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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919320

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus species. Tanzania is one of the endemic countries with cystic echinococcosis. This study focussed on identifying genotypes of Echinococcus spp. in Tanzania. We collected 7 cysts from cattle in Mwanza municipal (n=4) and Loliondo district (n=3). The cysts from Mwanza were all E. ortleppi and fertile. In contrast, the cysts from Loliondo were all E. granulosus sensu stricto and sterile. Two from the 4 cysts were a new haplotype of E. ortleppi (G5). These results can improve the preventive and control programs for humans and livestock in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this study is considered the first to identify the genotype and haplotype of Echinococcus spp. in Tanzania.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834069

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Distinguishing gastric ectopic pancreas (GEP) from malignant tumors is relatively difficult. This study evaluated the endosonography findings of pathologically proven GEP. @*Methods@#Thirty-one patients diagnosed with GEP based on a histopathological analysis from January 2004 to July 2018 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent EUS and an endoscopic resection. @*Results@#Seventeen patients were female, and the median age was 41.1 years (range, 14-74). The lesions were localized most commonly in the antrum. The mean size of the GEP was 10.6 mm (range, 7-15). Superficial type lesions, lesions with heterogeneous echogenicity, mixed pattern lesions, and lesions with indistinct borders were commonly observed on EUS. Calcification, anechoic duct-like structures, and thickening of the muscularis propria were observed in some patients. Endoscopic mucosal resection (41.9%) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (58.1%) were performed. The mean procedure time was 22.5 minutes. Complete resection was achieved for 71% of patients. No statistically significant results between the endosonography findings and complete resection rates were obtained. The mean follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy duration was 4.5 months. None of the patients presented with residual lesions on subsequent endoscopy. @*Conclusions@#EUS can help identify the features of GEP. Careful observations of the EUS findings can avoid unnecessary removal of GEP.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is a well-known risk factor for both total preterm birth (PTB) and spontaneous PTB in singleton gestation, whereas this association is not well determined in multiple pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of spontaneous PTB according to the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in twin gestations. METHODS: The association between the risk of PTB and pre-pregnancy BMI was determined in women pregnant with twins between 2004 and 2014. Pre-pregnancy BMI values were divided into three groups (underweight/normal/overweight and obese). PTB was classified as spontaneous PTB (following preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, or cervical insufficiency) or medically indicated PTB (cesarean section or induction of labor because of maternal/fetal indications). RESULTS: A total of 1,959 women were included in the analysis, and the percentages of total PTB and spontaneous PTB were 13.1% and 9.3%. The percentages of total PTB and spontaneous PTB in three groups were 14.1%, 11.9%, 16.3%, respectively, and 11.0%, 8.0%, 12.5% (P < 0.05 between normal and overweight/obese women). The risks of total and spontaneous PTB in overweight/obese women were higher than those in women with normal weight, even after adjustment for prior history of PTB, age, maternal height, parity, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) (odds ratio [OR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–2.03; OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.05–2.36). CONCLUSION: The risks of both total and spontaneous PTB were significantly greater in the overweight/obese group than in the normal BMI group.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Maternal Age , Membranes , Obesity , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Parity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Multiple , Premature Birth , Risk Factors , Rupture , Twins
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715755

ABSTRACT

Carotid artery rupture during head and neck surgery is a catastrophic, life-threatening emergency. Although recent incidence has declined, it still occurs in many patients. Hemorrhage from the carotid artery is usually massive and uncontrollable. Fast, aggressive treatment to prevent hemodynamic instability is required. Even if patients survive this event, they may experience severe neurological sequelae. A ruptured carotid artery is usually controlled by direct compression and arterial ligation. However, apart from the inherent difficulty of operation, these traditional surgical treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. In the past two decades, endovascular management has become a mainstay of carotid rupture treatment. We report a case of successful recovery without any sequelae after cardiovascular collapse due to an unintentional common carotid artery (CCA) rupture during neck surgery. The exposed CCA was treated with a covered stent. In such a case, multidisciplinary cooperation is crucial.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery, Common , Emergencies , Head , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Ligation , Mortality , Neck , Radiology, Interventional , Rupture , Stents
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107299

ABSTRACT

Crizotinib-associated severe hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported and experts recommended stopping crizotinib treatment in patients with grade 3/4 transaminase elevation. We experienced a case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer occurring as a result of severe hepatotoxicity due to crizotinib-associated hepatitis, accompanied by the reactivation of chronic hepatitis B, which was reversed with dose reduction and anti-viral therapy. Our case highlights the possibility that crizotinib might induce hepatitis and this might be associated with the underlying presence of chronic hepatitis B. In addition, crizotinib could be continued with reduced unless there are any other therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Lymphoma
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163320

ABSTRACT

Chronic sputum is a troublesome symptom in many respiratory diseases. The prevalence of chronic sputum varies from 1.2% to 13% according to the country. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic sputum and to find its associated factors in a general Korean population. We analyzed the data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 and 2011. A total number of 6,783 subjects aged 40 yr or more were enrolled in this study with 3,002 men and 3,781 women. As a result, the prevalence of chronic sputum was 6.3% (n=430). Significant risk factors for chronic sputum by multivariate analysis were: age (> or =70 yr) (odds ratio [OR], 1.954; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.308-2.917), current smoking (OR, 4.496; 95% CI, 3.001-6.734), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 1.483; 95% CI, 1.090-2.018), and tuberculosis (OR, 1.959; 95% CI, 1.307-2.938). In conclusion, the prevalence of chronic sputum in Korea was in the intermediate range compared with other countries. Smoking is a preventable risk factor identified in this study, and major respiratory diseases, such as COPD and tuberculosis, should be considered in subjects with chronic sputum.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Demography , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Smoking , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156364

ABSTRACT

Background. There is a paucity of data on the use of alcohol in urban slums of southern India. Methods. We screened 2811 men for alcohol use via a household-level census in an urban slum in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, and interviewed 220 age- and area-matched pairs of men drinkers and non-drinkers to examine factors associated with alcohol use. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), a standard instrument, was used to assess risk levels of drinking of 354 drinkers. Prevalence rates were calculated using ageadjusted direct standardization. Odds ratios (ORs) of drinking status and higher-risk drinking were calculated using conditional logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression, respectively. Results. Among all men, we estimated that 46.1% consumed alcohol and 31.4% were hazardous drinkers (19% increased-risk, 7.7% high-risk and 4.7% dependent drinkers). Factors associated with alcohol use were: manual labour occupations (OR 2.08); presence of a common mental disorder (OR 1.50) and smoking (OR 2.08); while Muslim religion was protective (OR 0.43). Factors associated with higher-risk alcohol use were: being reported as a non-drinker during the census (OR 3.96); presence of a common mental disorder (OR 3.83); smoking (OR 1.78); drinking before legal age of 21 years (OR 2.71); spending more than `100 per day on alcohol (OR 6.17); and mainly drinking Indian-made foreign liquor (OR 5.45). Conclusion. High prevalence of hazardous drinking and the factors associated with it suggest the need for populationwide interventions and further investigations to effectively reduce hazardous alcohol use and its harmful effects.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupations , Poverty Areas , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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