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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918973

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several conditions may cause difficulties with oral feeding. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is commonly performed on patients who require enteral feeding for >2-3 weeks. This study examined the nutritional state of patients who required enteral feeding and underwent PEG to quantify the benefits of the procedure. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included patients who underwent PEG at the Chungnam National University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. A gastroenterologist performed all PEG procedures using the pull technique, and all patients were followed up for >3 weeks postoperatively. The BMI and lymphocyte count, along with the levels of hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, BUN, and creatinine pre-PEG and between 3 weeks and 6 months post-PEG were evaluated. @*Results@#Overall, 151 patients (116 males; mean age 64.92 years) were evaluated. Of these patients, 112 (74.2%), 34 (22.5%), and five (3.3%) underwent PEG tube insertion because of neurological diseases, malignancy, and other conditions, respectively. The BMI and the hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher post-PEG than pre-PEG. @*Conclusions@#These findings highlight the usefulness of PEG in the management of nutritionally poor patients with difficulties in feeding orally.

3.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 7-13, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is initiated from the acrosyringium. However, it is unclear whether PPP should be considered a distinct entity or should be classified into the spectrum of pustular psoriasis, also known as palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (PPPP). @*Objective@#We evaluated the differences in immunohistochemical staining in patients with PPP to determine whether they can be classified into two groups based on psoriatic properties or acrosyringeal properties. @*Methods@#Nineteen punch biopsy specimens diagnosed with PPP were collected. Antibodies were chosen for identifying the acrosyringeal properties of α-3-nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α-3-nAChR), psoriatic properties of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-36R, inflammatory cell properties of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide 18/LL-37, IL-8, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), and CD3. The degree of staining of the epidermis was evaluated using the ordinal scale (0~3). The principal component analysis was used to derive principal components (PCs) of common variation between the stains, and the two groups were divided using PCs and cluster analysis. @*Results@#Three main PCs explained 64% of the total variance in PPP. PC1 (pustular psoriasis properties) showed a higher correlation with IL-36R. PC2 (acrosyringeal/inflammatory properties) showed a higher correlation with α-3-nAChR, IL-8, LCN2, and CD3. PC3 (psoriasis properties) showed a higher correlation with IL-23. PC1 showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0284) between the two groups. We identified three PCs associated with the pathomechanisms of PPP. @*Conclusion@#Although PC1 showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups, we did not identify differential protein expression related to the pathogenesis between PPP and PPPP.

4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 139-144, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895559

ABSTRACT

The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in which radiation therapy results in the regression of metastatic lesions at a distance from the irradiated lesions. Here, we have described a 37-year-old woman with advanced luminal B breast cancer who presented with severe pain at multiple sites. Multiple bone, lymph node, and lung metastases were found on computed tomography (CT). She refused to receive any systemic therapy, but she agreed to receive palliative radiotherapy (RT). Multi-site RT (25 or 30 Gy in 5 fractions) was performed for pain palliation. The pain was completely relieved after RT. Furthermore, the pulmonary CT after 3 months of RT showed a dramatic regression of the previous multiple lung metastases. This is the case report demonstrating the abscopal effect in South Korea.

5.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 194-198, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892570

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old man diagnosed with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presented to the hospital with pain in the perineal region. He had been taking lenvatinib every day for 2 months after he was diagnosed with HCC with metastases to the lymph node, small bowel mesentery, and retroperitoneal space. Enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed mild elevation in intensity in the perineal subcutaneous tissue with subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was diagnosed with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3, skin ulceration of stage IV with full-thickness skin loss and tissue necrosis in the muscular layer. The patient was taken off the medication with prescription of antibiotics, and after 3 weeks, the skin has fully recovered. This is the first report of an HCC patient who presented with a skin ulceration of stage IV after lenvatinib treatment. We recommend stopping the medication immediately and changing to alternative treatments with appropriate supportive care.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889752

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze whether patients with lung cancer have a higher susceptibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe presentation, and higher mortality than those without lung cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#A nationwide cohort of confirmed COVID-19 (n=8,070) between January 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020, and a 1:15 age-, sex-, and residence-matched cohort (n=121,050) were constructed. A nested case-control study was performed to compare the proportion of patients with lung cancer between the COVID-19 cohort and the matched cohort. @*Results@#The proportion of patients with lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort (0.5% [37/8,070]) than in the matched cohort (0.3% [325/121,050]) (p=0.002). The adjusted odds ratio [OR] of having lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted OR, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.10). Among patients in the COVID-19 cohort, compared to patients without lung cancer, those with lung cancer were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (54.1% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.001), including mortality (18.9% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001). The adjusted OR for the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer relative to those without lung cancer was 2.24 (95% CI, 1.08 to 4.74). @*Conclusion@#The risk of COVID-19 occurrence and severe presentation, including mortality, may be higher in patients with lung cancer than in those without lung cancer.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889348

ABSTRACT

Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a disastrous condition that can lead to permanent blindness. As such, rapid diagnosis and treatment are critical. Here, we report a patient who presented with retrobulbar hemorrhage following an orbital floor fracture. Restoration of inferior orbital wall with porous polyethylene implant was underwent. Four days after the orbital floor reconstruction, the patient smoked a cigarette outdoors in –3˚C weather. Cold temperature and smoking caused an increase in his systemic blood pressure. The elevated blood pressure increased intraorbital pressure to the extent of causing central retinal artery occlusion and exacerbated oozing. During exploratory surgery, 3 mL of hematoma and diffuse oozing without arterial bleeding were observed. Prompt diagnosis and treatment prevented vision impairment. Few studies have reported on the risk factors for retrobulbar hemorrhage. This case showed that daily activities, such as exposure to cold weather or tobacco smoking, could be risk factors for retrobulbar hemorrhage.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889330

ABSTRACT

Background@#For the correction of small breasts with grade I ptosis, it is very challenging for plastic surgeons to obtain excellent aesthetic results by performing simultaneous breast augmentation and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) lifting. Previous research has introduced one-stage augmentation mastopexy, but most studies described using the periareolar approach. The current study proposes a technique for augmentation mastopexy using the inframammary fold approach for augmentation and the periareolar approach for mastopexy. @*Methods@#Twenty patients were enrolled, and surgery was performed on 40 breasts. A pocket was made with the inframammary fold approach and the dual-plane method; subsequently, a tear-drop shape implant was inserted using a funnel. We performed NAC lifting using the de-epithelialization and interlocking purse-string suture method through the periareolar approach. @*Results@#The mean distance from the mid-clavicular line to the nipple was 23.4 cm preoperatively, 19.6 cm at 7 days of follow-up, and 20.3 cm at 12 months of follow-up. Complications such as hematoma, infection, NAC necrosis, capsular contracture, and wound dehiscence were not reported. @*Conclusions@#We performed successful breast augmentation and mild ptosis correction. No specific complications were observed during 1 year of postoperative follow-up. Our method is a simple and fast method that enables surgeons to perform augmentation and mastopexy in one stage for breasts with grade I ptosis.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889327

ABSTRACT

Tattoos, which people choose to have performed for various reasons, can have multiple colors, ranging from conventional black to red, yellow, blue, and others. As tattoos have become increasingly popular, the need for tattoo removal has also grown, and the most commonly used method for removal is a laser. However, the extent to which various types of lasers remove different tattoo pigments is clearly important. Although extensive research has been done on black tattoos, red tattoos have not been adequately studied, and there are few case reports on red tattoos. We present a case of effective removal of a red tattoo from the lips using a picosecond laser.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904245

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 139-144, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903263

ABSTRACT

The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in which radiation therapy results in the regression of metastatic lesions at a distance from the irradiated lesions. Here, we have described a 37-year-old woman with advanced luminal B breast cancer who presented with severe pain at multiple sites. Multiple bone, lymph node, and lung metastases were found on computed tomography (CT). She refused to receive any systemic therapy, but she agreed to receive palliative radiotherapy (RT). Multi-site RT (25 or 30 Gy in 5 fractions) was performed for pain palliation. The pain was completely relieved after RT. Furthermore, the pulmonary CT after 3 months of RT showed a dramatic regression of the previous multiple lung metastases. This is the case report demonstrating the abscopal effect in South Korea.

12.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 194-198, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900274

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old man diagnosed with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presented to the hospital with pain in the perineal region. He had been taking lenvatinib every day for 2 months after he was diagnosed with HCC with metastases to the lymph node, small bowel mesentery, and retroperitoneal space. Enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed mild elevation in intensity in the perineal subcutaneous tissue with subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was diagnosed with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3, skin ulceration of stage IV with full-thickness skin loss and tissue necrosis in the muscular layer. The patient was taken off the medication with prescription of antibiotics, and after 3 weeks, the skin has fully recovered. This is the first report of an HCC patient who presented with a skin ulceration of stage IV after lenvatinib treatment. We recommend stopping the medication immediately and changing to alternative treatments with appropriate supportive care.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 284-294, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874597

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sorafenib is the first approved systemic treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its clinical utility is limited, especially in Asian countries. Several reports have suggested the survival benefits of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) for advanced HCC with main portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of sorafenib-based therapy with that of HAIC-based therapy for advanced HCC with main PVTT. @*Methods@#Advanced HCC patients with main PVTT treated with sorafenib or HAIC between 2008 and 2016 at Korea University Medical Center were included. We evaluated overall survival (OS), time-to-progression (TTP), and the disease control rate (DCR). @*Results@#Seventy-three patients were treated with sorafenib (n=35) or HAIC (n=38). Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between groups, except the presence of solid organ metastasis (46% vs 5.3%, p<0.001). The median OS time was not significantly different between the groups (6.4 months vs 10.0 months, p=0.139). TTP was longer in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (2.1 months vs 6.2 months, p=0.006). The DCR was also better in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (37% vs 76%, p=0.001). Subgroup analysis, which excluded patients with extrahepatic solid organ metastasis, showed the same trends for the median OS time (8.8 months vs 11.1 months, p=0.097), TTP (1.9 months vs 6.0 months, p<0.001), and DCR (53% vs 81%, p=0.030). @*Conclusions@#HAIC-based therapy may be an alternative to sorafenib for advanced HCC with main PVTT by providing longer TTP and a better DCR.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919971

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study analyzed the bone mineral densities of the lumbar vertebrae and femurs of patients with ankle fractures to determine the correlation between ankle fractures and osteoporosis. @*Materials and Methods@#From April 2002 to July 2014, one hundred consecutive ankle fracture patients with bone mineral density tests performed within post-traumatic one year were enrolled. The patients were divided into three age groups according to their age at the time of injury (group 1: <50, group 2: 50–69, group 3: ≥70). The types of ankle fractures were classified into unimalleolar, bimalleolar and trimalleolar fractures. The bone mineral density was analyzed using the T score, Z score, absolute value (g/cm 2 ) of the lumbar spine (L1–L4), femur neck, femur intertrochanter, and total femur. @*Results@#There were 3.2 times more females with ankle fractures than males, and the prevalence of osteoporosis according to age group was 0% in the group under 50 years, 24.2% in the 50 to 69-year-old group, and 15% in the group over 70 years. Osteoporosis was found in 30% of patients with a trimalleolar fracture in the 50 to 69-year-old group. In all patient groups, a lower age indicated a higher frequency of unimalleolar fractures. The relationship between the bone mineral density and the type of fracture is that the frequency of trimalleolar fracture increased with decreasing T score of the lumbar vertebrae and the absolute value of bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) and the Z score of the femur neck, but there were no other indicators. @*Conclusion@#Among the 100 patients with ankle fractures, females were more common than males, because osteoporosis was less severe in males. The incidence of unimalleolar fracture was higher than that of trimalleolar fracture. On the other hand, the correlation between the ankle fractures and the bone mineral density of the femur and lumbar spine was not significant.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875417

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Clinical equivalence of generic antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has not been demonstrated, particularly in cases with previous antiviral resistance. Entecavir 1 mg is prescribed frequently as a mono- or combination therapy in antiviral-resistant CHB patients. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of switching to generic entecavir 1 mg (Baracle ® ) in CHB patients taking brand-name entecavir 1 mg (Baraclude ® ) alone or in combination with other nucleotide analogs after the development of antiviral resistance. @*Methods@#This study was a single-arm prospective study. The primary endpoint was undetectable HBV DNA (<20 IU/mL) at 12 months after switching treatment. The biochemical and serologic responses, virologic breakthrough, and antiviral resistance rates were also evaluated. @*Results@#Forty CHB patients with undetectable HBV DNA through the brand-name entecavir 1 mg treatment as a mono- or combination therapy after developing antiviral resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogs were enrolled in this study. No significant difference in the HBV DNA non-detection rate was observed between the baseline and 12 months after switching therapy (p=0.324).Furthermore, non-inferiority of the generic entecavir 1 mg to the brand-name entecavir 1 mg with 10% margin in maintaining undetectable HBV DNA was demonstrated (95% CI -2.80 to 8.20%). Similarly, no difference in the biochemical response rate was observed after switching therapy. Serum hepatitis B e antigen loss was observed in 12.5%. No virologic breakthrough was reported. @*Conclusions@#Generic entecavir 1 mg is a reasonable alternative to the brand-name entecavir 1 mg in antiviral-resistant CHB patients with viral suppression.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897456

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze whether patients with lung cancer have a higher susceptibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe presentation, and higher mortality than those without lung cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#A nationwide cohort of confirmed COVID-19 (n=8,070) between January 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020, and a 1:15 age-, sex-, and residence-matched cohort (n=121,050) were constructed. A nested case-control study was performed to compare the proportion of patients with lung cancer between the COVID-19 cohort and the matched cohort. @*Results@#The proportion of patients with lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort (0.5% [37/8,070]) than in the matched cohort (0.3% [325/121,050]) (p=0.002). The adjusted odds ratio [OR] of having lung cancer was significantly higher in the COVID-19 cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted OR, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.10). Among patients in the COVID-19 cohort, compared to patients without lung cancer, those with lung cancer were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (54.1% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.001), including mortality (18.9% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001). The adjusted OR for the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer relative to those without lung cancer was 2.24 (95% CI, 1.08 to 4.74). @*Conclusion@#The risk of COVID-19 occurrence and severe presentation, including mortality, may be higher in patients with lung cancer than in those without lung cancer.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897052

ABSTRACT

Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a disastrous condition that can lead to permanent blindness. As such, rapid diagnosis and treatment are critical. Here, we report a patient who presented with retrobulbar hemorrhage following an orbital floor fracture. Restoration of inferior orbital wall with porous polyethylene implant was underwent. Four days after the orbital floor reconstruction, the patient smoked a cigarette outdoors in –3˚C weather. Cold temperature and smoking caused an increase in his systemic blood pressure. The elevated blood pressure increased intraorbital pressure to the extent of causing central retinal artery occlusion and exacerbated oozing. During exploratory surgery, 3 mL of hematoma and diffuse oozing without arterial bleeding were observed. Prompt diagnosis and treatment prevented vision impairment. Few studies have reported on the risk factors for retrobulbar hemorrhage. This case showed that daily activities, such as exposure to cold weather or tobacco smoking, could be risk factors for retrobulbar hemorrhage.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897034

ABSTRACT

Background@#For the correction of small breasts with grade I ptosis, it is very challenging for plastic surgeons to obtain excellent aesthetic results by performing simultaneous breast augmentation and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) lifting. Previous research has introduced one-stage augmentation mastopexy, but most studies described using the periareolar approach. The current study proposes a technique for augmentation mastopexy using the inframammary fold approach for augmentation and the periareolar approach for mastopexy. @*Methods@#Twenty patients were enrolled, and surgery was performed on 40 breasts. A pocket was made with the inframammary fold approach and the dual-plane method; subsequently, a tear-drop shape implant was inserted using a funnel. We performed NAC lifting using the de-epithelialization and interlocking purse-string suture method through the periareolar approach. @*Results@#The mean distance from the mid-clavicular line to the nipple was 23.4 cm preoperatively, 19.6 cm at 7 days of follow-up, and 20.3 cm at 12 months of follow-up. Complications such as hematoma, infection, NAC necrosis, capsular contracture, and wound dehiscence were not reported. @*Conclusions@#We performed successful breast augmentation and mild ptosis correction. No specific complications were observed during 1 year of postoperative follow-up. Our method is a simple and fast method that enables surgeons to perform augmentation and mastopexy in one stage for breasts with grade I ptosis.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897031

ABSTRACT

Tattoos, which people choose to have performed for various reasons, can have multiple colors, ranging from conventional black to red, yellow, blue, and others. As tattoos have become increasingly popular, the need for tattoo removal has also grown, and the most commonly used method for removal is a laser. However, the extent to which various types of lasers remove different tattoo pigments is clearly important. Although extensive research has been done on black tattoos, red tattoos have not been adequately studied, and there are few case reports on red tattoos. We present a case of effective removal of a red tattoo from the lips using a picosecond laser.

20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896541

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

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