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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365956

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the anticaries potential of toothpastes distributed by the primary health care public clinics (UBS) of Manaus, AM. METHODS Ninety-nine tubes of toothpaste from four commercial brands were collected from October 7, 2019 to October 11, 2019 in 16 UBS. They were assigned a code by brand and source UBS. According to the information on the packaging, the four brands and their batches were formulated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) and most (91%) had calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as an abrasive. We determined the concentrations of total fluoride (TF = TSF + InsF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF = F ions- or FPO32-), to certify whether they were in compliance with resolution ANVISA RDC No. 530 (maximum of 1,500 ppm TF) and whether they had anticaries potential (minimum of 1,000 ppm TSF). The analyses were performed with a ion- specific electrode. RESULTS The concentrations (ppm F) of TF [mean; standard deviation (SD); n] found in toothpaste brands A (1,502.3; SD = 45.6; n = 33), B (1,135.5; SD = 52.7; n = 48) and D (936.8; SD = 20.5; N = 8) were close to those stated on the package, 1,500, 1,100 and 1,000 ppm F, respectively. In toothpaste C, we found a mean of 274.1 ppm (SD = 219.7; n = 10) of TF, which diverges from the declared concentration of 1,500 ppm F. In addition, the five tubes of lot no. 11681118 of toothpaste C did not contain fluoride. Regarding TSF, with the exception of toothpaste D (937.9; SD = 40.29), the others had a lower concentration than their respective TF. CONCLUSION We found serious problems of quantity and quality of fluoride in toothpaste distributed by the SUS in Manaus, which shows the need for surveillance of these products and confirms the urgency of revising resolution RDC No. 530.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar o potencial anticárie dos dentifrícios distribuídos pelas unidades básicas de saúde (UBS) de Manaus-AM. MÉTODOS Noventa e nove bisnagas de dentifrícios de quatro marcas comerciais foram coletadas de 7 de outubro de 2019 a 11 de outubro de 2019 em 16 UBS, que foram codificados por marca e UBS de origem. De acordo com a embalagem, os dentifrícios das quatro marcas e seus lotes foram formulados com monofluorofosfato de sódio (Na2FPO3) e a maioria (91%) tinha carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3) como abrasivo. Foram determinadas as concentrações de fluoreto total (FT = FST + Fins) e de fluoreto solúvel total (FST = íons F- ou FPO32-), para certificar se atendiam à resolução ANVISA RDC Nº 530 (máximo de 1.500 ppm de FT) e se tinham potencial anticárie (mínimo de 1.000 ppm de FST). As análises foram feitas com eletrodo íon específico. RESULTADOS As concentrações (ppm F) de FT [média; desvio padrão (DP); n] encontradas nos dentifrícios A (1.502,3; DP = 45,6; n = 33), B (1.135,5; DP = 52,7; n = 48) e D (936,8; DP = 20,5; n = 8) foram próximas ao descrito na embalagem, 1.500, 1.100 e 1.000 ppm F, respectivamente. No dentifrício C, foi encontrada média de 274,1 ppm (DP = 219,7; n = 10) de FT, divergindo da concentração declarada de 1.500 ppm F. Em acréscimo, as cinco bisnagas do lote no 11681118 do dentifrício C não foram fluoretadas. Quanto ao FST, à exceção do dentifrício D (937,9; DP = 40,29), os demais apresentaram concentração inferior ao seu respectivo FT. CONCLUSÃO Observou-se problemas graves de quantidade e qualidade do fluoreto nos dentifrícios distribuídos pelo SUS em Manaus, mostrando a necessidade de vigilância desses produtos e ratificando a urgência da revisão da resolução ANVISA RDC Nº 530.

2.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 45-54, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345520

ABSTRACT

Abstract The ability of mouth rinses, available in the international market, to form reaction products on demineralized enamel (bioavailability test) was evaluated in vitro. Nine mouth rinses purchased in Chile were evaluated; eight formulated with NaF (one containing 100 µg F/mL and seven containing 226) and one with Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL as ion F). Demineralized enamel slabs (n=15 per mouth rinse) were sectioned; one half was subjected to the assigned mouth rinse treatment for 10 min and the other half was used to obtain baseline data. Loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were determined with an ion-specific electrode and the values were expressed in µg F/cm2. The concentration of fluoride and the pH of the mouth rinses were previously determined. Concentrations of loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were independently analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). The loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride concentrations (µg F/cm2) formed ranged from 3.2 to 36.2 and 0.4 to 1.7, respectively. Loosely bound fluoride formed on enamel was significantly more effective in discriminating the effect of different commercial mouth rinses than firmly bound fluoride. Mouth rinses with 226 ppm F as NaF and low pH presented significantly greater bioavailability of fluoride on enamel than those with higher pH or lower NaF concentration. The mouth rinse with Na2FPO3 showed low reactivity. Although further studies are necessary, the findings showed that commercial fluoride-containing mouth rinses have important variations in enamel fluoride bioavailability, which may result in differences on anticaries efficacy.


Resumo Os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais fluoretados diferem na concentração e tipo de sal de fluoreto, no pH e têm alguns ingredientes que podem interferir na reatividade do fluoreto com o esmalte desmineralizado. A capacidade de enxaguatórios bucais comerciais de formar produtos de reação em esmalte desmineralizado (teste de biodisponibilidade) foi avaliada in vitro. Nove enxaguatórios bucais adquiridos no Chile foram avaliados, oito formulados com NaF (um contendo 100 µg F/mL e sete contendo 226) e um com Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL como íon F). Os blocos de esmalte desmineralizados (n=15 por grupo) foram seccionados, uma metade foi submetida ao tratamento com o enxaguatório designado por 10 min e a outra metade foi usada para dados baseline. Fluoreto fracamente e firmemente ligados formados no esmalte foram determinados com um eletrodo íon-específico e os valores foram expressos em µg F /cm2. A concentração de fluoreto e o pH dos enxaguatórios foi previamente determinada. As concentrações de fluoreto tipo fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formadas no esmalte foram analisadas independentemente por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α=5%). As concentrações de fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formados variaram de 3,2 a 36,2 e 0,4 a 1,7, respectivamente. O fluoreto fracamente ligado formado no esmalte foi significativamente mais eficaz para discriminar o efeito dos diferentes enxaguatórios bucais comerciais do que o fluoreto firmemente ligado. Enxaguatórios bucais com 226 ppm F na forma de NaF e baixo pH apresentaram significativamente maior biodisponibilidade de fluoreto no esmalte do que aqueles com maior pH ou menor concentração de NaF. O enxaguatório com Na2FPO3 apresentou reatividade muito baixa. Embora mais estudos sejam necessários, os resultados mostraram que os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais contendo fluoreto apresentam variações importantes na biodisponibilidade do fluoreto, o que poderia resultar em diferenças na eficácia anticárie.


Subject(s)
Fluorides , Mouthwashes , Sodium Fluoride , Biological Availability , Dental Enamel
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 75-83, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345499

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in children and adolescents using fluoridated toothpaste, from areas with and without fluoridated water. Parents of 5-year-old children and 12-year-old adolescents from neighbourhoods that are supplied with and without fluoridated water answered questionnaires for determining socio-economic and demographic characteristics and habits related to oral health. The individuals were examined, and dental caries and fluorosis were measured by dmft/DMFT and TF indexes, respectively. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed (p < 0.05). Of 692 participants, 47.7% were 5-year-olds and 52.3% were 12-year-olds. The mean dmft/DMFT in the 5-year-olds/ 12-year-olds from Exposed and Not Exposed fluoridated water groups was 1.53 (± 2.47) and 3.54 (± 4.10) / 1.53 (± 1.81) and 3.54 (± 3.82), respectively. Children (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.71-4.75) and adolescents (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.24-3.05), who did not consume fluoridated water, had greater caries experience. Among adolescents, there was an association between fluoridated water and the prevalence of very mild/mild fluorosis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.23-9.19) and moderate fluorosis (OR = 11.11, 95% CI = 4.43-27.87). Children and adolescents, who consumed fluoridated water, presented lower prevalence and severity of dental caries compared to those who used only fluoridated toothpaste as the source of fluoride. There is an association between water fluoridation and very mild/mild and moderate fluorosis in adolescents.


Resumo Este estudo transversal avaliou a prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária e fluorose em crianças de 5 anos e adolescentes de 12 anos usuários de dentifrício fluoretado, em áreas com e sem água fluoretada. Os responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes responderam questionários para determinação de características socioeconômicas e demográficas e hábitos relacionados à saúde. Os indivíduos foram examinados e a cárie e a fluorose foram mensuradas pelos índices ceo-d / CPOD e TF, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, bivariadas e de regressão logística (p <0,05). Dos 692 participantes, 47,7% tinham 5 anos e 52,3% tinham 12 anos. A média de ceod / CPOD em crianças de 5/12 anos dos grupos de exposto e não exposto à água fluoretada foi 1,53 (± 2,47) e 3,54 (± 4,10) / 1,53 (± 1,81) e 3,54 (± 3,82), respectivamente. Crianças (OR = 2,86, IC 95% = 1,71-4,75) e adolescentes (OR = 1,95, IC 95% = 1,24-3,05) que não consumiram água fluoretada tiveram maior experiência de cárie. Entre os adolescentes, houve associação entre a água fluoretada e a prevalência de fluorose muito leve / leve (OR = 5,45, IC 95%: 3,23-9,19) e fluorose moderada (OR = 11,11, IC 95% = 4,43-27,87). Crianças e adolescentes que consumiram água fluoretada apresentaram menor prevalência e severidade de cárie dentária em comparação com aqueles que usaram apenas dentifrício fluoretado como fonte de flúor. Houve uma associação entre a fluoretação da água e fluorose muito leve / leve e moderada em adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentifrices , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , DMF Index , Fluoridation , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorides
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 90-99, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339331

ABSTRACT

Abstract The ability of mouthrinses, available in the international market, to form reaction products on demineralized enamel (bioavailability test) was evaluated in vitro. Nine mouthrinses purchased in Chile were evaluated; eight formulated with NaF (one containing 100 µg F/mL and seven containing 226) and one with Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL as ion FPO3 ). Demineralized enamel slabs (n=15 per mouthrinse) were sectioned; one half was subjected to the assigned mouthrinse treatment for 10 min and the other half was used to obtain baseline data. Loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were determined with an ion-specific electrode and the values were expressed in µg F/cm2. The concentration of fluoride and the pH of the mouthrinses were previously determined. Concentrations of loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride formed on enamel were independently analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). The loosely bound and firmly bound fluoride concentrations formed ranged from 3.2 to 36.2 and 0.4 to 1.7, respectively. Loosely bound fluoride formed on enamel was significantly more effective in discriminating the effect of different commercial mouthrinses than firmly bound fluoride. Mouthrinses with 226 ppm F as NaF and low pH presented significantly greater bioavailability of fluoride on enamel than those with higher pH or lower NaF concentration. The mouthrinse with Na2FPO3 showed low reactivity. Although further studies are necessary, the findings showed that commercial fluoride-containing mouthrinses have important variations in enamel fluoride bioavailability, which may result in differences on anticaries efficacy.


Resumo Os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais fluoretados diferem na concentração e tipo de sal de fluoreto, no pH e têm alguns ingredientes que podem interferir na reatividade do fluoreto com o esmalte desmineralizado. A capacidade de enxaguatórios bucais comerciais de formar produtos de reação em esmalte desmineralizado (teste de biodisponibilidade) foi avaliada in vitro. Nove enxaguatórios bucais adquiridos no Chile foram avaliados, oito formulados com NaF (um contendo 100 µg F/mL e sete contendo 226) e um com Na2FPO3 (226 µg F/mL como íon F). Os blocos de esmalte desmineralizados (n=15 por grupo) foram seccionados, uma metade foi submetida ao tratamento com o enxaguatório designado por 10 min e a outra metade foi usada para dados baseline. Fluoreto fracamente e firmemente ligados formados no esmalte foram determinados com um eletrodo íonespecífico e os valores foram expressos em µg F /cm2. A concentração de fluoreto e o pH dos enxaguatórios foi previamente determinada. As concentrações de fluoreto tipo fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formadas no esmalte foram analisadas independentemente por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α=5%). As concentrações de fluoreto fracamente ligado e fortemente ligado formados variaram de 3,2 a 36,2 e 0,4 a 1,7, respectivamente. O fluoreto fracamente ligado formado no esmalte foi significativamente mais eficaz para discriminar o efeito dos diferentes enxaguatórios bucais comerciais do que o fluoreto firmemente ligado. Enxaguatórios bucais com 226 ppm F na forma de NaF e baixo pH apresentaram significativamente maior biodisponibilidade de fluoreto no esmalte do que aqueles com maior pH ou menor concentração de NaF. O enxaguatório com Na2FPO3 apresentou reatividade muito baixa. Embora mais estudos sejam necessários, os resultados mostraram que os enxaguatórios bucais comerciais contendo fluoreto apresentam variações importantes na biodisponibilidade do fluoreto, o que poderia resultar em diferenças na eficácia anticárie


Subject(s)
Dental Enamel , Fluorides , Biological Availability
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e083, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285729

ABSTRACT

Abstract For fluoride to be effective in controlling caries, it should be bioavailable in commercial products, so that it can be released into the mouth in the products it contains. We chemically determined the available fluoride and pH in nine mouth rinses marketed in Chile, and eleven, in Brazil, and then discussed the legislation in force in both countries, regarding the anticaries potential of these oral hygiene products. The fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode (F-ISE), using the direct technique. The determinations were made in duplicate, and the results were expressed in ppm F (μg F/mL). The total fluoride concentration found in all the mouth rinses evaluated ranged from 94.7 to 233.5 ppm F, and closely matched what was declared by the manufacturers (100.0 to 226.2 ppm F). However, some mouth rinses showed lower fluoride concentrations (90 and 180 ppm F) in both countries. A Na2FPO3-formulated mouth rinse was found only in Chile, with 216.8 ppm F as the FPO32- ion, and 4.9 ppm F as the F-. The findings show that fluoride was potentially bioavailable in all the mouth rinses evaluated. Regarding the national legislations, although the mouthwashes sold in Brazil comply with the Brazilian legislation, discrepancies were found for Chile. However, neither country had a legislation matching the best available evidence on fluoride mouthwash efficacy for caries control. Thus, some products with low fluoride concentrations (below 226 ppm F), or manufactured with a fluoride salt other than NaF (Na2FPO3) are being sold in the Brazilian and Chilean markets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chile , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Brazil , Fluorides/analysis , Mouthwashes
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e201689, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1152215

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine total fluoride (TF) concentration in Na2FPO3/Ca-based toothpastes, using fluoride ion selective electrode (F-ISE) by the direct technique, it is necessary to use acid (Ac+) to hydrolyze the FPO32- ion and to dissolve insoluble fluoride salts bound to the abrasive. For NaF/silica-based toothpastes, the use of acid is not necessary (Ac-) and a simplified protocol could be followed. Methods: Thus, we evaluated TF concentration in seven brands of NaF/silica-based toothpastes, following the validated conventional Cury's protocol (Ac+) or a simplification of this protocol (Ac-).Fluoride was analyzed with ISE calibrated with fluoride standard solutions prepared in the same conditions as the samples (Ac+ or Ac-). Results: The mean (±SD; n=21) of TF concentrations (µg F/g) found by Ac+ (971.3±191.2) and Ac- (982.4±201.3) protocols were not statistically different (t test, p=0.22). The TF concentrations found agree with those declared by the manufacturers, except for one toothpaste imported from China. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the determination of fluoride in NaF/silica-based toothpastes can be accurately made using a simplified protocol of analysis


Subject(s)
Silicic Acid , Toothpastes , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Dentifrices , Fluorides
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190720, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134776

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study evaluated the clinical effect of violet LED light on in-office bleaching used alone or combined with 37% carbamide peroxide (CP) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Methodology A total of 100 patients were divided into five groups (n=20): LED, LED/CP, CP, LED/HP and HP. Colorimetric evaluation was performed using a spectrophotometer (ΔE, ΔL, Δa, Δb) and a visual shade guide (ΔSGU). Calcium (Ca)/phosphorous (P) ratio was quantified in the enamel microbiopsies. Measurements were performed at baseline (T 0 ), after bleaching (T B ) and in the 14-day follow-up (T 14 ). At each bleaching session, a visual scale determined the absolute risk (AR) and intensity of tooth sensitivity (TS). Data were evaluated by one-way (ΔE, Δa, ΔL, Δb), two-way repeated measures ANOVA (Ca/P ratio), and Tukey post-hoc tests. ΔSGU and TS were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney, and AR by Chi-Squared tests (a=5%). Results LED produced the lowest ΔE (p<0.05), but LED/HP promoted greater ΔE, ΔSGU and Δb (T 14 ) than HP (p<0.05). No differences were observed in ΔE and ΔSGU for LED/CP and HP groups (p>0.05). ΔL and Δa were not influenced by LED activation. After bleaching, LED/CP exhibited greater Δb than CP (p>0.05), but no differences were found between these groups at T 14 (p>0.05). LED treatment promoted the lowest risk of TS (16%), while HP promoted the highest (94.4%) (p<0.05). No statistical differences of risk of TS were found for CP (44%), LED/CP (61%) and LED/HP (88%) groups (p>0.05). No differences were found in enamel Ca/P ratio among treatments, regardless of evaluation times. Conclusions Violet LED alone produced the lowest bleaching effect, but enhanced HP bleaching results. Patients treated with LED/CP reached the same efficacy of HP, with reduced risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity and none of the bleaching protocols adversely affected enamel mineral content.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Phototherapy/methods , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Bleaching Agents/administration & dosage , Carbamide Peroxide/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Light , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Colorimetry , Combined Modality Therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/radiation effects , Dentin Sensitivity/chemically induced
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 385-396, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011560

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the decomposition rate (DR), pH, enamel color alteration (DE) and whiteness index (DWI) promoted by at-home and in-office bleaching. Enamel surface was submitted to (n=10): at-home (10%, 15%, 20% carbamide peroxide - CP, 6% hydrogen peroxide -HP) and three 35% HP agents with light irradiation (LED, laser, and halogen) or no treatment (control). The DR and pH of agents were measured after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h (at-home) or after 5, 15, 20, 30 and 40 min (in-office). Color parameters (L*, a*, b*, DE, DWI) were determined at baseline and after bleaching. DR, pH, L*, a*, b* data were analyzed by one-way (at-home) or two-way (in-office) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey test. DE and DWI, by one-way (at-home) or two-way (in-office) ANOVA and Tukey test. DR of at-home agents was similar after 6 and 8 h (p>0.05), with pH close to neutral (6.5 to 6.9, CP) or acid 5.9 (6% HP). From 4 to 8 h, DE was higher for 15% and 20% CP compared with 10% CP (p<0.05). After 40 min, DR of 35% HP agents was similar and all exhibited significant DE in one application (p<0.05), regardless light irradiation. DWI indicated whitening effect with no differences among groups (p>0.05). One 35% HP showed alkaline pH, and the others, pH < 5.5. At-home agents could be applied for 2 h (15%, 20% CP, 6% HP) and 4 h (10% CP) and the in-office agents, up to 40 min in one application, without light.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a taxa de decomposição (DR), pH, alteração da cor do esmalte (∆E) e índice de clareamento (DWI) promovido por agentes clareadores caseiros e de consultório. A superfície do esmalte foi submetida a (n=10): agentes caseiros (10%, 15%, 20% de peróxido de carbamida - CP e 6% de peróxido de hidrogênio - HP) e três agentes a base de HP a 35% comirradiação por luz (LED, laser e halógena) ou sem tratamento (controle). A DR e pH dos agentes foi mensurada após 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8h (agentes caseiros) e após 5, 15, 20, 30 e 40 min (agentes de consultório). Parâmetros de cor (L*, a*, b*, DE e DWI) foram determinados inicialmente e após clareamento. Os dados da DR, pH, L*, a*, b* foram analisados por ANOVA um fator (agentes caseiros) ou dois fatores (agentes de consultório) de medidas repetidas e teste Tukey. ΔE e DWI por ANOVA um fator (agentes caseiros) e dois fatores (agentes de consultório) e teste Tukey. A DR dos agentes clareadores caseiros foi similar após 6 e 8 h (p>0.05), com pH próximo ao neutro (6,5 a 6,9 - CP) ou ácido (5,9- HP 6%). De 4 a 8 h, a ∆E foi maior para CP 15% e 20% comparado ao CP 10% (p<0.05). Após 40 min, a DR dos agentes HP 35% foi similar e todos exibiram ∆E significante em uma aplicação (p<0.05), independente da aplicação de luz. DWI indicou efeito clareador, sem diferenças entre os grupos (p>0.05). Um agente HP 35% exibiu pH alcalino, e os outros, pH<5.5. Os agentes clareadores caseiros poderiam ser aplicados por 2 h (15%, 20% CP e 6% HP) e 4 h (CP 10%), e os agentes clareadores de consultório, até 40 min em uma aplicação, sem luz.


Subject(s)
Tooth Bleaching , Bleaching Agents , Tooth Bleaching Agents , Peroxides , Urea , Color , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrogen Peroxide
9.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 17: e18038, 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-963977

ABSTRACT

Image methods such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are powerful tools to help clinicians on diagnosis and preoperative planning. They provide an accurate view of regional anatomy, anatomical variations and the presence of diseases. Compared to CT, CBCT produces images with adequate spatial resolution with smaller fields of view at lower radiation doses. It has emerged as a potential alternative for obtaining 3D evaluation of the paranasal sinus at relatively modest costs. The aim of this review was to verify whether CBCT images offer an additional value to the evaluation of paranasal sinus


Subject(s)
Paranasal Sinuses , Diagnostic Imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
10.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(4): 393-398, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794614

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fluoride present in toothpaste at 1,100 µg/g is considered effective on caries control. However, under high cariogenic challenge due to increasing sugar exposure, higher fluoride concentration (5,000 µg/g) could be necessary to compensate the unbalance on caries process. This was tested in a pH-cycling regimen, which evaluated the effect of fluoride concentration relative to toothpaste on reduction of enamel demineralization under conditions of two levels of cariogenic challenge. Enamel slabs (n=20) were subjected to two pH-cycling regimens, simulating 8x and 16x/day sugar exposure and were treated with solutions containing: 0 (no fluoride), 275 or 1,250 µg F/mL, resulting in 6 treatment groups: 4-h/0-F; 8-h/0-F; 4-h/275-F; 8-h/275-F; 4-h/1,250-F and 8-h/1,250-F. The 275 and 1,250 µg F/mL concentrations simulate mouth salivary dilution when 1,100 and 5,000 µg/g toothpastes are used. Enamel demineralization was assessed by surface (%SHL) and cross-sectional hardness. Fluoride taken up by enamel was also evaluated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA one-way and Tukey's test. The treatment with 1,250 µg F/mL significantly reduced %SHL compared with 275 µg F/mL (p<0.05), irrespective the level of cariogenic challenge (4-h/1,250-F vs. 4-h/275-F and 8-h/1,250-F vs 8-h/275-F comparisons, respectively). These data were supported by fluoride concentration found in enamel. These findings suggest that higher fluoride concentrations could partly compensate the greater caries risk under higher cariogenic challenge due to increasing sugar exposure.


Resumo O fluoreto presente em dentifrícios de 1,100 µg/g é considerado efetivo no controle de cárie dental. No entanto, sob alto desafio cariogênico devido ao aumento da exposição ao açúcar, maior concentração de fluoreto (5.000 µg/g) poderia ser necessária para compensar o desequilíbrio no processo de cárie. Isso foi testado em um modelo de ciclagens de pH, que avaliou o efeito da concentração do fluoreto, relacionada ao dentifrício, na redução da desmineralização do esmalte dental sob condição de dois níveis de desafio cariogênico. Blocos de esmalte (n=20) foram submetidos a dois regimes de ciclagens de pH, simulando 8 e 16 exposições diárias ao açúcar, e foram tratados com soluções contendo: 0 (sem flúor), 275 ou 1.250 µg F/mL, resultando em 6 grupos de tratamento: 4-h/0-F; 8-h/0-F; 4-h/275-F; 8-h/275-F; 4-h/1.250-F e 8-h/1.250-F. As concentrações de 275 e 1.250 µg F/mL simularam uma diluição salivar na cavidade bucal quando dentifrícios de 1100 e 5000 µg F/g são usados. A desmineralização do esmalte foi avaliada na superfície (%PDS) e dureza em corte. Fluoreto incorporado pelo esmalte também foi determinado. Os dados foram analisados por Análise de Variância e teste de Tukey. O tratamento com 1.250 µg F/mL reduziu significativamente %PDS comparado ao de 275 µg F/mL (p<0,05), independente do nível do desafio cariogênico (comparações 4-h/1,250-F x 4-h/275-F e 8-h/1,250-F x 8-h/275-F, respectivamente). Esses resultados foram suportados pela concentração de fluoreto encontrada no esmalte. Os resultados sugerem que maior concentração de fluoreto pode parcialmente compensar um maior risco de cárie sob um maior desafio cariogênico provocado pelo aumento de exposição ao açúcar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Tooth Demineralization
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(3): 298-302, May-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782830

ABSTRACT

Abstract Low-fluoride (F) dentifrices (<600 µg F/g) are widely available worldwide, but evidence to recommend the use of such dentifrices, with either regular or improved formulations, is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anticaries potential of low-F dentifrices found in the Brazilian market, using a validated and tested pH-cycling model. Enamel blocks were selected by surface hardness (SH) and randomized into four treatment groups (n=12): non-F dentifrice (negative control), low-F dentifrice (500 μg F/g), low-F acidulated dentifrice (550 μg F/g) and 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice (positive control). The blocks were subjected to pH-cycling regimen for 8 days and were treated 2x/day with dentifrice slurries prepared in water (1:3, w/v). The pH of the slurries was checked, and only the acidulated one had low pH. After the pH cycling, SH was again determined and the percentage of surface hardness loss was calculated as indicator of demineralization. Loosely- and firmly-bound F concentrations in enamel were also determined. The 1,100 μg F/g dentifrice was more effective than the low-F ones to reduce enamel demineralization and was the only one that differed from the non-F (p<0.05). All F dentifrices formed higher concentration of loosely-bound F on enamel than the non-F (p<0.05), but the 1,100 μg F/g was the only one that differed from the non-F in the ability to form firmly-bound F. The findings suggest that the low-F dentifrices available in the Brazilian market, irrespective of their formulation, do not have anticaries potential.


Resumo Dentifrícios de baixa concentração de fluoreto (F) (< 600 µg F/g) estão amplamente disponíveis no mundo, mas ainda não há evidência para recomendar seu uso, quer seja em formulações regulares ou melhoradas. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial anticárie de dentifrícios de baixa concentração de fluoreto encontrados no mercado brasileiro, utilizando um modelo de ciclagens de pH validado e testado. Blocos de esmalte bovinos foram selecionados pela dureza de superfície e randomizados em quatro grupos (n=12): dentifrício sem fluoreto (controle negativo), dentifrício de baixa concentração de fluoreto (500 μg F/g), dentifrício acidulado de baixa concentração de fluoreto (550 μg F/g) e dentifrício de 1100 μg F/g (controle positivo). Os blocos foram submetidos ao regime de ciclagem de pH por 8 dias e tratados 2 x/dia com suspensões aquosas dos dentifrícios (1:3 p/v). O pH das suspensões foi checado, e apenas o acidulado tinha baixo pH. Após a ciclagem de pH, a dureza de superfície foi novamente determinada e a porcentagem de perda de dureza foi calculada como indicador de demineralização. As concentrações de fluoreto fracamente e firmemente ligado ao esmalte também foram determinadas. O dentifrício de 1.100 μg F/g foi mais efetivo do que os de baixa concentração na redução da desmineralização do esmalte e foi o único que diferiu significativamente do não fluoretado (p<0,05). Todos os dentifrícios fluoretados foram capazes de formar maiores concentrações de fluoreto fracamente ligado ao esmalte do que o não fluoretado (p<0,05), mas o de 1.100 μg F/g foi o único que diferiu do não fluoretado na capacidade de formar fluoreto firmemente ligado ao esmalte. Os resultados sugerem que dentifrícios de baixa concentração de fluoreto disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, independentemente da formulação, não têm potencial anticárie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dentifrices , Fluorides/analysis , Brazil , Dentifrices/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
12.
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 69(3): 248-251, Jul.-Set. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-874869

ABSTRACT

Dentifrício fluoretado deve conter pelo menos 1.000 ppm (mg F/kg) do seu flúor total (FT) na forma quimicamente solúvel (FST) para ter o potencial máximo de interferir com o processo de cárie. Em formulações de dentifrícios contendo cálcio no abrasivo, a concentração de FST (íon flúor + íon MFP) diminui em função do tempo de armazenamento. Os quatro dentifrícios a base de MFP/CaCO3 mais vendidos no Brasil são capazes de manter 1.000 ppm de FST nos produtos pelo prazo de um ano de fabricação, mas não é conhecido o que ocorre até o final do prazo de validade. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a concentração de FST nesses dentifrícios ao final do seu prazo de validade. Após as análises iniciais realizadas em 2010, os cremes dentais (n=30) foram armazenados à temperatura laboratorial (25°C) e as concentrações de FT e FST foram novamente determinadas em 2012, próximo a data de vencimento (36 meses). As análises foram feitas utilizando protocolo validado de extração, as determinações foram feitas com eletrodo íon específico e os resultados expressos em ppm F (mg F/kg). A concentração (média±dp;n=30) de FT encontrada (1.415,2±62,8) estava de acordo com o declarado pelo fabricante (1.450 ppm F), porém a de FST foi 44% menor (814,7±74,7). Ao final do prazo de validade, os dentifrícios brasileiros mais vendidos não mantêm uma concentração de FST máxima desejável, mostrando tanto a importância do Cirurgião-Dentista na orientação do paciente como a necessidade da revisão da resolução Anvisa nº 79 que regulamenta a matéria sobre dentifrícios


Fluoride toothpaste should contain at least 1,000 ppm (mg F/kg) of fluoride chemically soluble to have the maximum potential to interfere with the caries process. In formulations containing calcium--based abrasives, the concentration of total soluble fluoride (TSF = fluoride ion + MFP ion) decreases according to the storage time. The four MFP/CaCO3-based toothpastes most consumed in Brazil are able to maintain 1,000 ppm of TSF throughout one year of manufacturing, but it is not known if it would be maintained up to the expiration date. Thus, this study evaluated the concentration of TSF in these toothpastes at the end of expiration date. As control, the total fluoride (TF) concentration was also determined. After the analysis of fresh samples conducted in 2010, the toothpastes tube (n=30) were stored at temperature of 25°C and the determinations of TF and TSF concentrations were again assessed in 2012, close to the expiration date of the toothpastes (3 years). The analyses were made using a validated protocol of extraction, the determinations were made with an ion specific electrode and the results were expressed in ppm F (mg F/kg). The concentration (mean±SD;n=30) of TF found (1.415.2±62.8) was according to the declared by the manufacturer (1.450 ppm), but the TSF was 44% lower (814.7±74.7). At expiration, the most sold MFP/CaCO3-based brazilian toothpastes do not maintain the maximum TSF concentration required, showing not only the relevance of the Dentist to advise the patients about this subject, but also the necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about toothpastes


Subject(s)
Dental Caries/diagnosis , Fluorine Compounds/chemical synthesis , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Toothpastes/chemical synthesis , Dentifrices/administration & dosage , Dentifrices/chemical synthesis , Dentifrices/therapeutic use , Fluorine/administration & dosage , Fluorine/therapeutic use
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777217

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of factors related to caries and the possible consequences in controlling the disease may show the use of education as a relevant tool for achieving success in terms of dental health maintenance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between acquired knowledge and salivary factors related to dental caries for freshmen students (n = 44) and trainees (n = 32) of the Piracicaba Dental School. Knowledge about dental caries was evaluated by a discursive questionnaire analyzed by the content analysis technique. Salivary flow and pH, buffer capacity, salivary sucrase activity, microbiological counts (total microorganisms, mutans, and lactobacilli) and inorganic concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and fluoride in saliva were evaluated and compared between groups using the Mann–Whitney test, with a significance of 5%. Trainees demonstrated knowledge of the disease, whereas freshmen showed unspecific and confusing concepts. Among the factors analyzed, statistically significant differences were observed for pH, buffer capacity, sucrase activity, total microorganisms, and calcium and fluoride concentrations in saliva. Knowledge about the disease increases and improves over time during the undergraduate program (highest among trainees); although the students from the final year of the program consume more sugar than those from the previous one, they try to balance this activity with greater exposure to fluorides.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Dental Caries/microbiology , Education, Dental, Graduate/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students, Dental , Saliva/microbiology , Biofilms , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Saliva/chemistry
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 485-488, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732260

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus mutans is specifically suppressed by intensive treatment with chlorhexidine gel, but the time for recolonization and the effect on other oral bacteria are not totally clear. In this study, recolonization of mutans streptococci was evaluated in nine healthy adult volunteers, who were highly colonized with this microorganism. Stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline) and at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of 1% chlorhexidine gel on volunteers' teeth for two consecutive days. On each day, the gel was applied using disposable trays for 3 x 5 min with intervals of 5 min between each application. Saliva was plated on blood agar to determine total microorganisms (TM); on mitis salivarius agar to determine total streptococci (TS) and on mitis salivarius agar plus bacitracin to determine mutans streptococci (MS). Chlorhexidine was capable of reducing the counts of MS and the proportion of MS with regard to total microorganisms (%MS/TM) (p<0.05), but these values did not differ statistically from baseline (p>0.05) after 14 days for MS and 21 days for %MS/TM. The counts of TM and TS and the proportion of MS to total streptococci did not differ statistically from baseline (p>0.05) after chlorhexidine treatment. The results suggest that the effect of chlorhexidine gel treatment on suppression of mutans streptococci is limited to less than a month in highly colonized individuals.


Streptococcus mutans é especificamente suprimido pelo tratamento intensivo com clorexidina em gel, mas o tempo de recolonização e o efeito em outras bactérias orais não está totalmente claro. Nesse estudo, a recolonização de estreptococos do grupo mutans foi avaliado em nove voluntários adultos saudáveis, os quais eram altamente colonizados por esse microrganismo. Saliva estimulada foi coletada antes (baseline) e 1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação de clorexidina em gel a 1% nos dentes dos voluntários por dois dias consecutivos. Em cada dia, o gel foi aplicado utilizando moldeiras descartáveis por 3 x 5 min com intervalos de 5 min entre cada aplicação. A saliva foi inoculada em ágar sangue para determinação dos microrganismos totais (MT); em mitis salivarius ágar para determinação dos estreptococos totais (ET) e em meio mitis salivarius com bacitracina para determinar a contagem de estreptococos do grupo mutans (EGM). O tratamento com clorexidina foi capaz de reduzir as contagens de EGM e a proporção de EGM em relação aos microrganismos totais (%EGM/MT) (p<0,05), mas esses valores não diferiram estatisticamente do baseline (p>0,05) após 14 dias para EGM e 21 dias para %EGM/MT. As contagens de MT e ET e a proporção de EGM em relação a estreptococos totais não difereriram estatisticamente do baseline (p>0,05) após o tratamento com clorexidina. Os resultados sugerem que o efeito do tratamento com clorexidina em gel na supressão de estreptococos do grupo mutans é limitado a menos de um mês em indivíduos altamente colonizados. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bromodeoxyuridine/analogs & derivatives , Floxuridine/pharmacokinetics , Fluorouracil/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Bromodeoxyuridine/administration & dosage , Bromodeoxyuridine/blood , Bromodeoxyuridine/pharmacokinetics , Bromodeoxyuridine/therapeutic use , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Synergism , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Floxuridine/blood , Floxuridine/therapeutic use , Half-Life , Neoplasm Transplantation , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
15.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 13(1): 22-27, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709504

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the effects of three hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentrations on enamel mineral content (MC), following three peroxide applications and using three methods to measure the MC. METHODS : Forty samples were obtained from bovine incisors and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10). The control group remained untreated, while the experimental groups were tested for three HP concentrations (10%, 35% and 50%). The HP gel was applied 3 times on the enamel surface for 30 min per application and the samples were analyzed after each application. The MC of the enamel was determined before and after bleaching using Fourier transform (FT-Raman) spectroscopy and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (µEDXRF). The calcium (Ca) lost from the bleached enamel was quantified with an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett´s tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: The FT-Raman showed a decrease in MC for all bleaching treatments, without influence of the different HP concentrations or the number of applications. µEDXRF did not detect any changes in MC. CONCLUSIONS: Ca loss was observed by the AAS, with no difference among the three HP concentrations. The FT-Raman and AAS analyses detected MC reduction and Ca loss after HP bleaching.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bleaching Agents , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 22(4): 267-274, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595654

ABSTRACT

The oral cavity harbors several Streptococcus mutans genotypes, which could present distinct virulence properties. However, little is known about the diversity and virulence traits of S. mutans genotypes isolated in vivo under controlled conditions of high cariogenic challenge. This study evaluated the genotypic diversity of S. mutans isolated from dental biofilms formed in vivo under sucrose exposure, as well as their acidogenicity and aciduricity. To form biofilms, subjects rinsed their mouths with distilled water or sucrose solution 8 times/day for 3 days. S. mutans collected from saliva and biofilms were genotyped by arbitrarily-primed PCR. Genotypes identified in the biofilms were evaluated regarding their ability to lower the suspension pH through glycolysis and their acid susceptibility and F-ATPase activity. Most subjects harbored only one genotype in saliva, which was detected in almost all biofilm samples at high proportions. Genotypes isolated only in the presence of sucrose had higher acidogenicity than those isolated only in the presence of water. Genotypes from biofilms formed with sucrose were more aciduric after 30 and 60 min of incubation at pH 2.8 and 5.0, respectively. The present results suggest that biofilms formed under high cariogenic conditions may harbor more aciduric and acidogenic S. mutans genotypes.


A cavidade oral apresenta vários genótipos de Streptococcus mutans, que podem possuir diferentes capacidades de virulência. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a diversidade e virulência de genótipos de S. mutans isolados in vivo sob uma condição controlada de alto desafio cariogênico. Este estudo avaliou a diversidade genotípica de S. mutans identificados no biofilme dental formado in vivo na presença de sacarose, assim como a acidogenicidade e aciduricidade desses genótipos. Para possibilitar formação de biofilme, voluntários bochecharam com água destilada ou solução de sacarose 8x/dia durante 3 dias. S. mutans isolados da saliva e do biofilme dental foram genotipados por PCR com primers-arbitrários. Genótipos isolados do biofilme foram avaliados em relação à habilidade de reduzir o pH da suspensão devido à glicólise, em relação à susceptibilidade a ácidos e também atividade F-ATPase. A maioria dos voluntários apresentou apenas 1 genótipo na saliva, que foram detectados em quase todas as amostras de biofilme em altas proporções. Genótipos isolados somente na presença de sacarose apresentaram maior acidogenicidade do que aqueles genótipos isolados apenas na presença de água. Genótipos de biofilmes formados na presença de sacarose foram mais acidúricos após 30 e 60 min de incubação em pH 2,8 e 5,0, respectivamente. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que biofilmes formados sob condição de alto desafio cariogênico podem apresentar genótipos de S. mutans mais acidúricos e mais acidogênicos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Biofilms , Cariogenic Agents/administration & dosage , Mouth/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/classification , Sucrose/administration & dosage , Acids , Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases/analysis , Cross-Over Studies , Dental Deposits/microbiology , Genotype , Glycolysis , Genetic Variation/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microbial Viability , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Streptococcus mutans/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Virulence , Water/administration & dosage
17.
RGO (Porto Alegre) ; 58(1): 17-20, jan.-mar. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-873915

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate whether methylparaben and propylparaben, which present a similar chemical structure, increase fluoride uptake by demineralized dental enamel when present in buffered solutions. Methods: The study comprised an in vitro experiment using blocks of bovine dental enamel with artificial carious lesions. Enamel blocks were exposed to the following treatment (n=12): fluoride solution (200 ppm fluoride) - control; solution containing fluoride and 13 mM methylparaben; solution containing fluoride and 13 mM propylparaben in 35% propylene glycol; solution containing fluoride in 35% propylene glycol. All solutions were buffered (0.01 M cacodilate) and the pH was adjusted to 6.27. The blocks were exposed to the treatment solutions in the proportion of 2 ml per mm2 of exposed enamel area and fluoride formed was estimated after removing an enamel layer by acid etching. Fluoride extracted was determined by ion specific electrode and the amount of enamel removed was estimated by phosphorus analysis. ANOVA followed by Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis, with significance level at 5%. Results: The dental blocks of treatment groups containing both parabens and the control group presented similar fluoride concentration in enamel and no statistical difference was observed among them (p>0.05). The dental blocks of treatment group containing fluoride and propylene glycol showed the lowest value of fluoride present in enamel, which was significantly different from the control and fluoride and methylparaben groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Methyl and propylparaben in a buffered solution do not enhance fluoride uptake by demineralized dental enamel.


Objetivo: Avaliar se o metilparabeno e o propilparabeno, os quais apresentam uma estrutura química similar, aumentam a incorporaçãode fluoreto pelo esmalte dental desmineralizado quando presentes em soluções tamponadas. Métodos: O estudo envolveu um ensaio in vitro, com 48 blocos de esmalte dental bovino com lesão cariosa artificial. Os blocos de esmalte, 12 para cada grupo, foram expostos aos seguintes tratamentos: grupo 1 (controle), solução de fluoreto (200 ppm F), Grupo 2, solução contendo fluoreto e metilparabeno 13 mM; Grupo 3 solução contendo fluoreto e propilparabeno 13 mM em propilenoglicol 35% e Grupo 4, solução contendo fluoreto em propilenoglicol 35%. Todas as soluções foram tamponadas (cacodilato 0,01 M) e o pH ajustado para 6,27. Os blocos foram expostos a soluções de tratamento na proporção de 2 ml por mm2 da área de esmalte exposta e fluoreto formado foi estimado após remoção de uma camada de esmalte por ataque ácido. Flúor extraído foi determinado por eletrodo específico e a quantidade de esmalte removido foi estimada pela análise de fósforo. Análise de variância seguida do teste de Tukey foi usada para análise estatística, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Os blocos dentais dos grupos de tratamento contendo ambos parabenos e do grupo controle apresentaram concentrações de flúor similar no esmalte e nenhuma diferença estatística entre eles foi observada (p>0,05). Os blocos dentais do grupo de tratamento contendo fluoreto e propilenoglicol mostraram o valor mais baixo de flúor presente no esmalte, o qual foi significantemente diferente daquele dos grupos controle e flúor e metilparabeno (p<0,05). Conclusão: Metilparabeno e propilparabeno em uma solução tamponada não aumentam a incorporação de flúor pelo esmalte dental desmineralizado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Caries , Dental Enamel , Fluorides/pharmacology , Parabens/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques
18.
Rev. odonto ciênc ; 24(1): 6-9, jan.-mar. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-506367

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Bicarbonate (HCO-3) is an alkaline and buffering substance found in dentifrices, which could improve the anti-caries effect of fluoride (F). However, HCO-3 could reduce the formation of calcium fluoride-like (CaF2), the most important product of F reactivity with enamel, whose formation is higher in low pH. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate if HCO-3 interferes with the reactivity of F with human enamel. Methods: Five dentifrice formulations were evaluated: placebo of F and HCO-3 (pH 7.0); HCO-3 (pH 9.0); F (pH 7.0); F (pH 9.0) and F+HCO-3 (pH 9.0). F dentifrices contained NaF and all dentifrices were silica-based. The concentrations of total F (TF), CaF2 and firmly bound F (FA, fluorapatite-like) formed in enamel after 1-min reaction with dentifrice slurries (1:3) were determined. Results: The formation of TF, CaF2 and FA was reduced in 22.1 %, 47.9 % and 4.8 %, respectively, by the presence of HCO-3 in the dentifrice formulation. Conclusion: This in vitro data suggest that addition of HCO-3 to a dentifrice may interfere with the reactivity of F with enamel, reducing mainly the concentration of CaF2 formed.


Objetivo: O bicarbonato (HCO-3 ) é uma substância alcalina e tamponante encontrada em dentifrícios, que poderia melhorar o efeito anticárie do fluoreto (F). No entanto, HCO-3 poderia reduzir a formação de fluoreto de cálcio (CaF2), o mais importante produto da reatividade do F com esmalte, cuja formação é maior em baixo pH. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro se o HCO-3 interfere na reatividade do F com o esmalte humano. Metodologia: Cinco formulações de dentifrícios foram avaliadas: placebo de F e HCO-3(pH 7,0); HCO-3 (pH 9,0); F (pH 7,0); F (pH 9,0) e F+HCO-3 (pH 9,0). Os dentifrícios fluoretados continham NaF e todos continham sílica como abrasivo. As concentrações de F total (FT), CaF2 e F firmemente ligado (FA, tipo flúorapatita) formadas no esmalte após 1 minuto de reação com as suspensões dos dentifrícios (1:3) foram determinadas. Resultados: A formação de FT, CaF2 e FA foram reduzidas em 22,1 %; 47,9 % e 4,8 %, respectivamente, pela presença de HCO-3 na formulação do dentifrício. Conclusão: Os resultados in vitro sugerem que a adição de HCO-3 a um dentifrício pode interferir com a reatividade do F com o esmalte, principalmente reduzindo a concentração de CaF2 formado no esmalte.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bicarbonates/adverse effects , Bicarbonates/pharmacology , Dental Enamel , Fluorides/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Dentifrices
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 16(6): 403-407, Nov.-Dec. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-499889

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11) presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Genetic Variation/genetics , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Bacteriological Techniques , DNA Primers , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Ethidium , Fluorescent Dyes , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/classification , Streptococcus mutans/pathogenicity , Virulence
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 15(5): 392-398, Sept.-Oct. 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-465919

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate a model of inducing enamel subsurface demineralization for evaluating diagnostic imaging methods. Fifty sound teeth had their crowns coated with acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 7 mm² circular window of exposed enamel in one of the proximal surfaces. The specimens were assigned to 5 groups (4 experimental and the control) and were kept immersed in a buffer solution at pH 4.8, 50 percent saturated in relation to enamel, for 60, 75, 90 and 120 days, or were not exposed to the solution. Digital radiographs were taken, prior to and after each immersion period, and interpreted by a radiologist. For validation, the enamel was submitted to microhardness profiling. In addition, the solutions were analyzed for phosphorus (Pi) and calcium (Ca) concentrations. Microhardness data were evaluated using two-way ANOVA (p<0.05) and Tukey's test. Pi and Ca concentrations were compared using one-way ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The performance of radiography was assessed by ROC analysis. The microhardness values for the control group ranged from 405 to 432 KHN. Of the 4 experimental groups, the 60-day group demonstrated the highest values (179-379 KHN) and the 120-day group, the lowest values (103-277 KHN). The lowest total concentrations of Pi and Ca (1.74 mM and 2.63 mM, respectively) were found in the solutions of the 60-day group, indicating the lowest rate of mineral loss, however, there was no significant difference among the other experimental groups. The performance for detecting images consistent with caries lesions was high (Az = 0.89). Therefore, this in vitro model of inducing demineralization may be considered suitable for research intended to evaluate imaging methods for the diagnosis of proximal caries lesions.

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