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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e73-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967464

ABSTRACT

Background@#The epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria varies according to the socioeconomic status and antimicrobial resistance status. However, longitudinal epidemiological studies to evaluate the changes in species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria nationwide are lacking. We retrospectively investigated the nationwide trends in species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria over the last 20 years in Korea. @*Methods@#From 1997 to 2016, annual cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility and species distribution data were collected from 12 university hospitals in five provinces and four metropolitan cities in South Korea. @*Results@#The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was the highest (13.1%) until 2012 but decreased to 10.3% in 2016, consistent with the decrease in oxacillin resistance from 76.1% in 2008 to 62.5% in 2016. While the cefotaxime resistance of Escherichia coli increased from 9.0% in 1997 to 34.2% in 2016, E. coli became the most common species since 2013, accounting for 14.5% of all isolates in 2016. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii rose to third and fifth places in 2008 and 2010, respectively, while imipenem resistance increased from 13.9% to 30.8% and 0.7% to 73.5% during the study period, respectively.Streptococcus agalactiae became the most common pathogenic streptococcal species in 2016, as the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased since 2010. During the same period, pneumococcal penicillin susceptibility decreased to 79.0%, and levofloxacin susceptibility of S. agalactiae decreased to 77.1% in 2016. @*Conclusion@#The epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria has changed significantly over the past 20 years according to trends in antimicrobial resistance in Korea. Efforts to confine antimicrobial resistance would change the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria and, consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 101-108, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966294

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#De novo malignancy is common after liver transplantation (LT); however, there are limited reports on the clinical outcomes of gastric cancer surgery after LT. Our study aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of gastric cancer surgery after LT. @*Methods@#Seventeen patients underwent gastric cancer surgery after LT at a single institution between January 2013 and June 2021. We retrospectively collected data on surgical complications, survival, and recurrence status of these cases. @*Results@#Fifteen patients (88.2%) underwent curative gastrectomy, with 10 open distal (66.7%) and 5 laparoscopic distal (33.3%) gastrectomies. Surgical and severe complication rates were 3 of 15 (20.0%) and 1 of 15 (6.7%), respectively. There were no significant differences between laparoscopic (33.3%) and open surgery (66.7%) in terms of operation time and complication rate. No surgery-related mortalities occurred. Immunosuppressants could be maintained without difficulty, and no suspicious acute rejection was identified during the perioperative period. There was 1 recurrence after curative surgery (recurrence rate, 6.7%), and the 5-year cancer-specific survival rate after curative surgery was 93.3%. @*Conclusion@#Laparoscopic gastrectomy can be safely done even after LT in terms of postoperative complications and graft safety.

3.
Vascular Specialist International ; : 24-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968868

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatment; however, several early and late complications have been reported. In this report, we present the case of a patient who underwent surgical removal of a migrated ‘Figulla Flex II’ ASD occlusion device at the aortic bifurcation 2 months after ASD occlusion.

4.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 29-33, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925411

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies play a critical role in blocking viral infections and in viral clearance during acute infection. The microneutralization assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeting the receptor binding domain were performed for 30 patients with mild coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 infections. The elapsed number of days between sample collection and diagnosis was 115 days, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values at diagnosis were recorded. Clinical characteristics and Ct values were compared between neutralization antibody-positive and -negative patients as measured by the microneutralization assay. Neutralization antibody-positive patients (n = 9) were likely to be older, have low Ct values, have more pneumonia during admission, and have a higher optical density in ELISA than the neutralization antibody-negative patients (n = 21). Elderly people seemed to have a higher viral load causing more pneumonia and to produce more neutralization antibodies. Neutralization antibodies persisted in only 30% of patients as detected by microneutralization test after 100 days of diagnosis.

5.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 553-556, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898648

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the clinical characteristics for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis. The correlation between eighteen clinical manifestations and rapid antigen detection test results was analyzed. Among 205 patients, five clinical manifestations, pharyngeal hemorrhage (odds ratio [OR] = 11.85), palatal hemorrhage (OR = 9.32), tonsillar swelling (OR = 4.37), rash (OR = 3.02), and enlarged cervical nodes (OR = 1.91), were significantly correlated with group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis. Traditional indicators such as fever, pharyngeal redness, acute onset, headache, rhinorrhea, cough, tonsillar exudate, and cervical tenderness were not statistically related to GAS pharyngitis. Therefore, physicians should be cautious in using these traditional indicators

6.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 75-81, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889017

ABSTRACT

Background@#Blood volume is the most important parameter for an optimal blood culture; however, the effect of blood volume on blood culture is not clearly understood from patients with sepsis. @*Methods@#Blood cultures were obtained from 1,049 patients (≥ 15 years old) who visited the emergency department (ED). Two sets of 20 mL each was collected from each patient, 12 mL of which was transferred to 2 and 10 mL FA Plus (aerobic) bottles (bioMérieux, USA) and the remaining into an FN Plus (anaerobic) bottle. Medical records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and clinical significance of the blood culture isolates. The positive rate and time-todetection (TTD) were compared between the 2 and 10 mL groups. @*Results@#Among the 2,098 sets collected, 612 sets (29.2%) were excluded due to inadequate (either too much or too little) blood volume. The positive rate of clinically significant pathogens was lower in the 2 mL group (6.1%) than in the 10 mL group (7.5%) (P = 0.003) among the 1,486 sets. However, there was no significant difference in the positive rate (11.0% vs. 12.5%, P= 0.152) and TTD (15.7 hours vs. 14.2 hours, P = 0.299) among the 585 (39.4%) patients with sepsis. @*Conclusion@#The positive rate and TTD were similar between the 2 and 10 mL groups from patients with sepsis who visited the ED, suggesting a high concentration of bacteremia in this group. Therefore, a smaller blood volume should be carefully considered in patients with sepsis in the ED.

7.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 127-134, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913379

ABSTRACT

Background@#Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis. This study aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology of GAS infection using an emm-typing and emm-clustering approach. @*Methods@#A total of 372 patients from Changwon who showed pharyngitis symptoms were recruited during the sampling period of 2018–2019 and throat cultures were obtained from them. emm typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. emm genotypes and GAS clusters were classified based on a web-based database. @*Results@#Of the 372 throat swab specimens, 101 (27.2%) were positive for GAS. emm typing analysis was performed on 59 GAS isolates. The most prevalent emm type was emm89 (20.3%), followed by emm12 (16.9%). Seven emm clusters were identified: E4 (emm89/ emm28, 32.2%), A-C4 (emm12, 16.9%), E1 (emm4, 13.6%), A-C5 (emm3, 10.2%), E6 (emm75, 8.5%), M6 (emm6, 8.5%), and A-C3 (emm1, 6.8%). @*Conclusion@#Diverse and temporal changes were observed in the distribution of emm types and clusters of GAS. Continuous surveillance based on emm genotyping is needed to monitor the epidemiological characteristics of GAS pharyngitis.

8.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 75-81, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896721

ABSTRACT

Background@#Blood volume is the most important parameter for an optimal blood culture; however, the effect of blood volume on blood culture is not clearly understood from patients with sepsis. @*Methods@#Blood cultures were obtained from 1,049 patients (≥ 15 years old) who visited the emergency department (ED). Two sets of 20 mL each was collected from each patient, 12 mL of which was transferred to 2 and 10 mL FA Plus (aerobic) bottles (bioMérieux, USA) and the remaining into an FN Plus (anaerobic) bottle. Medical records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and clinical significance of the blood culture isolates. The positive rate and time-todetection (TTD) were compared between the 2 and 10 mL groups. @*Results@#Among the 2,098 sets collected, 612 sets (29.2%) were excluded due to inadequate (either too much or too little) blood volume. The positive rate of clinically significant pathogens was lower in the 2 mL group (6.1%) than in the 10 mL group (7.5%) (P = 0.003) among the 1,486 sets. However, there was no significant difference in the positive rate (11.0% vs. 12.5%, P= 0.152) and TTD (15.7 hours vs. 14.2 hours, P = 0.299) among the 585 (39.4%) patients with sepsis. @*Conclusion@#The positive rate and TTD were similar between the 2 and 10 mL groups from patients with sepsis who visited the ED, suggesting a high concentration of bacteremia in this group. Therefore, a smaller blood volume should be carefully considered in patients with sepsis in the ED.

9.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 553-556, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890944

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the clinical characteristics for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis. The correlation between eighteen clinical manifestations and rapid antigen detection test results was analyzed. Among 205 patients, five clinical manifestations, pharyngeal hemorrhage (odds ratio [OR] = 11.85), palatal hemorrhage (OR = 9.32), tonsillar swelling (OR = 4.37), rash (OR = 3.02), and enlarged cervical nodes (OR = 1.91), were significantly correlated with group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis. Traditional indicators such as fever, pharyngeal redness, acute onset, headache, rhinorrhea, cough, tonsillar exudate, and cervical tenderness were not statistically related to GAS pharyngitis. Therefore, physicians should be cautious in using these traditional indicators

10.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874077

ABSTRACT

Background@#Blood culture is essential for diagnosis of sepsis. However, usually the available blood volume is not sufficient to meet the guidelines. Thus, periodic monitoring and feedback are essential to improve the quality of blood cultures. @*Methods@#We analyzed blood cultures requested between November 2018 and June 2019, and provided educational intervention and coaching for phlebotomists at the end of February 2019. Then, we evaluated the impact of education on blood cultures in a secondary­‑­care hospital. Blood volume, positive rate, contamination rate, and time to detection (TTD) were compared between the pre- (November 2018 to February, 2019) and post-intervention periods (March to June, 2019). @*Results@#The average blood volume increased significantly from 5.4 mL to 7.1 mL (P < 0.0001) (35.2%) after intervention. Accordingly, the proportion of optimal blood volume (8–12 mL) increased from 9.1% to 37.8% (P < 0.0001). Before the intervention, the positivity rate was 9.6% and the contamination rate was 0.5%, whereas after the intervention, the positivity rate decreased to 9.1% and the contamination rate increased to 1.1%. TTD improved from 14.7 hours to 13.1 hours (P = 0.0420). @*Conclusion@#The educational intervention of the phlebotomy team improved the quality of blood cultures, especially blood volumes and TTD. However, the positivity rate did not increase, suggesting that it is affected not only by the blood volumes but also by the severity of the underlying illnesses of the patient in a secondary-care hospital.

11.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 233-239, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889007

ABSTRACT

Background@#Multidrug- resistant organisms (MDRO) are a serious concern in healthcareassociated infections. Hand hygiene (HH) is essential to prevent the spread of MDRO in the healthcare institutes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the incidence of MDRO and hand hygiene compliance and the experimental effectiveness of alcohol-gel hand hygiene practice. @*Methods@#From March 2016 to September 2018, we analyzed the cross-correlation between the incidence of MDRO and the HH compliance each month at Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital. We employed an experiment to observe the effect of alcohol gel hand hygiene practice on the reduction of organisms on the hand surface using the handagar plates. @*Results@#Among the MDRO, only vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) showed a moderate correlation with the HH rate (r = 0.55). The hand-agar plate experiment showed a significant bacterial reduction for inadequate HH (mean 3.47 CFU) and optimal HH (mean, 0.84 CFU) than before HH (mean, 11.56 CFU) (n = 32, P = 0.006). @*Conclusion@#The incidence of VRE showed a moderate correlation with HH among MDRO in the longitudinal analysis. HH practice was more effective in preventing the spread of VRE compared with other MDRO in our institute. Optimal alcohol-gel HH practice can effectively remove bacteria on the hand surface.

12.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 307-313, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902677

ABSTRACT

There are more than 10 million visits to primary care clinics annually due to pharyngitis or tonsillitis. The antibiotic prescription rate for these patients is more than 50%. An optimal diagnosis is necessary to avoid antibiotic misuse or overuse. Here, we compared the benefits and pitfalls of three currently available laboratory methods, such as throat culture, rapid antigen detection test (RADT), and molecular tests. We also reviewed the current American and Korean guidelines for bacterial pharyngitis. Although throat culture is regarded as a gold standard, it requires high technical expertise and culture facilities. In addition, the turn-around time (TAT) is 1 day-2 days causing possible inadequate prescription as well as the inconvenience of a second clinical visit to check results. The RADT does not require culture facilities and the TAT is noticeably short (5-10 min). The initial low sensitivity of the RADT has been improved these days. Though molecular tests are the most advanced, there remains a lack of clinical data. Therefore, we recommend judicious use of the RADT for diagnosing bacterial pharyngitis as well as effective antibiotic prescriptions at primary care clinics.

13.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 129-133, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832102

ABSTRACT

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a distinct cutaneous lymphoma subtype that is characterized by pleomorphic T-cell infiltration of the subcutaneous tissue. SPTCL is usually associated with indolent clinical course. However, it can be complicated by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), which leads to worse prognosis. Childhood SPTCL is rare and there is no standardized treatment regimen of SPTCL with HPS. Here we report a pediatric case of SPTCL with HPS who responded favorably with multi-agent chemotherapy of the BFM (Berlin‐Frankfurt‐Münster)-NHL (non-Hodgkin lymphoma)-90 protocol.

14.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Quality Assurance ; : 33-39, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836058

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sputum Gram stains and cultures are standard tests for thediagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections. Analysis reports of the sputumquality are scarce in relation to cultures as well as clinical diagnosis. @*Methods@#A total of 1,523 sputum specimens, requested for culture, wereevaluated for their quality using the modified Murray–Washington (MW)grouping system in association with the culture results. The clinical diagnosiswas investigated for the culture positive cases. @*Results@#There was a significant difference in bacterial growth (odds ratio,2.01; P =0.0164) and diagnosis of pneumonia (odds ratio, 4.18; P =0.002)between the acceptable groups (groups 4–5) and the unacceptable groups(groups 1–3). However, one-quarter did not belong to the current MW group.More than half of the sputum cultures were in group 6, with the lowestpositive rate (18.0%). Overall, 10% of the sputum cultures were related to aclinical diagnosis of pneumonia. @*Conclusions@#The MW grouping system should be revised, because onequarterdid not belong to the current group. Further evaluation of group 6will be needed. Improvement of sputum cultures is required to enhance thediagnosis of pneumonia.

15.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 233-239, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896711

ABSTRACT

Background@#Multidrug- resistant organisms (MDRO) are a serious concern in healthcareassociated infections. Hand hygiene (HH) is essential to prevent the spread of MDRO in the healthcare institutes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the incidence of MDRO and hand hygiene compliance and the experimental effectiveness of alcohol-gel hand hygiene practice. @*Methods@#From March 2016 to September 2018, we analyzed the cross-correlation between the incidence of MDRO and the HH compliance each month at Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital. We employed an experiment to observe the effect of alcohol gel hand hygiene practice on the reduction of organisms on the hand surface using the handagar plates. @*Results@#Among the MDRO, only vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) showed a moderate correlation with the HH rate (r = 0.55). The hand-agar plate experiment showed a significant bacterial reduction for inadequate HH (mean 3.47 CFU) and optimal HH (mean, 0.84 CFU) than before HH (mean, 11.56 CFU) (n = 32, P = 0.006). @*Conclusion@#The incidence of VRE showed a moderate correlation with HH among MDRO in the longitudinal analysis. HH practice was more effective in preventing the spread of VRE compared with other MDRO in our institute. Optimal alcohol-gel HH practice can effectively remove bacteria on the hand surface.

16.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 307-313, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894973

ABSTRACT

There are more than 10 million visits to primary care clinics annually due to pharyngitis or tonsillitis. The antibiotic prescription rate for these patients is more than 50%. An optimal diagnosis is necessary to avoid antibiotic misuse or overuse. Here, we compared the benefits and pitfalls of three currently available laboratory methods, such as throat culture, rapid antigen detection test (RADT), and molecular tests. We also reviewed the current American and Korean guidelines for bacterial pharyngitis. Although throat culture is regarded as a gold standard, it requires high technical expertise and culture facilities. In addition, the turn-around time (TAT) is 1 day-2 days causing possible inadequate prescription as well as the inconvenience of a second clinical visit to check results. The RADT does not require culture facilities and the TAT is noticeably short (5-10 min). The initial low sensitivity of the RADT has been improved these days. Though molecular tests are the most advanced, there remains a lack of clinical data. Therefore, we recommend judicious use of the RADT for diagnosing bacterial pharyngitis as well as effective antibiotic prescriptions at primary care clinics.

17.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 370-381, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830435

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clindamycin-resistant erythromycin-susceptible (CRES) phenotype is rare in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci). We aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of CRES S. agalactiae using whole genome sequencing (WGS). @*Methods@#Sixty-six S. agalactiae isolates obtained from blood (N=26), cerebrospinal fluid (N=10), urine (N=17), and vaginal discharge (N=13) between 2010 and 2017 in Korea were subjected to WGS. Based on the WGS data, we analyzed antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants, sequence types (STs), capsular polysaccharide (CPS) genotypes, and virulence gene profiles, and constructed a phylogenetic tree. We included the clindamycin-susceptible erythromycin-resistant (CSER) phenotype for comparison. @*Results@#We identified seven CRES S. agalactiae isolates from urine (N=5) and vaginal discharge (N=2) collected between 2010 and 2011. All CRES isolates harbored AMR determinants of lnu(B), lsa(E), and aac(6’)-aph(2’’), revealed ST19 and CPS genotype III, and had a virulence gene profile of rib-lmb-cylE. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that all CRES isolates belonged to the same cluster, suggesting a clonal distribution. In contrast, seven CSER isolates showed a diverse distribution and clustered separately from the CRES isolates. @*Conclusions@#CRES isolates collected between 2010 and 2011 showed a unique cluster with ST19 and CPS genotype III in Korea. This is the first report on WGS-based characteristics of S. agalactiae in Korea.

18.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 177-184, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830354

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions encountered in primary health care facilities. Accurate differentiation of group A streptococcus (GAS) infection from viral infection is difficult. The STANDARD F Strep A Ag FIA (SD BIOSENSOR, Korea) is a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) that has been recently developed for diagnosing GAS pharyngitis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the STANDARD F Strep A Ag FIA and compared the results between the RADT and conventional throat culture. @*Methods@#Throat swab samples were obtained from a total of 372 children presenting pharyngitis symptoms in five pediatric clinics in Changwon, Korea from July 2018 to October 2019. A comparative study between STANDARD F Strep A Ag FIA and Sofia Strep A FIA (Quidel, USA) was performed. Two throat swabs were taken simultaneously from each patient for RADT. The third throat swab was stored in a transport tube containing Stuart's transport medium for culture. Performance and kappa index of STANDARD F Strep A Ag FIA were evaluated. @*Results@#GAS infection was detected in 29.3% (109/372) patients, using the STANDARD F Strep A Ag FIA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 95.0%, 95.2%, 88.1%, and 98.1%, respectively. The STANDARD F Strep A Ag FIA showed an excellent concordance rate of 96.5% and a kappa value of 0.89 compared to Sofia Strep A FIA. @*Conclusion@#The STANDARD F Strep A Ag FIA demonstrated an excellent performance along with Sofia Strep A FIA for the diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis.

19.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 22-25, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719665

ABSTRACT

Although international clinical guidelines generally recommend bacterial stool cultures for patients with acute diarrhea, stool cultures are frequently being requested by physicians regardless of the likelihood of a bacterial infection. This study was conducted to improve the practice of requesting stool cultures by analyzing patterns for stool culture requests by physicians. We retrospectively reviewed 235 stool cultures of patients who visited Gyeongsang National University Hospital from January to February 2017. We analyzed the period of time after which the stool culture was requested after admission, stool characteristics, wet smear, and concomitant tests performed. 38.7% of stool culture requests were made within 3 days of admission. Stool form analysis showed that 36.6% of stools were watery and loose, and 18.8% were firm. Furthermore, >20 leukocytes per high-power field were found only in 0.4% of the wet smears. Among the stool culture requests, 78.7% were prescribed Clostridium difficile culture or toxin tests at the same time. In addition, 13.6% were prescribed diarrhea-causing viral tests as well. Only stool cultures were requested in 10.2% of the cases. Physicians rarely ensure that the adequate criteria are met when requesting for stool cultures. It is necessary to decrease unnecessary diagnostic practices to maintain the quality of care by establishing reliable rejection criteria and the physicians have valid reasons for requesting stool cultures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections , Clostridioides difficile , Diarrhea , Leukocytes , Quality Improvement , Retrospective Studies
20.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 31-35, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SD Bioline Strep A Ultra (SD, Yongin, Korea) is a recently developed rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for diagnosing bacterial pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus, We evaluated the performance of SD Bioline Strep A Ultra, using the number of colony forming units and color intensity. METHODS: Three throat swabs each were taken from 343 children with pharyngitis who visited pediatric clinics. We evaluated the performance of SD Bioline Strep A Ultra and compared its positive rate with the number of colony forming units, using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (95% confidence interval) were 97.4% (94.0–99.1%), 90.8% (85.0–94.9%), 93.0% (88.5–96.1%), and 96.5% (92.0–98.9%), respectively. Positive rate significantly differed by number of colony forming units (P=0.021). ROC plot for color intensity showed 0.938 of AUC (area under curve). CONCLUSIONS: SD Bioline Strep A Ultra showed excellent performance, and its positive rate differed by the number of colony counts. This RADT could be used as a sensitive and semi-quantitative method detecting bacterial pharyngitis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Area Under Curve , Methods , Pharyngitis , Pharynx , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stem Cells , Streptococcus
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