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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 334-343, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000773

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze the waiting time for initial treatment after breast cancer diagnosis and determine the factors influencing treatment delay in South Korea. @*Methods@#This nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment data. The participants were classified according to the regions where their biopsy and treatment were performed (Seoul-Seoul, Metro-Metro, OtherOther, Metro-Seoul, Other-Seoul). Waiting time was analyzed according to regional subgroup, year of diagnosis, and type of treatment. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to identify the factors associated with treatment delay (after 30 days of diagnosis). @*Results@#A total of 133,514 participants newly diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2017 were included in the study. The median waiting time for initial treatment in the total population increased from 8 days, in 2010, to 14 days, in 2017. In the Seoul-Seoul group, the waiting time increased from 10 days, in 2010, to 16 days, in 2017. Although the median waiting time was approximately 10 days in the Metro-Metro and Other-Other groups, it was 27 and 24 days, in the Metro-Seoul and Other-Seoul group, respectively, in 2017. The proportion of delayed upfront surgery by more than 30 days was higher in the Metro-Seoul (odds ratio [OR], 8.088; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.357–8.893; p < 0.001) and OtherSeoul (OR, 6.210; 95% CI, 5.717–6.750; p < 0.001) groups than in the Metro-Metro (OR, 1.468; 95% CI, 1.352–1.594; p < 0.001) and Other-Other (reference) groups. Previous medical history and treatment at tertiary hospital were observed as factors related to delayed surgery. @*Conclusion@#Waiting times for breast cancer surgery have increased across all regions of Korea, with those traveling to Seoul experiencing particularly long wait times.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 269-276, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000298

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although an inverse association between the N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and obesity exists, only few major studies have assessed the association between NT-proBNP levels and skeletal muscle mass in asymptomatic healthy adults. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted. @*Methods@#We assessed participants who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in South Korea from January 2012 to December 2019. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated. Participants were divided into the control, mildly low skeletal muscle mass (LMM) (−2 standard deviation [SD] < SMI ≤−1 [SD]), and severely LMM groups (SD ≤−2) based on their SMI. The association between elevated NT-proBNP level (≥125 pg/mL) and skeletal muscle mass was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for confounding factors. @*Results@#This study enrolled 15,013 participants (mean age, 37.52±9.52; men, 54.24%; control, n=12,827; mildly LMM, n=1,998; severely LMM, n=188). Prevalence of elevated NT-proBNP was higher in mildly and severely LMM groups than in the control group (control, 1.19%; mildly LMM, 1.4%; severely LMM, 4.26%; P=0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of elevated NT-proBNP was significantly higher in severely LMM (OR, 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 6.37) than in control (OR, 1.00; reference) or mildly LMM groups (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.89). @*Conclusion@#Our results showed that NT-proBNP elevation were more prevalent in participants with LMM. In addition, our study showed an association between skeletal muscle mass and NT-proBNP level in a relatively young and healthy adult population.

3.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 846-858, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000268

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of obesity on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in different age groups remains unclear. We assessed the impact of obesity on the development of DM for two age groups (40-year-old, middle age; 66-year-old, older adults) in the Korean population. @*Methods@#We analyzed Korean National Health Insurance Service data of 4,145,321 Korean adults with 40- and 66-year-old age without DM, between 2009 and 2014. Participants were followed up until 2017 or until the diagnosis of DM. We assessed the risk of DM based on the body mass index and waist circumference of the participants. Multiple confounding factors were adjusted. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 5.6 years. The association of general and abdominal obesity with the risk of DM development was stronger in the 40-year-old group (general obesity: hazard ratio [HR], 3.566, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.512 to 3.622; abdominal obesity: HR, 3.231; 95% CI, 3.184 to 3.278) than in the 66-year-old group (general obesity: HR, 1.739; 95% CI, 1.719 to 1.759; abdominal obesity: HR, 1.799; 95% CI, 1.778 to 1.820). In the 66-year-old group, abdominal obesity had a stronger association with the development of DM as compared to general obesity. In the 40-year-old group, general obesity had a stronger association with the risk of DM development than abdominal obesity. @*Conclusion@#The influence of general and abdominal obesity on the development of DM differed according to age. In older adults, abdominal obesity had a stronger association with DM development than general obesity.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 551-561, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976704

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#An inverse relationship between cancer and neurodegenerative disease, which presents the possibility of a reduced risk of dementia in cancer patients, has been suggested previously. However, a nationwide longitudinal population-based study of specific types of cancer with due consideration of treatment effects has not been conducted. @*Materials and Methods@#This nationwide population-based cohort study used data obtained in a 12-year period (January 2007- December 2018) in the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. All female breast cancer patients (age ≥ 50 years) diagnosed between 2009 and 2010 were included after excluding those with physician visits for any cancer during a 2-year period (2007-2008). Patients with senile cataract constituted the control group. The main study outcome was the risk of developing dementia. @*Results@#From a total of 90,396 and 85,906 patients with breast cancer and cataract, respectively, patients without behavior codes were excluded. Data for 15,407 breast cancer patients and 7,020 controls were analyzed before matching. After matching for comorbidities and age, either group comprised 2,252 patients. The median follow-up time was 104.1±24.0 months after matching. After matching, breast cancer was a predictor of a lower risk of for dementia (hazard ratio, 0.091; 95% confidence interval, 0.075 to 0.111; p < 0.001). In breast cancer patients, receiving chemotherapy and endocrine therapy did not significantly affect the incidence of dementia. @*Conclusion@#Breast cancer was associated with a remarkably decreased risk of dementia. The findings strongly suggest an inverse relationship between cancer and neurodegeneration, regardless of the adverse effects of cancer treatment on cognitive function.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-177, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937760

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) does not have defined therapeutic targets and is currently treated with chemotherapy only. Kinase dysregulation triggers cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and is a crucial therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, targeted kinome sequencing of TNBC tumors was performed to assess the association between kinome gene alterations and disease outcomes in TNBC. @*Methods@#A kinome gene panel consisting of 612 genes was used for the targeted sequencing of 166 TNBC samples and matched normal tissues. Analyses of the significantly mutated genes were performed. Genomic differences between Asian and non-Asian patients with TNBC were evaluated using two Asian TNBC datasets (from Seoul National University Hospital [SNUH] and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center [FUSCC]) and three nonAsian TNBC datasets (The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA], METABRIC, and Gustave Roussy).The prognostic value of kinome gene mutations was evaluated using tumor mutational burden (TMB) and oncogenic pathway analyses. Mutational profiles from the TCGA were used for validation. @*Results@#The significantly mutated genes included TP53 (60% of patients), PIK3CA (21%), BRCA2 (8%), and ATM (8%). Compared with data from non-Asian public databases, the mutation rates of PIK3CA p.H1047R/Q were significantly higher in the SNUH cohort (p = 0.003, 0.048, and 0.032, respectively). This was verified using the FUSCC dataset (p = 0.003, 0.078, and 0.05, respectively). The TMB-high group showed a trend toward longer progression-free survival in our cohort and the TCGA TNBC cohort (p = 0.041 and 0.195, respectively). Kinome gene alterations in the Wnt pathway in patients with TNBC were associated with poor survival in both datasets (p = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Comprehensive analyses of kinome gene alterations in TNBC revealed genomic alterations that offer therapeutic targets and should help identify high-risk patients more precisely in future studies.

6.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 241-247, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925524

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#After the publication of the ACOSOG (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group) Z0011 trial, the rate of axillary lymph node dissection has reduced. Thus, the need for intraoperative frozen section biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) has become controversial. We identified patients for whom intraoperative SLN frozen section biopsy could be omitted and found that frozen section biopsy rate can be reduced. @*Methods@#We reviewed the records of patients with tumors ≤5 cm in diameter who underwent breast-conserving surgery between January 2013 and December 2019 at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Clinicopathological and imaging characteristics were compared according to number of positive SLNs (0–2 SLNs positive vs. ≥3 SLNs positive). @*Results@#A total of 1,983 patients were included in this study. Thirty-two patients (1.6%) had at least 3 positive SLNs. Patients with ≥3 positive SLNs had significantly larger tumors and were more frequently high-grade tumors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Identification of suspicious lymph nodes on imaging studies was also associated with the presence of ≥3 positive SLNs (hazard ratio, 11.54; 95% confidence interval, 4.42–30.10). All patients with none or only 1 suspicious lymph node on any imaging modality (n = 647, 32.6%) had 0–2 positive SLNs. Also, among patients with clinical T1-stage tumors and at least 2 suspicious lymph nodes on only 1 imaging modality (n = 514, 25.9%), only 2 cases had ≥3 positive SLNs. @*Conclusion@#We found that intraoperative SLN frozen biopsy could be omitted in patients using tumor size and axillary lymph node status on imaging modality.

7.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 306-312, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925509

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) is an invasive carcinoma with a tumor dimension not exceeding 1 mm. Owing to its low incidence, the rate of axillary node metastasis and its management are not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and identify variables associated with LNM, as well as to evaluate the need for axillary staging in MIBC patients by analyzing nationwide data. @*Methods@#The Korean Breast Cancer Society registry was searched to identify MIBC patients diagnosed between January 1996 and April 2020. Patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy experiences, systemic metastasis, and missing or discordant data were eligible for the analysis. The incidence rate of LNM was determined, and variables associated with LNM were identified by multivariable regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 2,427 MIBC patients identified, 98 (4.0%) had LNM and 12 (0.5%) had N2/3 disease. Type of breast operation (odds ratio [OR], 2.093; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.332–3.290; P = 0.001), age (OR, 2.091; 95% CI, 1.326–3.298; P = 0.002), hormone receptor status (OR, 2.220; 95% CI, 1.372–3.594; P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (OR, 11.143; 95% CI, 6.354–19.540; P < 0.001) were significantly related to LNM. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of LNM in MIBC patients was only 4.0% in our study, suggesting that de-escalation of axillary surgical interventions could be carefully considered. The indications for axillary staging should be individualized considering tumor volume, age, hormone receptor status, and lymphovascular invasion to improve the quality of life of MIBC survivors.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 106-116, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925159

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiological response rate patterns during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with breast cancer. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent NAC with two specific chemotherapy regimens (doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide or doxorubicin with docetaxel) and who underwent a response evaluation every two cycles were included in the study. The initial response ratio was defined as the ratio of the largest tumor diameter at diagnosis to that after two cycles of NAC. The latter response ratio was defined as the ratio between the tumor size after two cycles and that after four cycles of NAC. The radiological response rate pattern was divided into three groups: the fast-to-slow response group (F–S group, initial response ratio > latter response ratio + 20%), slow-to-fast response group (S–F group, latter response ratio > initial response ratio + 20%), and constant response group (less than 20% difference between the initial and latter response ratios). @*Results@#In total, 177 patients were included in the analysis. Forty-two (23.9%) patients were categorized into the F–S group, 26 (14.8%) into the S–F group, and 108 (61.2%) into the constant group. Clinicopathologic factors did not differ according to radiologic response rate patterns. The median follow-up period was 50 months (range, 3–112) months. In the univariate analysis, the F–S group had a significantly worse recurrence-free survival than the S–F and constant groups (hazard ratio [HR], 3.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–12.46; p = 0.041). The F–S group also presented with significantly worse survival than the S–F group in the multivariate analysis (HR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.00–11.89; p = 0.049). @*Conclusion@#The F–S group had a poorer survival rate than the S–F group. Radiological response rate patterns may be useful for accurate prognostic assessments, especially when considering post-neoadjuvant therapy.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 569-577, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intraoperative frozen section biopsy is used to reduce the margin positive rate and re-excision rate and has been reported to have high diagnostic accuracy. A majority of breast surgeons in the Republic of Korea routinely perform frozen section biopsy to assess margins intraoperatively, despite its long turnaround time and high resource requirements. This study aims to determine whether omitting frozen section biopsy for intraoperative margin evaluation in selected patients is non-inferior to performing frozen section biopsy in terms of resection margin positivity rate. @*Methods@#This study is a phase III, randomized controlled, parallel-group, multicenter non-inferiority clinical trial. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria and providing written informed consent will be randomized to the “frozen section biopsy” or “frozen section biopsy omission” group after lumpectomy. Patients with clinical stage T1–T3 disease who are diagnosed with invasive breast cancer by core-needle biopsy and plan to undergo breast-conserving surgery will be included in this study. If a daughter nodule, non-mass enhancement, or microcalcification is identified on preoperative imaging, these features must be within 1 cm of the main mass for inclusion in the trial. The target sample size is 646 patients per arm. The primary endpoint will be the resection margin positive rate, and the secondary endpoints include the reoperation rate, operating time, residual cancer after reoperation, residual cancer after re-excision according to the frozen section biopsy result, resection volume, patient quality of life, and cost-effectiveness.Discussion: This is the first randomized clinical trial utilizing frozen section biopsy for intraoperative margin evaluation and aims to determine the non-inferiority of omitting frozen section biopsy in selected patients compared to performing frozen section biopsy.We expect that this trial will help surgeons perform the procedure more efficiently while ensuring patient safety.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 491-503, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914820

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the rates of screening, case identification, and referral for cancer diagnosis. We investigated the diagnosis and surgery status of breast cancer before and after the COVID-19 pandemic at a multi-institutional level. @*Methods@#We collected breast cancer data from the clinical data warehouse which contained the medical records of patients from six academic institutions in South Korea. Patients were divided into two groups: February to April (period A) and May to July (period B). The data from the two groups were then compared against the same periods in 2019 and 2020. The primary objective was to investigate the differences in breast cancer stages before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Results@#Among 3,038 patients, there was a 9.9% reduction in the number of diagnoses in 2020. This decrease was more significant during period A than period B. The breast cancer stage was not statistically different in period A (p = 0.115), but it was in period B (p = 0.001). In the subset analysis according to age, there was a statistical difference between 2019 and 2020 in period B for patients under the age of 65 years (p = 0.002), but no difference was observed in the other groups. @*Conclusion@#The number of breast cancer cases declined during the pandemic, and the staging distribution has changed after the pandemic peak.

11.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 315-321, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913509

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was performed to identify the risk of mortality in patients diagnosed with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). @*Methods@#We selected 2,592 patients with HER2-positive DCIS from Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) database between January 1997 and December 2019. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between clinical factors and overall death after adjusting for tumor and clinical characteristics. Mortality data were modified using the Statistics Korea data. @*Results@#Thirty deaths (1.2%) were identified out of 2,592 patients in the KBCS database. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, older age, higher body mass index (BMI), type of breast surgery (mastectomy), estrogen receptornegative, progesterone receptor-negative, and exposure to endocrine therapy were significant clinical factors associated with death. In the multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.062; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.015–1.111; P = 0.006), BMI (HR, 1.179; 95% CI, 1.032–1.347, P = 0.016), breast surgery type (mastectomy vs. lumpectomy; HR, 0.285; 95% CI, 0.096–0.844; P = 0.024), and endocrine therapy (HR, 0.314; 95% CI, 0.099–0.995; P = 0.049) were significant risk factors for mortality. @*Conclusion@#Advanced age, higher BMI, mastectomy, and the absence of endocrine therapy were factors associated with poor survival of patients with HER2-positive DCIS. This finding requires further validation combined with additional analysis of large databases.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 175-182, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891278

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the TP53 gene. Breast cancer in LFS patients is of various subtypes;however, limited data are available on the clinicopathological features of these subtypes and their appropriate treatments. This study aimed to review the clinical features and treatments for breast cancer in South Korean patients with germline TP53 mutations. @*Methods@#Data on the clinicopathological features and treatment of all breast cancer patients with LFS were collected retrospectively from the available database of 4 tertiary hospitals in the Republic of Korea. @*Results@#Twenty-one breast cancer cases in 12 unrelated women with confirmed germline TP53 mutations were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 33.5 years. The histopathological diagnosis included invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 16), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3), and malignant phyllodes tumor (n = 2). While 42% and 31% of the cases were positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, respectively, 52.6% were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, and 21% were triple-negative. The treatments included mastectomy (52%) and breast-conserving surgery (38%). Five patients underwent radiotherapy (RT). The median follow-up period was 87.5 (8–222) months. There were 3 ipsilateral and 4 contralateral breast recurrences during the follow-up, and 8 patients developed new primary cancers. In the post-RT subgroup, there were 2 ipsilateral and 2 contralateral breast recurrences in 1 patient, and 4 patients had a new primary cancer. @*Conclusion@#As reported in other countries, breast cancer in LFS patients in South Korea had an early onset and were predominantly but not exclusively positive for HER2.A multidisciplinary approach with adherence to the treatment guidelines, considering mastectomy, and avoiding RT is encouraged to prevent RT-associated sequelae in LFS patients.

13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 175-182, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898982

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the TP53 gene. Breast cancer in LFS patients is of various subtypes;however, limited data are available on the clinicopathological features of these subtypes and their appropriate treatments. This study aimed to review the clinical features and treatments for breast cancer in South Korean patients with germline TP53 mutations. @*Methods@#Data on the clinicopathological features and treatment of all breast cancer patients with LFS were collected retrospectively from the available database of 4 tertiary hospitals in the Republic of Korea. @*Results@#Twenty-one breast cancer cases in 12 unrelated women with confirmed germline TP53 mutations were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 33.5 years. The histopathological diagnosis included invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 16), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3), and malignant phyllodes tumor (n = 2). While 42% and 31% of the cases were positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, respectively, 52.6% were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, and 21% were triple-negative. The treatments included mastectomy (52%) and breast-conserving surgery (38%). Five patients underwent radiotherapy (RT). The median follow-up period was 87.5 (8–222) months. There were 3 ipsilateral and 4 contralateral breast recurrences during the follow-up, and 8 patients developed new primary cancers. In the post-RT subgroup, there were 2 ipsilateral and 2 contralateral breast recurrences in 1 patient, and 4 patients had a new primary cancer. @*Conclusion@#As reported in other countries, breast cancer in LFS patients in South Korea had an early onset and were predominantly but not exclusively positive for HER2.A multidisciplinary approach with adherence to the treatment guidelines, considering mastectomy, and avoiding RT is encouraged to prevent RT-associated sequelae in LFS patients.

14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891255

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898959

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 697-713, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831118

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hereditary cancer syndrome means that inherited genetic mutations can increase a person's risk of developing cancer. We assessed the frequency of germline mutations using an nextgeneration sequencing (NGS)–based multiple-gene panel containing 64 cancer-predisposing genes in Korean breast cancer patients with clinical features of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 64 genes associated with hereditary cancer syndrome were selected for development of an NGS-based multi-gene panel. Targeted sequencing using the multi-gene panel was performed to identify germline mutations in 496 breast cancer patients with clinical features of HBOC who underwent breast cancer surgery between January 2002 and December 2017. @*Results@#Of 496 patients, 95 patients (19.2%) were found to have 48 deleterious germline mutations in 16 cancer susceptibility genes. The deleterious mutations were found in 39 of 250 patients (15.6%) who had breast cancer and another primary cancer, 38 of 169 patients (22.5%) who had a family history of breast cancer (≥ 2 relatives), 16 of 57 patients (28.1%) who had bilateral breast cancer, and 29 of 84 patients (34.5%) who were diagnosed with breast cancer at younger than 40 years of age. Of the 95 patients with deleterious mutations, 60 patients (63.2%) had BRCA1/2 mutations and 38 patients (40.0%) had non-BRCA1/2 mutations. We detected two novel deleterious mutations in BRCA2 and MLH1. @*Conclusion@#NGS-based multiple-gene panel testing improved the detection rates of deleterious mutations and provided a cost-effective cancer risk assessment.

17.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 87-94, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834530

ABSTRACT

Background@#Accurate molecular classification of breast core needle biopsy (CNB) tissue is important for determining neoadjuvant systemic therapies for invasive breast cancer. The researchers aimed to evaluate the concordance rate (CR) of molecular subtypes between CNBs and surgical specimens. @*Methods@#This study was conducted with invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after CNB at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital between December 2014 and December 2017. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. ER and PR were evaluated by Allred score (0–8). HER2 was graded from 0 to +3, and all 2+ cases were reflex tested with silver in situ hybridization. The labeling index of Ki67 was counted by either manual scoring or digital image analysis. Molecular subtypes were classified using the above surrogate markers. @*Results@#In total, 629 patients were evaluated. The CRs of ER, PR, HER2, and Ki67 were 96.5% (kappa, 0.883; p<.001), 93.0% (kappa, 0.824; p<.001), 99.7% (kappa, 0.988; p<.001), and 78.7% (kappa, 0.577; p<.001), respectively. Digital image analysis of Ki67 in CNB showed better concordance with Ki67 in surgical specimens (CR, 82.3%; kappa, 0.639 for digital image analysis vs. CR, 76.2%; kappa, 0.534 for manual counting). The CRs of luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and triple negative types were 89.0%, 70.0%, 82.9%, and 77.2%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#CNB was reasonably accurate for determining ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, and molecular subtypes. Using digital image analysis for Ki67 in CNB produced more accurate molecular classifications.

18.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 81-88, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Breast cancer rates are expected to rise with an increasingly aging society. However, research on breast cancer among elderly women is scarce. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of elderly women with breast cancer and assess their clinical outcomes following adjuvant chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#Patients who underwent curative surgery for breast cancer between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed (n=1,865). The clinicopathological features, comorbidities, and survival outcomes were compared among three age groups (<55, 55–64, and ≥65 years). Subgroup analyses were also performed according to adjuvant chemotherapy status (i.e., administered or forgone) and need.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the patients (n=1,865) was 51.7 years, and 231 (12.3%) patients were ≥65 years of age (defined as elderly). The median follow-up period was 56 months. The tumor characteristics were similar among the three age groups, except for tumor size and progesterone receptor status. The five-year overall survival rate was significantly poorer in elderly patients (87.5%) than in the younger groups (<55 years: 94.1%; 55–64 years: 93.2%) (p=0.002). Elderly patients received significantly less frequent adjuvant chemotherapy than the younger patients (p<0.001). Not all elderly patients in need of adjuvant chemotherapy were administered chemotherapy. Those administered adjuvant chemotherapy had significantly higher five-year overall survival rates than that of the non-administered patients (86.5% vs. 66.5%, p=0.014) and marginally longer breast cancer-specific survival (87.9% vs. 73.5%, p=0.07). Elderly patients who did not undergo chemotherapy had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus than those who did.@*CONCLUSION@#Adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly breast cancer patients improved overall survival, and marginally extended breast cancer-specific survival. Therefore, standard adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered in elderly patients who require it.

19.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 1-8, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In breast cancer, response to endocrine therapy depends on estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status. However, poor prognosis is conferred on patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. We aimed to examine weakly positive HR breast cancer by comparing weakly positive HR to strongly positive HR and negative HR breast cancer. METHODS: We examined the clinical and biological features of 1,496 women with breast cancer, and these patients were categorized according to HR status as weakly positive, strongly positive, and negative HR breast cancer. RESULTS: In this study, among 1,496 patients with breast cancer, negative HR breast cancer was found in 374, weakly positive HR breast cancer in 90 and strongly positive HR breast cancer in 1,032 patients. Our multivariate analysis showed that there were differences in T stage, tumor-node-metastasis stage, vascular invasion, histologic grade and type, and Ki-67 index. Patients with weakly positive HR breast cancer had an increased risk of death and recurrence compared with those with strongly positive HR breast cancer and had similar prognosis as patients with negative HR breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with weakly positive HR breast cancer received endocrine therapy because they were regarded as having positive HR breast cancer. However, their prognosis of overall survival and relapse-free survival was similar to that in patients with negative HR breast cancer. Therefore, we need to closely observe and consider active treatment for patients with weakly positive breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Receptors, Estrogen , Receptors, Progesterone , Recurrence , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 412-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764280

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is less effective for luminal breast cancer because luminal breast cancer has a lower rate of pathological complete response (pCR) after NAC than human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-type and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We investigated the efficacy of NAC and the predictive factors of a better response in luminal breast cancer. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2016, we retrieved data of 244 patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer who were treated with NAC followed by surgery from a prospectively collected database. We classified breast cancer into luminal HER2⁻ and non-luminal HER2⁻ breast cancer (luminal HER2⁺, HER2⁺, and TNBC types). We analyzed each subtype with respect to surgical outcomes, response to NAC, and determined variables associated with surgical outcomes and response in patients with luminal HER2⁻ breast cancer. RESULTS: The total, breast, and axillary pCR rates were significantly lower in 114 patients with luminal HER2⁻ breast cancer than in those with other subtypes (7.9%, 12.3%, and 22.8%, respectively). However, breast-conserving surgery (BCS) conversion and tumor response rates did not significantly differ between patients with luminal HER2⁻ and those with non-luminal HER2⁻ breast cancer (p = 0.836 and p = 0.180, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, high tumor response rate (≥ 46.4%) was significantly associated with an increased BCS conversion rate. In the subgroup analysis of luminal HER2⁻ breast cancer, the multivariate analysis showed that higher Ki67 expression and axilla pCR and BCS conversion rates were significantly associated with tumor response to NAC. CONCLUSION: Despite the low pCR rate, the tumor response and BCS conversion rates after NAC of luminal HER2⁻ breast cancer were similar to those of other subtypes. NAC has the potential benefit of reducing the size of breast cancer, thereby increasing the BCS conversion rate in luminal HER2⁻ breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Phenobarbital , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , ErbB Receptors , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
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