibility , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mortality , Plasma Volume , Prognosis , Tissue Donors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to analyze the process and characteristics of withholding or withdrawal of life support (WLS) in Korean intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: This was a single-centered retrospective analysis of patients who died in the ICUs of a tertiary hospital in Korea from January to December 2012. WLS informed consents and clinical data were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 285 deaths during the study period, informed consents for WLS were obtained from 228 patients (80.0%). All WLS decisions were made by family members after the patient's loss of decision-making capacity. Decisions were made most frequently by the patient's son (50.6%). Patients in the WLS group were older than those in the non-WLS group, and older age was associated with the WLS decision. Thirty-seven patients (16.2%) died within one hour of WLS approval, and 182 patients (79.8%) died on the day of WLS approval. The most frequently withheld life support modality was chest compression (100%), followed by defibrillation (95.9%) and pacemaker insertion (63.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive and invasive life support measures were those most frequently withheld or withdrawn by decision-makers in Korean ICUs. The most common proxy was the son, rather than the spouse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Informed Consent , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Life Support Care , Proxy , Retrospective Studies , Spouses , Tertiary Care Centers , Thorax , Withholding Treatment
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71282

ABSTRACT

Although the incidence is not high in the general surgical population, pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents can result in serious long-term morbidity and mortality. We report a case of early use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to correct severe hypoxemia refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation in a patient with massive aspiration of gastric contents immediately followed by acute lung injury during general anesthesia induction. A 64-year-old woman diagnosed with stomach cancer was scheduled for elective diagnostic laparoscopy. Although there was no sign of gastrointestinal tract obstruction and midnight Nil per Os (NPO) was performed before the operation, pulmonary aspiration occurred during the induction of anesthesia. Despite the endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation, severe hypoxemia with hypercapnea persisted. Medical team agreed with applying veno-venous (VV) ECMO, and her blood gas analysis results became stable. ECMO was weaned successfully 9 days after the first aspiration event had occurred. Based on this case, early application of extracorporeal life support can have survival benefits.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Hypoxia , Blood Gas Analysis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Incidence , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laparoscopy , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Aspiration , Respiration, Artificial , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96077

ABSTRACT

A 46-year-old female patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after liver transplantation. About an hour later after the ICU admission, she had no pupillary light reflex. Both pupils were also fixed at 5 mm. Patients who undergo liver transplantation are susceptible to neurologic disorders including hepatic encephalopathy, thromboembolism and intracranial hemorrhage. Abnormal pupillary light reflex usually indicates a serious neurologic emergency in these patients; however, benign neurologic disorders such as peripheral autonomic neuropathy or Holmes-Adie syndrome should also be considered. We experienced a case of fixed pupillary light reflex after liver transplantation diagnosed as peripheral autonomic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Adie Syndrome , Emergencies , Female , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Pupil , Reflex , Reflex, Pupillary , Thromboembolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is administered for a few days after lung transplantation (LTx) in recipients who are expected to have early graft dysfunction. Despite its life-saving potential, immediate postoperative ECMO has life-threatening complications such as postoperative bleeding. We investigated the risk factors related to the use of immediate postoperative ECMO. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 60 LTx patients who were at our institution from October 2012 to May 2015. Perioperative variables associated with postoperative ECMO were compared between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Lung Transplantation , Lung , Mortality , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tracheostomy , Transplants , Weaning
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770881

ABSTRACT

A 46-year-old female patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after liver transplantation. About an hour later after the ICU admission, she had no pupillary light reflex. Both pupils were also fixed at 5 mm. Patients who undergo liver transplantation are susceptible to neurologic disorders including hepatic encephalopathy, thromboembolism and intracranial hemorrhage. Abnormal pupillary light reflex usually indicates a serious neurologic emergency in these patients; however, benign neurologic disorders such as peripheral autonomic neuropathy or Holmes-Adie syndrome should also be considered. We experienced a case of fixed pupillary light reflex after liver transplantation diagnosed as peripheral autonomic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Adie Syndrome , Emergencies , Female , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Pupil , Reflex , Reflex, Pupillary , Thromboembolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to analyze the process and characteristics of withholding or withdrawal of life support (WLS) in Korean intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: This was a single-centered retrospective analysis of patients who died in the ICUs of a tertiary hospital in Korea from January to December 2012. WLS informed consents and clinical data were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 285 deaths during the study period, informed consents for WLS were obtained from 228 patients (80.0%). All WLS decisions were made by family members after the patient's loss of decision-making capacity. Decisions were made most frequently by the patient's son (50.6%). Patients in the WLS group were older than those in the non-WLS group, and older age was associated with the WLS decision. Thirty-seven patients (16.2%) died within one hour of WLS approval, and 182 patients (79.8%) died on the day of WLS approval. The most frequently withheld life support modality was chest compression (100%), followed by defibrillation (95.9%) and pacemaker insertion (63.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive and invasive life support measures were those most frequently withheld or withdrawn by decision-makers in Korean ICUs. The most common proxy was the son, rather than the spouse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Informed Consent , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Life Support Care , Proxy , Retrospective Studies , Spouses , Tertiary Care Centers , Thorax , Withholding Treatment
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770864

ABSTRACT

Although the incidence is not high in the general surgical population, pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents can result in serious long-term morbidity and mortality. We report a case of early use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to correct severe hypoxemia refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation in a patient with massive aspiration of gastric contents immediately followed by acute lung injury during general anesthesia induction. A 64-year-old woman diagnosed with stomach cancer was scheduled for elective diagnostic laparoscopy. Although there was no sign of gastrointestinal tract obstruction and midnight Nil per Os (NPO) was performed before the operation, pulmonary aspiration occurred during the induction of anesthesia. Despite the endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation, severe hypoxemia with hypercapnea persisted. Medical team agreed with applying veno-venous (VV) ECMO, and her blood gas analysis results became stable. ECMO was weaned successfully 9 days after the first aspiration event had occurred. Based on this case, early application of extracorporeal life support can have survival benefits.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Hypoxia , Blood Gas Analysis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Incidence , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laparoscopy , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Aspiration , Respiration, Artificial , Stomach Neoplasms
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