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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 875-884, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999785

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for “early brain metastasis”, which occurs before extracranial recurrence (ECR), and “late brain metastasis”, which occurs after ECR, in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 271 LS-SCLC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiation. All patients were initially staged with brain magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Intracranial recurrence (ICR), ECR, progression-free rate (PFR), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed as clinical endpoints. The competing risk of the first recurrence with ICR (ICRfirst) was evaluated. Significantly associated variables in multivariate analysis of ECR were considered as ECR risk factors. Patients were stratified according to the number of ECR risk factors. @*Results@#The application of PCI was associated with higher PFR (p=0.008) and OS (p=0.045). However, PCI was not associated with any of the clinical endpoints in multivariate analysis. The competing risk of ICRfirst was significantly decreased with the application of PCI (hazard ratio, 0.476; 95% confidence interval, 0.243 to 0.931; p=0.030). Stage III disease, sequential, and stable disease after thoracic radiation were selected as ECR risk factors. For patients without these risk factors, the application of PCI was significantly associated with increased OS (p=0.048) and a decreased risk of ICRfirst (p=0.026). @*Conclusion@#PCI may play a role in preventing early brain metastasis rather than late brain metastasis after ECR, suggesting that only patients with a low risk of ECR may currently benefit from PCI.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 73-82, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966493

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In the treatment of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in limited-stage small cell lung cancer, the optimal once-daily radiotherapy (RT) dose/fractionation remain unclear although it is the most frequently used. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the treatment outcomes and toxicities of modest dose RT (≤ 54 Gy) with those of standard dose RT (> 54 Gy) and investigate the benefit of the high dose based on patient factors. @*Materials and Methods@#Since 2004, our institution has gradually increased the thoracic RT dose. Among the 225 patients who underwent CCRT, 84 patients (37.3%) received > 54 Gy. Because the patients treated with RT > 54 Gy were not randomly assigned, propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. @*Results@#The proportion of patients treated with > 54 Gy increased over time (p=0.014). Multivariate analysis revealed that the overall tumor stage and dose > 54 Gy (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.029) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). PSM confirmed that thoracic RT doses of > 54 Gy showed significantly improved progression-free survival (3-year, 42.7% vs. 24.0%; p 54 Gy was not observed but considerable rates of severe pulmonary toxicities were observed (p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our analysis supports that the 60 Gy RT dose should be considered in the once-daily regimen of CCRT for limited-stage small cell lung cancer without underlying lung disease, but RT dose > 54 Gy did not seem to benefit for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease. Further study is needed to validate these results.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 406-416, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925690

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare the outcomes of primary radiotherapy (RT) versus surgery in early-stage human papilloma virus–positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (hpv+OPC), and investigate the preoperative clinical factors that can predict the requirement for postoperative adjuvant treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#This multicenter study included 166 patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition-Stages I-II hpv+OPC. Sixty (36.1%) and 106 (63.9%) patients underwent primary (concurrent chemo)radiotherapy [(CC)RT] and surgery, respectively. Seventy-eight patients (73.6%) in the surgery group received postoperative (CC)RT. @*Results@#With a median follow-up of 45.6 months for survivors, the 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LC) for RT/surgery were 97.8%/96.4%, 91.1%/92.0%, and 92.9%/93.3%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, patients with synchronous radiologic extranodal extension and conglomeration (ENEcong) of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) showed significantly poorer OS (p=0.047), PFS (p=0.001), and LC (p=0.003). In patients undergoing primary surgery, two or more clinically positive LN metastases (odds ratio [OR], 5.15; p=0.004) and LN metastases with ENEcong (OR, 3.75; p=0.009) were predictors of postoperative chemoradiotherapy. No patient in the primary RT group demonstrated late severe toxicity whereas three (2.8%), one (0.9%), and one (0.9%) patient in the surgery group showed grade 3 dysphagia, grade 3 xerostomia, and fatal oral cavity bleeding. @*Conclusion@#We found no differences in OS, PFS, and LC between upfront RT and surgery in stage I-II hpv+OPC which warrants comparison through a prospective trial in the treatment de-escalation era. However, most early-stage hpv+OPC patients undergoing surgery received adjuvant (CC)RT. Pretreatment LN findings were prognostic and predictive for adjuvant treatment.

4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 231-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903280

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated clinical outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or radical prostatectomy (RP). @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were classified as high-risk prostate cancer and received definitive treatment between 2005 and 2015. Patients with previous pelvic radiotherapy, positive lymph node or distant metastasis were excluded. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). @*Results@#Of 583 patients met the inclusion criteria (77 EBRT and 506 RP). The estimated 10-year PCSS was 97.0% in the RP and 95.9% in the EBRT (p = 0.770). No significant difference was seen in the DMFS (p = 0.540), whereas there was a trend in favor of RP over EBRT in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.068). Propensity score matching analysis with confounding variables was done, with 183 patients (66 EBRT and 117 RP) were included. No significant difference in DMFS, PCSS or OS was found. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated similar oncologic PCSS, OS, and DMFS outcomes between EBRT and RP patients.

5.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 231-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895576

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated clinical outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or radical prostatectomy (RP). @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were classified as high-risk prostate cancer and received definitive treatment between 2005 and 2015. Patients with previous pelvic radiotherapy, positive lymph node or distant metastasis were excluded. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). @*Results@#Of 583 patients met the inclusion criteria (77 EBRT and 506 RP). The estimated 10-year PCSS was 97.0% in the RP and 95.9% in the EBRT (p = 0.770). No significant difference was seen in the DMFS (p = 0.540), whereas there was a trend in favor of RP over EBRT in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.068). Propensity score matching analysis with confounding variables was done, with 183 patients (66 EBRT and 117 RP) were included. No significant difference in DMFS, PCSS or OS was found. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated similar oncologic PCSS, OS, and DMFS outcomes between EBRT and RP patients.

6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 279-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic factors associated with distant metastasis (DM) and post-recurrence overall survival (OS) after salvage treatments for isolated locoregional recurrence (ILRR) of breast cancer and identify long-term surviving patients for providing a more personalized therapy. @*Methods@#We analyzed 125 patients who underwent salvage local treatments for ILRR after initial curative breast surgery. @*Results@#Fifty-two (41.6%) patients experienced secondary recurrence or disease progression, of which 20 (38.5%) experienced a secondary locoregional recurrence and 40 (76.9%) experienced DM as the first site of failure. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and post-recurrence OS, the initial pN2-3 stage, a disease-free interval of < 36 months, and non-curative resection for recurrent disease were independently poor prognosticators. The score for patients stratified according to the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 3; the corresponding 5-year DMFS rates were 91.4%, 53.0%, 35.9%, and 0% and the 5-year OS rates were 97.3%, 70.4%, 32.7%, and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.001).Systemic chemotherapy reduced DM in patients with a score of 2–3, but it did not in those with a score of 0-1. @*Conclusion@#Our collective stratification can help with prognosis prediction for ILRR of breast cancer. Depending on the DM risk of patients, the potential combination of systemic therapy should be discussed further.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e120-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To present our experience on orbital and periorbital tissue changes after proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) in patients with intraocular tumors, apart from treatment outcomes and disease control. METHODS: Medical records of 6 patients with intraocular tumors who had been treated with PBRT and referred to oculoplasty clinics of two medical centers (Seoul National University Hospital and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center) from October 2007 to September 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The types of adverse effects associated with PBRT, their management, and progression were analyzed. In anophthalmic patients who eventually underwent enucleation after PBRT due to disease progression, orbital volume (OV) was assessed from magnetic resonance (MR) images using the Pinnacle3 program. RESULTS: Among the six patients with PBRT history, three had uveal melanoma, and three children had retinoblastoma. Two eyes were treated with PBRT only, while the other four eyes ultimately underwent enucleation. Two eyes with PBRT only suffered from radiation dermatitis and intractable epiphora due to canaliculitis or punctal obstruction. All four anophthalmic patients showed severe enophthalmic features with periorbital hollowness. OV analysis showed that the difference between both orbits was less than 0.1 cm before enucleation, but increased to more than 2 cm3 after enucleation. CONCLUSION: PBRT for intraocular tumors can induce various orbital and periorbital tissue changes. More specifically, when enucleation is performed after PBRT due to disease progression, significant enophthalmos and OV decrease can develop and can cause poor facial cosmesis as treatment sequelae.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Canaliculitis , Dermatitis , Disease Progression , Enophthalmos , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases , Medical Records , Melanoma , Orbit , Protons , Retinoblastoma , Retrospective Studies , Seoul
8.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 95-102, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG PET) with computed tomography (CT) before and during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Twenty patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study, of whom 6 had oropharyngeal cancer, 10 had hypopharyngeal cancer, and 4 had laryngeal cancer. Fifteen patients received concurrent cisplatin and 2 received concurrent cetuximab chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT was performed before RT and in the 4th week of RT. The parameters of maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumor were measured, and the prognostic significance of each was analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Higher TLG (>19.0) on FDG PET/CT during RT was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.007). In the multivariate analysis, TLG during RT as a continuous variable was significantly associated with OS and PFS rate (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively). Tumor response worse than partial remission at 1 month after RT was another independent prognostic factor for PFS (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Higher TLG of the primary tumor on FDG PET/CT during RT was a poor prognostic factor for OS and PFS in patients with head and neck cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cetuximab , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glycolysis , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Neck , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , Tumor Burden
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 739-747, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In a recent meta-analysis, post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) reduced any first recurrence (AFR) and improved survival in N1 and N2 patients. We investigated risk factors for AFR in N1 after optimal systemic therapy without PMRT, to define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from PMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand three hundred eighty-two pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without PMRT between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 0.6% had no systemic therapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 173 AFR (53 loco-regional recurrence [LRR] without distant metastases [DM], 38 LRR with DM, and 82 DM without LRR). The 5-year LRR and AFR rates were 6.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that close resection margin (p=0.001) was the only independent risk factor for LRR. Multivariate analysis for AFR revealed that age < 35 years (p=0.025), T2 stage (p=0.004), high tumor grade (p=0.032), close resection margin (p=0.035), and triple-negative biological subtype (p=0.031) were independent risk factors. Two or three positive lymph nodes (p=0.078) were considered a marginally significant factor. When stratified by these six factors, the 5-year LRR rates were 3.6% with 0-1 (n=606), 7.5% with 2-3 (n=655), and 12.7% with 4-6 (n=93) risk factors. The 5-year AFR rates were 7.1% with 0-1, 15.0% with 2-3, and 24.5% with 4-6 risk factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and optimal systemic therapy showed excellent loco-regional control and disease control. The patients with four or more risk factors may benefit from PMRT, and those with two or three risk factors merit consideration of PMRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 739-747, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129226

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In a recent meta-analysis, post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) reduced any first recurrence (AFR) and improved survival in N1 and N2 patients. We investigated risk factors for AFR in N1 after optimal systemic therapy without PMRT, to define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from PMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand three hundred eighty-two pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without PMRT between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 0.6% had no systemic therapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 173 AFR (53 loco-regional recurrence [LRR] without distant metastases [DM], 38 LRR with DM, and 82 DM without LRR). The 5-year LRR and AFR rates were 6.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that close resection margin (p=0.001) was the only independent risk factor for LRR. Multivariate analysis for AFR revealed that age < 35 years (p=0.025), T2 stage (p=0.004), high tumor grade (p=0.032), close resection margin (p=0.035), and triple-negative biological subtype (p=0.031) were independent risk factors. Two or three positive lymph nodes (p=0.078) were considered a marginally significant factor. When stratified by these six factors, the 5-year LRR rates were 3.6% with 0-1 (n=606), 7.5% with 2-3 (n=655), and 12.7% with 4-6 (n=93) risk factors. The 5-year AFR rates were 7.1% with 0-1, 15.0% with 2-3, and 24.5% with 4-6 risk factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and optimal systemic therapy showed excellent loco-regional control and disease control. The patients with four or more risk factors may benefit from PMRT, and those with two or three risk factors merit consideration of PMRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 144-152, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44438

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The role of radiotherapy (RT) was largely deserted after the introduction of platinum-based chemotherapy, but still survival rates are disappointingly low. This study focuses on assessing the clinical efficacy of RT in relation to chemotherapy resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2002 to January 2015, 44 patients were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and treated with palliative RT for persistent or recurrent EOC. All patients received initial treatment with optimal debulking surgery and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. The biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated with α/β set at 10. Ninety-four sites were treated with RT with a median BED of 50.7 Gy (range 28.0 to 79.2 Gy). The primary end-point was the in-field local control (LC) interval, defined as the time interval from the date RT was completed to the date any progressive or newly recurring disease within the RT field was detected on radiographic imaging. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 52.3 months (range 7.7 to 179.0 months). The 1-year and 2-year in-field LC rates were 66.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Comparisons of percent change of in-field tumor response showed similar distribution of responses among chemoresistant and chemosensitive tumors. On multivariate analysis of predictive factors for in-field LC analyzed by sites treated, BED ≥ 50 Gy (hazard ratio, 0.4; confidence interval, 0.2–0.9; p = 0.025) showed better outcomes. CONCLUSION: Regardless of resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy, RT can be a feasible treatment modality for patients with persistent of recurrent EOC. The specific role of RT using updated approaches needs to be reassessed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Ovarian Neoplasms , Palliative Care , Radiotherapy , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 254-263, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83455

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Elevated serum concentration of fibrinogen and decreased serum concentration of albumin have been reported to be markers of elevated systemic inflammation. We attempted to investigate the prognostic influence of preoperative fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) for breast cancer. METHODS: Data from 793 consecutive primary breast cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. Serum levels of fibrinogen and albumin were tested before curative surgery. Subjects were grouped into two groups according to the cutoff value determined by performing the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis: the high FAR group (FAR>7.1) and the low FAR group (FAR≤7.1). Overall survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Independent prognostic significance was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The high FAR group had a worse prognosis compared to the low FAR group (log-rank test, p<0.001). The prognostic effect of FAR was more significant than that of single markers such as fibrinogen (log-rank test, p=0.001) or albumin (log-rank test, p=0.001). The prognostic effect of FAR was prominent in the stage II/III subgroup (log-rank test, p<0.001) and luminal A-like subtype (log-rank test, p<0.001). FAR was identified as a significant independent factor on both univariate (hazard ratio [HR], 2.722; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.659–4.468; p<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR, 2.622; 95% CI, 1.455–4.724; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative FAR was a strong independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Its prognostic effect was more prominent in the stage II/III subgroup and in the luminal A-like subtype. Therefore, preoperative FAR can be utilized as a useful prognosticator for breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed to validate its applications in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Fibrinogen , Inflammation , Multivariate Analysis , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Serum Albumin , Survival Analysis
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 231-237, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178784

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the predictive value of the early response of 18F-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: FDG PET was performed before and during CCRT for 13 NSCLC patients. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured and the changes were calculated. These early metabolic changes were compared with the standard tumor response by computed tomograms (CT) one month after CCRT. RESULTS: One month after the completion of CCRT, 9 patients had partial response (PR) of tumor and 4 patients had stable disease. The percent changes of SUVmax (%DeltaSUVmax) were larger in responder group than in non-responder group (55.7% +/- 15.6% vs. 23.1% +/- 19.0%, p = 0.01). The percent changes of SUVmean (%DeltaSUVmean) were also larger in responder group than in non-responder group (54.4% +/- 15.9% vs. 22.3% +/- 23.0%, p = 0.01). The percent changes of MTV (%DeltaMTV) or TLG (%DeltaTLG) had no correlation with the tumor response after treatment. All the 7 patients (100%) with %DeltaSUVmax > or = 50% had PR, but only 2 out of 6 patients (33%) with %DeltaSUVmax or = 50% had PR, but only 3 out of 7 patients (43%) with %DeltaSUVmean < 50% had PR after CCRT (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The degree of metabolic changes measured by PET-CT during CCRT was predictive for NSCLC tumor response after CCRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Glycolysis , Lung Neoplasms , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tumor Burden
14.
Korean Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery ; : 152-156, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: To investigate survival rates and prognostic factors of patients with gallbladder cancer who were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. METHODS: Seventeen gallbladder cancer patients who received surgery and postoperative radiotherapy from October 1989 to April 1998 were included in this retrospective study. Five patients had stage II, 8 patients had stage III, and 4 patients had stage IV disease according to the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging. All patients received > or =40 Gy of postoperative radiotherapy with a daily dose of 2.0 Gy/fraction and 15 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. An analysis was performed for the endpoints of overall and disease-free survival. RESULTS: Of the 17 patients, 13 had no residual disease (R0), 1 had microscopic residual disease (R1), and 3 had macroscopic residual disease (R2) after surgery. Among patients with no residual disease, 4 had locoregional recurrences during the follow-up period. One patient with microscopic residual disease had local recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 38.2%. The median overall survival time was 21 months and the median disease-free survival time was 12 months. Old age (> or =60 years old), female gender, a high pathological stage (> or =IVA), and the presence of residual disease after surgery were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high proportion of patients with advanced disease and macroscopic residual disease, the prognosis of gallbladder patients who had postoperative radiotherapy is encouraging. Additional investigation to improve the loco-regional control of gallbladder cancer patients with adverse prognostic factors is warranted.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Gallbladder , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Joints , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
15.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 83-90, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64855

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Flavopiridol enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis of cancer cells in our previous in vitro study. The purpose of this study was to assess if flavopiridol could enhance the radioresponse of mouse mammary tumors in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Balb/c mice bearing EMT-6 murine mammary carcinoma were treated with flavopiridol only, radiation only, or both for 7 days. Flavopiridol was administered 2.5 mg/kg twice a day intraperitoneally (IP). Radiation was delivered at a 4 Gy/fraction at 24-h intervals for a total dose of 28 Gy. Tumor volume was measured and compared among the different treatment groups to evaluate the in vivo radiosensitizing effect of flavopiridol. Tumors were removed from the mice 20 days after treatment, and TUNEL and Immunohistochemical stainings were performed. RESULTS: Significant tumor growth delay was observed in the radiation only and combined treatment groups, when compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the tumor growth curves of the control and flavopiridol only group or between the radiation only and combination treatment group. Apoptotic cells of different treatment groups were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-medicated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The expressions of Ku70 in tumor tissues from the different groups were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the apoptotic rate or Ku70 expression among the different treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Flavopiridol did not show evidence of enhancing the radioresponse of mouse mammary tumors in this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Flavonoids , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Piperidines , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Tumor Burden , Ursidae
16.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 227-232, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159794

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the flavopiridol effect on radiation-induced apoptosis and expression of apoptosis- related genes of human laryngeal and lung cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A human laryngeal cancer cell line, AMC-HN3 and a human lung cancer cell line, NCI-H460, were used in the study. The cells were divided into four groups according to the type of treatment: 1) control groups; 2) cells that were only irradiated; 3) cells treated only with flavopiridol; 4) cells treated with flavopiridol and radiation simultaneously. The cells were irradiated with 10 Gy of X-rays using a 4 MV linear accelerator. Flavopiridol was administered to the media at a concentration of 100 nM for 24 hours. We compared the fraction of apoptotic cells of each group 24 hours after the initiation of treatment. The fraction of apoptotic cells was detected by measurement of the sub-G1 fractions from a flow cytometric analysis. The expression of apoptosis-regulating genes, including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), p53, p21, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: The sub-G1 fraction of cells was significantly increased in the combination treatment group, as compared to cells exposed to radiation alone or flavopiridol alone. Western blotting also showed an increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression in cells of the combination treatment group, as compared with cells exposed to radiation alone or flavopiridol alone. Treatment with flavopiridol down regulated cyclin D1 expression of both cell lines but its effect on p53 and p21 expression was different according to each individual cell line. Flavopiridol did not affect the expression of phophorylated Akt in both cell lines. CONCLUSION: Treatment with flavopiridol increased radiation-induced apoptosis of both the human laryngeal and lung cancer cell lines. Flavopiridol effects on p53 and p21 expression were different according to the individual cell line and it did not affect Akt activation of both cell lines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Cell Line , Cyclin D1 , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Particle Accelerators , Phosphotransferases
17.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 230-236, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40232

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the response, toxicity, patterns of failure and survival rate of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who received radical chemoradiotherapy from October 1999 to September 2004 were included in this retrospective study. Patients received total 55.4~64.8 (median 64.8) Gy (daily 1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days per weeks) over 7~8 weeks. 50 or 60 mg/m2 of paclitaxel was administered on day 1, 8, 15, 22, 29 and 36 of radiotherapy. Four weeks after the concurrent chemoradiotherapy, three cycles of consolidation chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 was administered every 3 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 23 patients, 3 patients refused to receive the treatment during the concurrent chemoradiotherapy. One patient died of bacterial pneumonia during the concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Grade 2 radiation esophagitis was observed in 4 patients (17%). Sixteen patients received consolidation chemotherapy. During the consolidation chemotherapy, 8 patients (50%) experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and one of those patients died of neutropenic sepsis. Overall response rate for 20 evaluable patients was 90% including 4 complete responses (20%) and 14 partial responses (70%). Among 18 responders, 9 had local failure, 3 had local and distant failure and 2 had distant failure only. Median progression-free survival time was 9.5 months and 2-year progression-free survival rate was 19%. Eleven patients received second-line or third-line chemotherapy after the treatment failure. The median overall survival time was 21 months. 2-year and 5-year survival rate were 43% and 33%, respectively. Age, performance status, tumor size were significant prognostic factors for progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel revealed high response rate and low toxicity rate. But local failure occurred frequently after the remission and large tumor size was a poor prognostic factor. Further investigations are needed to improve the local control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Consolidation Chemotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Neutropenia , Paclitaxel , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Survival Rate , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 133-138, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51253

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We tried to investigate the outcome and patterns of failure of endometrial cancer patients who were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients with endometrial cancer who received postoperative RT between May 1979 and August 2000 were included in this retrospective study. Forty-one patients received total abdominal hysterectomy, 41 patients received Wertheim's operation and 1 underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Pelvic lymph node dissection or pelvic lymph node sampling was done in 56 patients and peritoneal cytology was done in 35. All the patients were staged according to 1988 FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) staging system; 2 were stage IA, 23 were stage IB, 20 were stage IC, 4 were stage IIA, 5 were stage IIB, 9 were stage IIIA, 2 were stage IIIB and 18 were stage IIIC. The histologic diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in seventy-four patients (89%). The histologic grades were Grade 1, 2 and 3 in 21 (25%), 43 (52%) and 10 (12%) patients, respectively. All the patients received external beam RT (EBRT) with a median dose of 5,040 cGy (range: 4,500~5,075 cGy) to the whole pelvis. Five patients with pathologically confirmed paraaortic lymph node metastasis received 4500 cGy to the paraaortic lymph nodes. Fifteen patients received low-dose intracavitary brachytherapy after their EBRT. A total dose of 7,500~9,540 cGy (median dose: 8511) was prescribed to the vaginal surface. RESULTS: Overall, 11 patients (13%) experienced disease relapse: 4 with initial stage I or II disease and 7 with initial stage III disease. Among the 54 stage I or II patients, 1 (2%) relapsed in the pelvis only, 2 (4%) relapsed in the vagina and distant organs, and 1 (2%) relapsed in the paraaortic lymph nodes (PANs). Among the 29 stage III patients, 1 (3%) relapsed in the vagina. The most common sites of failure for the stage III patients were the peritoneum (3 patients, 10%), PANs (2 patients, 7%), and lung (2 patients, 7%). With a median follow-up period of 86 months, the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates at 5 years were 87% for both. The five-year DFS rate was 93%, 100% and 74% for the stage I, II and III patients, respectively. Three patients experienced severe radiation-related late complications: RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 radiation cystitis was seen in one patient, and grade 3 bowel obstruction was seen in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative RT was useful for controlling pelvic disease. The major patterns of failure for stage III patients were peritoneal seeding and distant metastasis. Selective use of whole abdominal radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy may improve the therapeutic outcome of these patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Brachytherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cystitis , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Endometrial Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Gynecology , Hysterectomy , Hysterectomy, Vaginal , Lung , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pelvis , Peritoneum , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vagina
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 191-195, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115163

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of combinations of radiation and flavopiridol, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases and global transcription, in a human uterine cervix cancer cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human uterine cervix cancer cells (HeLa), cultured to the mid-log phase, were exposed to X-rays, flavopiridol, and combinations of X-rays and flavopiridol in various sequences. The end point in this study was the clonogenic survival, which was measured via clonogenic assays. In order to determine the intrinsic cytotoxicity of flavopiridol, 0, 5, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50 and 100 nM of flavopiridol were added to cell culture media. In the combination treatment, four different schedules of flavopiridol and irradiation combinations were tested: treatment of flavopiridol for 24 hours followed by irradiation, simultaneous administration of flavopiridol and irradiation, and irradiation followed by flavopiridol (for 24 hours) at intervals of 6 and 24 hours. The fraction of cells surviving after the combination treatment with 2 Gy of radiation (SF2) was compared with that of the fraction of cells surviving after treatment with irradiation alone. RESULTS: The cytotoxicity of flavopiridol was found to be dose-dependent, with an IC50 of 80 nM. No cytotoxic enhancements were observed when flavopiridol and radiation were administered simultaneously. Flavopiridol, administered either 24 hours before or 6 hours after irradiation, exerted no sensitizing effects on the cells. Only one protocol resulted in a radiosensitizing effect: the administration of flavopiridol 24 hours after irradiation. CONCLUSION: Flavopiridol enhanced the effects of radiation on a uterine cervix cancer cell line in vitro, and this enhancement was both sequence- and time-dependent.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Appointments and Schedules , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Cervix Uteri , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Radiation Effects , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 339-343, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146448

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: When used in the second-line setting, single- agent chemotherapy has produced response rates of more than 10% or median survival times greater than 4 months. We studied the safety and efficacy of using second-line single docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for advanced NSCLC patients who were previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with advanced NSCLC received chemotherapy from May 2002 to January 2005. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients. The patients received 75 mg/m2 of doxetaxel on day 1 and this was repeated at 3-week intervals. RESULTS: The median age was 63 years (range: 42~77 years); 16 patients had adenocarcinoma and 8 patients had squamous cell carcinoma. The median number of cycles was 4 (range: 1~7 cycles). Of the 33 patients, 6 patients had partial responses, 13 patients had stable disease and 14 patients had progressive disease. The response rate was 18.2%. The median overall survival was 11 months (range: 7~15 months), and the median progression free survival was 5 months (range: 3~7 months). The median response duration was 5 months (range: 4~9 months). A total of 137 cycles were evaluated for toxicity. We observed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in 79 cycles (57.6%), grade 3 or 4 leukopenia in 46 cycles (33.6%), and grade 3 febrile neutropenia in 2 cycles (1.5%). The median nadir day was day 9 (range: day 5~19), and the median number of G-CSF injections was 2 (range: 0~6). The most common non-hematologic toxicities were myalgia/arthralgia and neurotoxicity, but any grade 3 or 4 non-hematologic toxicity was not observed. The major toxicity of this therapy was neutropenia. The absolute neutrophil count decreased relatively rapidly, but neutropenic fever or related infection was rare. There were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSION: These results revealed a satisfactory response rate (18.2%) with using docetaxel as the second- line chemotherapy for NSCLC. The second-line docetaxel was an active and well-tolerated regimen in patients with advanced NSCLC pretreated with platinum-based chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Febrile Neutropenia , Fever , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Korea , Leukopenia , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies
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