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1.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 265-269, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002945

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a 70-year-old female with gastric extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (gastric MALT lymphoma) as a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction. Five years earlier, she initially presented with weight loss and anemia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed multiple gastric and duodenal ulcers with a pyloric deformity, while histology revealed chronic active inflammation and a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Three years earlier, she underwent EGD per the National Cancer Screening Program and was diagnosed with antral and duodenal ulcers. A forceps biopsy specimen from one of the ulcers showed the findings of gastric MALT lymphoma, but she did not visit the hospital for proper management. She visited complaining of a loss of appetite. EGD revealed a gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) caused by antral deformity and pyloric narrowing. A staged workup with CT and PET revealed full-layered, encircling antral wall thickening and several enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. She was finally diagnosed with a gastric MALT lymphoma at Ann Arbor stage I1E with translocation t(11;18). She was treated with palliative surgery for GOO and systemic chemotherapy with a CHOP regimen. This paper reports a gastric MALT lymphoma that progressed from superficial mucosal lesions to an overt mass with regional lymph node metastasis for five years. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2023;81:265 -269)

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e294-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001249

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal antiplatelet strategy for patients with ischemic stroke who were already on single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different antiplatelet regimens on vascular and safety outcomes at 1 year after non-cardioembolic stroke in patients previously on SAPT. @*Methods@#We identified 9,284 patients with acute non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke that occurred on SAPT using linked data. Patients were categorized into three groups according to antiplatelet strategy at discharge: 1) SAPT; 2) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT); and 3) triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT). One-year outcomes included recurrent ischemic stroke, composite outcomes (recurrent ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and death), and major bleeding. @*Results@#Of 9,284 patients, 5,565 (59.9%) maintained SAPT, 3,638 (39.2%) were treated with DAPT, and 81 (0.9%) were treated with TAPT. Multiple antiplatelet therapy did not reduce the risks of 1-year recurrent stroke (DAPT, hazard ratio [HR], 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92–1.27, P = 0.339; TAPT, HR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.27–1.91, P = 0.500) and 1-year composite outcome (DAPT, HR, 1.09, 95% CI, 0.68–1.97, P = 0.592; TAPT, HR, 1.46, 95% CI, 0.68–1.97, P = 0.592). However, the TAPT groups showed an increased risk of major bleeding complications (DAPT, HR, 1.23, 95% CI, 0.89–1.71, P = 0.208; TAPT, HR, 4.65, 95% CI, 2.01–10.74, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Additional use of antiplatelet agents in patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke who were already on SAPT did not reduce the 1-year incidence of vascular outcomes, although it increased the risk of bleeding complications.

3.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 201-207, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000753

ABSTRACT

A 58-year-old woman visited the hospital complaining of fatigue and indigestion lasting for more than 3 months. She had no medical history other than taking a calcium plus vitamin D supplement for osteopenia. The initial blood test showed a high calcium level of 14.0 mg/dL. Additional tests were performed to differentially diagnose hypercalcemia. The blood test results were as follows: serum parathyroid hormone (PTH)=247.0 pg/mL, PTH-related peptide <1.0 pg/mL, phosphorous=2.6 mg/dL, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D=14.5 pg/mL, creatinine=1.09 mg/dL, and 24 hr urine calcium=215 mg/dL. A 4.5 cm sized cystic lesion on the intra-thyroidal space was confirmed on neck sonography and 4-dimensional parathyroid computed tomography, but technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile parathyroid scintigraphy showed equivocal results. After removal of the cystic lesion, serum calcium and PTH were normalized, and parathyroid lipoadenoma was confirmed in the postoperative pathology. Clinical features of parathyroid lipoadenoma are known to be similar to common parathyroid adenoma, but imaging studies often report negative findings. Therefore, it is necessary to better understand this rare disease for the differential diagnosis. For the final diagnosis and treatment of this disease, parathyroidectomy with intraoperative PTH measurement may be required.

4.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 291-296, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977048

ABSTRACT

Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a pathological condition associated with severe neurological conditions in patients with acute brain injuries. Managing increased ICP based on optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is crucial for improving outcomes.Current Concepts: Cerebral autoregulation, the intrinsic ability to maintain stable cerebral blood flow across a wide range of CPP, is impaired in several brain injuries. CPP, the difference between the mean arterial pressure and the ICP, is a critical factor in maintaining cerebral blood flow. Therefore, optimal CPP is important in managing patients with acute brain injuries. In addition, monitoring cerebral autoregulation and its response to pathological derangements can help diagnose, manage, and predict acute brain injury outcomes. Goal-directed therapy using cerebral autoregulation is beneficial in managing patients with ICP elevation. If blood pressure is excessively low in a patient with elevated intracranial pressure, a treatment to increase blood pressure should be considered as a first step, called optimizing cerebral perfusion pressure. However, if CPP is excessively high in a patient with elevated ICP, a treatment to lower CPP by controlling blood pressure to an appropriate level to prevent worsening of edema due to hyperperfusion should be considered.Discussion and Conclusion: Monitoring cerebral autoregulation to guide optimal management of increased ICP based on optimal CPP may be helpful in goal-directed therapy and improving prognosis among patients with acute brain injuries.

5.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 29-35, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968700

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The gastric extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (gastric MALT lymphoma) are mostly related to Helicobacter pylori infections. However, chromosomal aberration involving translocation t(11;18) is also frequently reported in these patients. @*Methods@#The study was a retrospective review and analysis of electronic medical records to assess the factors which affect complete remission (CR) in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. Based on the medical records, subjects with gastric MALT lymphoma were enrolled consecutively from January 2004 to December 2021. @*Results@#Among the 77 subjects who were found with gastric MALT lymphoma in the database, 65 cases with complete records were analyzed. Of these, 66.2% (43/65) were H. pylori positive. Genetic analyses for t(11:18) were done on 41 subjects. The t(11:18) chromosomal translocation with MALT1:BIRC3 fusion was found in 31.7% (13/41) of the subjects. With H. pylori eradication therapy, 75% (21/28) of the subjects without t(11:18) achieved CR. However, only 23.1% (3/13) subjects with t(11:18) could achieve CR (p-value=0.009). In the H. pylori-positive group, 85.7% (18/21) subjects without t(11:18) achieved CR with eradication therapy, but 71.4% (5/7) subjects with t(11:18) failed to achieve CR (p-value=0.004). In the H. pylori-negative group, 42.3% (3/7) of the subjects without t(11:18) achieved CR with eradication therapy. However, 83.3% (5/6) of H. pylori-negative subjects with t(11:18) failed to achieve CR with eradication therapy and needed additional radiotherapy (p-value=0.396). @*Conclusions@#H. pylori negativity and the presence of t(11:18) were both risk factors for failure to achieve CR with H. pylori eradication therapy as the first line of treatment.

6.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 18-30, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967818

ABSTRACT

Background@#Korea recently established 70 emergency medical service areas. However, there are many concerns that medical resources for stroke could not be evenly distributed through the country. We aimed to compare the treatment quality and outcomes of acute stroke among the emergency medical service areas. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the data of 28,800 patients admitted in 248 hospitals which participated in the 8th acute stroke quality assessment by Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Individual hospitals were regrouped into emergency service areas according to the address of the location. Assessment indicators and fatality were compared by the service areas. We defined the appropriate hospital by the performance of intravenous thrombolysis. @*Results@#In seven service areas, there were no hospitals which received more than 10 stroke patients for 6 months. In nine service areas, there were no patients who underwent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Among 167 designated emergency medical centers, 50 hospitals (29.9%) responded that IVT was impossible 24 hours a day. There are 97 (39.1%) hospitals that meet the definitions of appropriate hospital. In 23 service areas (32.9%) had no appropriate or feasible hospitals. The fatality of service areas with stroke centers were 6.9% within 30 days and 15.6% within 1 year from stroke onset than those without stroke centers (7.7%, 16.9%, respectively). @*Conclusions@#There was a wide regional gap in the medical resource and the quality of treatments for acute stroke among emergency medical service areas in Korea. The poststroke fatality rate of the service areas which have stroke centers or appropriate hospitals were significantly low.

7.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 95-101, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967644

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the Korean Society for Cytopathology has developed educational goals as guidelines for cytopathology education in Korea, there is still no systematic approach to cytopathology education status for pathology residents. Furthermore, satisfaction with cytopathology education and with the outcome of the current training/educational program has not been investigated in Korea. This study aimed to obtain comprehensive data on the current state of cytopathology education for residents and evaluate education outcomes. @*Methods@#An online survey was conducted in December 2020 for the board-certified pathologists and training residents registered as members of the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire comprised questions that investigated the current status of cytopathology at each training institution, the degree of satisfaction with the work and education related to cytopathology, outcomes of cytopathology training, and educational accomplishments. @*Results@#Of the participants surveyed, 12.3% (132/1,075) completed the questionnaire, and 36.8% (32/87) of cytopathology residents participated. The mean overall satisfaction with cytopathology education was 3.1 points (on a 1- to 5-point scale, 5: very satisfied). The most frequent suggestion among the free description format responses was to expand educational opportunities, such as online education opportunities, outside of the individual institutions. @*Conclusions@#Our results showed that cytopathology training in Korea needs further improvement. We expect that this study will inform systematic training of competent medical personnel armed with broad cytopathology knowledge and strong problem-solving abilities.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 103-111, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966475

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to provide the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer diagnosed in 2015. @*Materials and Methods@#The demographic risk factors of lung cancer were calculated using the KALC-R (Korean Association of Lung Cancer Registry) cohort in 2015, with survival follow-up until December 31, 2020. The 5-year relative survival rates were estimated using Ederer II methods, and the general population data used the death rate adjusted for sex and age published by the Korea Statistical Information Service from 2015 to 2020. @*Results@#We enrolled 2,657 patients with lung cancer who were diagnosed in South Korea in 2015. Of all patients, 2,098 (79.0%) were diagnosed with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 345 (13.0%) were diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), respectively. Old age, poor performance status, and advanced clinical stage were independent risk factors for both NSCLC and SCLC. In addition, the 5-year relative survival rate declined with advanced stage in both NSCLC (82%, 59%, 16%, 10% as the stage progressed) and SCLC (16%, 4% as the stage progressed). In patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma, the 5-year relative survival rate was higher in the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (19% vs. 11%) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation (38% vs. 11%). @*Conclusion@#In this Korean nationwide survey, the 5-year relative survival rates of NSCLC were 82% at stage I, 59% at stage II, 16% at stage III, and 10% at stage IV, and the 5-year relative survival rates of SCLC were 16% in cases with limited disease, and 4% in cases with extensive disease.

9.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 181-191, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892788

ABSTRACT

Molecular biomarker testing is the standard of care for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In 2017, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group and the Korean Molecular Pathology Study Group co-published a molecular testing guideline which contained almost all known genetic changes that aid in treatment decisions or predict prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Since then there have been significant changes in targeted therapies as well as molecular testing including newly approved targeted drugs and liquid biopsy. In order to reflect these changes, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group developed a consensus statement on molecular biomarker testing. This consensus statement was crafted to provide guidance on what genes should be tested, as well as methodology, samples, patient selection, reporting and quality control.

10.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 563-569, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891466

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeAcute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a common but understudied complication in neurocritically ill patients. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine can be used to treat ACPO in patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness and adverse events when using neostigmine to manage ACPO in neurocritically ill patients. @*Methods@#This retrospective study investigated patients with ACPO who were treated using neostigmine in the neurological intensive-care units at two centers between March 2017 and August 2020. Neostigmine was administered intravenously or subcutaneously (at doses ranging from 0.25 mg to 2 mg) according to the protocols at the two centers. The outcomes were bowel movements and the changes in colon diameters on abdominal radiographs. Safety events such as bradycardia, vomiting, salivation, and sweating were evaluated. @*Results@#This study included 31 subjects with a mean age of 46.8 years (65.4% males). All patients had a bowel movement at a median of 120 minutes after administering neostigmine. The colon diameter decreased by a median of 17.5 mm (paired t-test: p<0.001) regardless of the dose and treatment protocols. Multilevel analysis confirmed that the mean colon diameter decreased from 66 mm pretreatment to 47.5 mm posttreatment (p<0.001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 13%. Three patients (9.7%) exhibited hypersalivation, sweating, bradycardia, and vomiting. Bradycardia (heart rate, 42 beats/minute) occurred in one patient (3.2%), and was successfully managed by injecting atropine. @*Conclusions@#Neostigmine injection is a safe and effective treatment option for ACPO in neurocritically ill patients who fail to respond to conservative management.

11.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 181-191, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900492

ABSTRACT

Molecular biomarker testing is the standard of care for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In 2017, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group and the Korean Molecular Pathology Study Group co-published a molecular testing guideline which contained almost all known genetic changes that aid in treatment decisions or predict prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Since then there have been significant changes in targeted therapies as well as molecular testing including newly approved targeted drugs and liquid biopsy. In order to reflect these changes, the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group developed a consensus statement on molecular biomarker testing. This consensus statement was crafted to provide guidance on what genes should be tested, as well as methodology, samples, patient selection, reporting and quality control.

12.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 563-569, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899170

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeAcute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a common but understudied complication in neurocritically ill patients. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine can be used to treat ACPO in patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness and adverse events when using neostigmine to manage ACPO in neurocritically ill patients. @*Methods@#This retrospective study investigated patients with ACPO who were treated using neostigmine in the neurological intensive-care units at two centers between March 2017 and August 2020. Neostigmine was administered intravenously or subcutaneously (at doses ranging from 0.25 mg to 2 mg) according to the protocols at the two centers. The outcomes were bowel movements and the changes in colon diameters on abdominal radiographs. Safety events such as bradycardia, vomiting, salivation, and sweating were evaluated. @*Results@#This study included 31 subjects with a mean age of 46.8 years (65.4% males). All patients had a bowel movement at a median of 120 minutes after administering neostigmine. The colon diameter decreased by a median of 17.5 mm (paired t-test: p<0.001) regardless of the dose and treatment protocols. Multilevel analysis confirmed that the mean colon diameter decreased from 66 mm pretreatment to 47.5 mm posttreatment (p<0.001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 13%. Three patients (9.7%) exhibited hypersalivation, sweating, bradycardia, and vomiting. Bradycardia (heart rate, 42 beats/minute) occurred in one patient (3.2%), and was successfully managed by injecting atropine. @*Conclusions@#Neostigmine injection is a safe and effective treatment option for ACPO in neurocritically ill patients who fail to respond to conservative management.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S235-S244, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875501

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Colorectal cancer (CRC) rate increases with aging. Aging-related proteins, such as sirtuins (SIRTs) may be a potential therapeutic target in the elderly patients with CRC. The clinical implications of SIRT1 and SIRT2 have not been reported for elderly patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 on clinical outcome in two extreme age groups of patients with CRC. @*Methods@#The expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 were evaluated in CRC tissues of 101 patients aged ≥ 80 years and 29 patients aged ≤ 40 years by immunohistochemistry. We defined the patients aged ≥ 80 years as the very elderly and patients aged ≤ 40 years as the young patients. Correlations between the expression of these proteins and clinicopathological features were analyzed. @*Results@#The prognosis for the very elderly patients with high expressions of SIRT1 was significantly worse than that for patients showing low expression (median survival, 24.9 months vs. 38.6 months, p = 0.027) whereas high expression of SIRT2 better prognosis (median survival, 37.9 months vs. 17.3 months, p = 0.006). However, the young patients did not show any difference in prognosis according to expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2. In multivariate analysis, high SIRT1 expression retained statistical significance as a poor prognostic factor in the very elderly patients with CRC. @*Conclusions@#The results suggest that high SIRT1 expression could be predictive of a poor outcome for very elderly patients with CRC.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e325-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831708

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hydroxyethyl starch (HES, 6% 130/0.4) has been used as a volume expander for the treatment of cerebral hypoperfusion in acute ischemic stroke. Although HES use was associated with renal failure in sepsis or critical illness, it still remains to be elucidated whether HES is linked to renal adverse events in patients with acute ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#A total of 524 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 7 days of onset were included between January 2012 and May 2016. Renal function on admission and follow-up on day 7 ± 2 was assessed using serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to perform a 1:1 matched-pair analysis to minimize the group differences caused by covariates. The percentage of patients with newonset acute renal injury (AKI) using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes or good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0–2) at 90 days were compared between HES cohort and controls. @*Results@#Among the included patients (mean age, 68.6 years; male, 56.5%), 81 patients (15.5%) were HES cohort (median cumulative dose, 1,450 mL). Baseline renal function was better in HES cohort compared to that in the controls (SCr, 0.87 ± 0.43 mg/dL vs. 1.15 ± 1.15 mg/dL, P < 0.001; eGFR, 86.91 ± 24.27 mL/min vs. 74.55 ± 29.58 mL/min, P < 0.001), which became not significant in PSM cohort (72 pairs). The percentage of new-onset AKI did not differ between the HES cohort and controls (1.4% vs. 1.4%, P = 1.000). In addition, newonset AKI was not related to HES (odds ratio, 1.422; 95% confidence interval, 0.072–28.068; P = 0.817) after adjusting for confounders. HES cohort tended to have higher percentage of good functional outcome at 90 days compared to controls, which failed to reach statistical significance (68.1% vs. 54.2%, P = 0.087). @*Conclusion@#A low cumulative dose of HES was not associated with renal adverse events in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e135-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831618

ABSTRACT

Background@#Neurocritical care by dedicated neurointensivists may improve outcomes of critically ill patients with severe brain injury. In this study, we aimed to validate whether neurointensive care could improve the outcome in patients with critically ill acute ischemic stroke using the linked big dataset on stroke in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 1,405 acute ischemic stroke patients with mechanical ventilator support in the intensive care unit after an index stroke. Patients were retrieved from linking the Clinical Research Center for Stroke Registry and the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data from the period between January 2007 and December 2014. The outcomes were mortality at discharge and at 3 months after an index stroke. The main outcomes were compared between the centers with and without dedicated neurointensivists. @*Results@#Among the included patients, 303 (21.6%) were admitted to the centers with dedicated neurointensivists. The patients treated by dedicated neurointensivists had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (18.3% vs. 26.8%, P = 0.002) as well as lower mortality at 3-month (38.0% vs. 49.1%, P < 0.001) than those who were treated without neurointensivists. After adjusting for confounders, a treatment without neurointensivists was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.13–2.25; P = 0.008) and 3-month mortality (OR, 1.48; 95% CIs, 1.12–1.95; P = 0.005). @*Conclusion@#Treatment by dedicated neurointensivists is associated with lower in-hospital and 3-month mortality using the linked big datasets for stroke in Korea. This finding stresses the importance of neurointensivists in treating patients with severe ischemic stroke.

16.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 344-348, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830408

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of vasovagal reactions (VVRs) and the efficacy of lidocaine injection for prevention. @*Methods@#One hundred seventeen patients diagnosed with hemorrhoids and scheduled to undergo a stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) were randomly divided according to submucosal injection to the rectum: lidocaine group (n = 53, lidocaine injected just before full closure of the stapler) and control group (n = 58). Outcomes included baseline patient characteristics (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and previous VVR history), vital signs during the operation, incidence of VVRs (hypotension, bradycardia, dizziness, diaphoresis, and nausea/vomiting), and postoperative complications (pain, bleeding, and urinary retention). @*Results@#Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The number of patients with lower abdominal pain after firing the stapler and incidence of dizziness were lower for the lidocaine group than for the control group (9.4% vs. 25.9%, P = 0.017; 0% vs. 8.6%, P = 0.035, respectively). However, there were no significant between-group differences in incidence of nausea and diaphoresis (0% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.172) and syncope (1.9% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.612). Fewer patients in the lidocaine group complained of postoperative pain (41.5% vs. 58.6%, P = 0.072), and these patients used analgesics less frequently than those in the control group (28.3% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.374). @*Conclusion@#Patients who received a submucosal lidocaine injection prior to SH experienced less lower abdominal pain and dizziness compared with those who received standard treatment. A larger, more detailed prospective study is needed for further analysis.

17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 72-75, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739697

ABSTRACT

Squamous papilloma is a common benign tumor of the esophagus. Patients with papilloma are usually asymptomatic, and they are diagnosed incidentally during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Most papillomas are small and easily removed by forceps biopsy. Recurrence of papilloma after removal is rare. Human papilloma virus infection is supposed to play a role in the development of esophageal papilloma; however, malignant transformation of papilloma is extremely unusual. Here, we report a case of malignant transformation of esophageal squamous papilloma at the gastroesophageal junction into squamous cell carcinoma in situ, which was treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Carcinoma in Situ , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Epithelial Cells , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Papilloma , Papillomaviridae , Recurrence , Surgical Instruments
18.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 153-158, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766022

ABSTRACT

Liquid biopsy for detection of mutation from circulating tumor DNA is a new technology which is attractive in that it is non-invasive. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is an effective first line drug for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating EGFR mutation. During the course of treatment, resistance against TKI arises which can be contributed to EGFR T790M mutation in about 50–60% of patients. Third generation TKI may overcome the resistance. In patients who cannot undergo tissue biopsy due to variable reasons, liquid biopsy is an excellent alternative for the detection of EGFR T790M mutation. However, this relatively novel method requires standardization and vigorous quality insurance. Thus, a standard set of guideline recommendations for liquid biopsy for EGFR mutation testing suitable for the Korean medical community is necessary. In this article, we propose a set of provisional guideline recommendations that was discussed and approved by the Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , DNA , Genes, erbB-1 , Insurance , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Methods , Pathology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
19.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 193-197, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761588

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is commonly used to detect the depth of cancer invasion in the preoperative stage. Intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) patterns observed in magnification endoscopy with narrow band image are also known to well demonstrate cancer invasion depth. Here, we report a case of superficial esophageal cancer with massive submucosal invasion, which presented as a superficial esophageal cancer confined to the mucosal layer and with a coincidental hypoechoic submucosal tumor under EUS and IPCL evaluation.


Subject(s)
Capillaries , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Endoscopy , Endosonography , Esophageal Neoplasms
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 513-521, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the morphologic-metabolic (M-M) dissociation sign based on computed tomography (CT) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in discriminating invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) from invasive non-mucinous adenocarcinomas (ADCs) of the lung. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Among surgically resected solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN)-type ADCs (< 3 cm in diameter), 35 patients with IMAs and 329 with invasive non-mucinous ADCs were included. Morphologic malignancy was established if the tumor with lobulated or spiculated margin on CT presented a tumor shadow disappearance rate of < 0.5. The M-M dissociation sign was determined when a malignant-morphologic nodule on CT showed maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) < 3.5 on PET/CT. RESULTS: Among 35 IMAs (size: 21 ± 7 mm, SUVmax: 1.8 ± 2.0) and 329 invasive non-mucinous ADCs (size: 21 ± 6 mm, SUVmax: 4.6 ± 4.2), the M-M dissociation sign was observed in 54% of IMAs (19/35) and 10% of invasive non-mucinous ADCs (34/329) (p < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of the sign in discriminating IMA from invasive non-mucinous ADCs showed a sensitivity of 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.7–71.2), specificity 89.7% (95% CI, 85.9–92.7), positive predictive value 35.8% (95% CI, 26.5–46.5), and negative predictive value 94.9% (95% CI, 92.8–96.4). Multivariate analyses revealed metabolic benignity (odds ratio [OR] 2.99; 95% CI, 1.01–8.93; p = 0.047) and M-M dissociation sign (OR 6.35; 95% CI, 2.76–14.62; p < 0.001) to be significant predictors of SPN-type IMAs. CONCLUSION: Identification of the absence of M-M dissociation sign is an accurate indicator for excluding IMA from SPN-type lung ADCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Diagnosis , Ethics Committees, Research , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Lung , Mucins , Multivariate Analysis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
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