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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901205

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study evaluates the general clinico-toxicological characteristics, and determines whether they are varied with toxin source, in patients admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with grayanotoxin (GTX)/mad honey poisoning. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with GTX/mad honey poisoning at the University Teaching Hospital emergency department between January 2001 and December 2015 were included in this retrospective study. The clinico-toxicological characteristics were compared by classifying patients into two groups, according to the toxin source: group A, poisoned by the Himalayan mad honey, and group B, poisoned by biologic materials containing GTX other than Himalayan mad honey. @*Results@#Totally, 26 patients were identified with symptomatic grayanotoxin/mad honey poisoning. There were no statistical differences in the clinico-toxicological characteristics, except systolic blood pressure (SBP). At presentation, the SBP was significantly decreased in group B (P=0.013). Although dizziness and blurred vision were statistically not significant symptoms, there was a trend of significance (P<0.1) in group B. Notably, 5 of the 8 patients who consumed Rhododendron brachycarpum complained of blurred vision, and had a relatively low mean SBP (68.6±15.6 mmHg). @*Conclusion@#The general clinico-toxicological characteristics were similar, subsequent to ingestion of Himalayan mad honey and Rhododendron species. However, since blurred vision and hemodynamic instability were relatively more common in poisoning by R. brachycarpum than other Rhododendron species, emergency physicians need to be aware that the symptoms or severity of poisoning may vary according to the Rhododendron species ingested.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901193

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study evaluated the clinical features of acute Phytolacca poisoning and investigated the prognostic factors associated with severe poisoning. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective observational study using the data of patients presenting with acute Phytolacca poisoning. Demographic data, toxicological data, vital signs, laboratory data, and electrocardiographic data were collected. Study patients were divided into mild and severe poisoning patients. After a univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, which used ‘severe poisoning’ as a dependent variable, was performed to figure out the independent variables. In addition, the area under the curve and the cut-off value of independent variables were suggested by using receiver operating characteristics analysis. @*Results@#Most poisonings (80.5%) occurred in winter and spring. Most patients (98.4%) ingested the root of Phytolacca. It took 2 hours from ingestion to the beginning of the symptoms (interquartile range, 1.0-3.0) which included nausea/vomiting (98.4%), abdominal pain (58.6%), or diarrhea (53.1%). Severe poisoning developed in 21 patients (16.4%). For prediction of severe poisoning, the adjusted odds ratio of time from ingestion to the onset of symptoms was 0.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.61) and that of the amount of ingestion was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.99-2.03). The area under the curve of time from ingestion to the onset of symptoms (≤1 hour) was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73-0.88) and that of the amount of ingestion (>1.5 knuckles) was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.83). @*Conclusion@#Acute Phytolacca poisoning has clinical features of acute enterocolitis. Severe poisoning could develop especially in patients with a rapid onset of symptoms (≤1 hour) and ingesting over 1.5 knuckles.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916525

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and assess the association of concomitant DVT and unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with acute symptomatic PE by a computed tomography angiography. Study patients were divided into two groups, including unfavorable and favorable outcome groups. Baseline characteristics and radiologic findings were compared between the two groups. Then, binary logistic regression analysis using the unfavorable outcome as a dependent variable was performed to assess whether concomitant DVT was associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Results@#Of the 128 patients, 67.2% (86 of 128) had concomitant DVT, and 20.3% (26 of 128) had an unfavorable outcome. The median age was 75.0 years (interquartile range, 63.0-82.0 years), and 76 (59.4%) patients were female. Concomitant DVT and proximal DVT were associated with unfavorable outcomes (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, proximal DVT (adjusted odds ratio, 7.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-49.12) was an independent risk factor of unfavorable outcome. @*Conclusion@#In patients with acute symptomatic PE, about two-thirds of patients had DVT. This study suggests that proximal DVT is significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916517

ABSTRACT

Pyometra is a rare clinical entity, leading to life-threatening complications, such as perforation of the uterus and peritonitis, when the diagnosis is delayed. Emergency department physicians should take into consideration whether older women have a fever and abdominal pain. Early surgical drainage and the diagnosis of pyometra should be confirmed. An 89-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department because of fever and general fatigue. We reported a clinical case of a postmenopausal woman with a large pyometra, which was misdiagnosed as a distended bladder filled with urine.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893501

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study evaluates the general clinico-toxicological characteristics, and determines whether they are varied with toxin source, in patients admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with grayanotoxin (GTX)/mad honey poisoning. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with GTX/mad honey poisoning at the University Teaching Hospital emergency department between January 2001 and December 2015 were included in this retrospective study. The clinico-toxicological characteristics were compared by classifying patients into two groups, according to the toxin source: group A, poisoned by the Himalayan mad honey, and group B, poisoned by biologic materials containing GTX other than Himalayan mad honey. @*Results@#Totally, 26 patients were identified with symptomatic grayanotoxin/mad honey poisoning. There were no statistical differences in the clinico-toxicological characteristics, except systolic blood pressure (SBP). At presentation, the SBP was significantly decreased in group B (P=0.013). Although dizziness and blurred vision were statistically not significant symptoms, there was a trend of significance (P<0.1) in group B. Notably, 5 of the 8 patients who consumed Rhododendron brachycarpum complained of blurred vision, and had a relatively low mean SBP (68.6±15.6 mmHg). @*Conclusion@#The general clinico-toxicological characteristics were similar, subsequent to ingestion of Himalayan mad honey and Rhododendron species. However, since blurred vision and hemodynamic instability were relatively more common in poisoning by R. brachycarpum than other Rhododendron species, emergency physicians need to be aware that the symptoms or severity of poisoning may vary according to the Rhododendron species ingested.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893489

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study evaluated the clinical features of acute Phytolacca poisoning and investigated the prognostic factors associated with severe poisoning. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective observational study using the data of patients presenting with acute Phytolacca poisoning. Demographic data, toxicological data, vital signs, laboratory data, and electrocardiographic data were collected. Study patients were divided into mild and severe poisoning patients. After a univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, which used ‘severe poisoning’ as a dependent variable, was performed to figure out the independent variables. In addition, the area under the curve and the cut-off value of independent variables were suggested by using receiver operating characteristics analysis. @*Results@#Most poisonings (80.5%) occurred in winter and spring. Most patients (98.4%) ingested the root of Phytolacca. It took 2 hours from ingestion to the beginning of the symptoms (interquartile range, 1.0-3.0) which included nausea/vomiting (98.4%), abdominal pain (58.6%), or diarrhea (53.1%). Severe poisoning developed in 21 patients (16.4%). For prediction of severe poisoning, the adjusted odds ratio of time from ingestion to the onset of symptoms was 0.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.61) and that of the amount of ingestion was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.99-2.03). The area under the curve of time from ingestion to the onset of symptoms (≤1 hour) was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.73-0.88) and that of the amount of ingestion (>1.5 knuckles) was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.83). @*Conclusion@#Acute Phytolacca poisoning has clinical features of acute enterocolitis. Severe poisoning could develop especially in patients with a rapid onset of symptoms (≤1 hour) and ingesting over 1.5 knuckles.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834922

ABSTRACT

Objective@#May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) is a condition, in which the left common iliac vein is compressed by the right common iliac artery and spine, resulting in an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This study examined the clinical features of MTS and relationship of MTS with a pulmonary embolism (PE) in acute DVT patients. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective observational study using the electronic medical records of patients with acute DVT in 2018. Acute DVT patients were divided into the MTS group (n=18, 23.1%) and non-MTS group (n=60, 76.9%) according to the presence of MTS. The following items were compared: demographic data, risk factors of DVT, vital signs, laboratory results, involvement site of vein, incidence of PE, and severity of PE. @*Results@#The presence of risk factors was similar in the two groups. All MTS patients had DVT in the left lower extremity. The ilio-femoral DVT (21.7% vs. 77.8%, P<0.001) and mixed DVT (both ilio-femoral and femoro-popliteal, 10.0% vs. 44.4%; P=0.002) were observed more frequently in the MTS group. The incidence of PE was higher in the non-MTS group (65.0%) than in the MTS group (33.3%) (P=0.017). On the other hand, the severity of PE assessed with main pulmonary artery involvement or hemodynamic instability, and right ventricular dysfunction did not show a significant difference between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#DVT could develop with the presence of risk factors in MTS patients. DVT patients with MTS might reduce the risk of developing PE compared to those without MTS, but the severity of PE was similar in the two groups.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758412

ABSTRACT

Procalcitonin (PCT) is commonly employed in medical practice as a diagnostic biomarker of bacterial infection and also as a monitoring biomarker for antimicrobial therapy. There have been a few published reports concerning elevated PCT levels in people with acute liver injury caused by an overdose of acetaminophen. We report here on a case of PCT elevation in an adolescent with acute acetaminophen poisoning without any bacterial infection or liver injury. A 15-year-old girl had deliberately ingested 20 tablets of 650 mg acetaminophen (13 g) and she presented to our emergency department. The PCT level on admission was elevated to 65.64 ng/mL (reference range: 0–0.5 ng/mL). Her PCT level on the second day peaked up to 100 ng/mL and then it gradually decreased. There was no evidence of liver injury or infection on the computed tomography examination and other lab tests. The patient regained her good health and was discharged on the sixth day of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Adolescent , Bacterial Infections , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver , Poisoning , Tablets
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758411

ABSTRACT

Dioscorea tokoro has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as a pain killer and anti-inflammatory agent. A 53-year-old male who consumed water that had been boiled with raw tubers of D. tokoro as tea presented with numbness and spasm of both hands and feet. Laboratory results showed hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D insufficiency. During his hospital stay, colitis, acute kidney injury, and toxic encephalopathy developed. The patient received calcium gluconate intravenous infusion and oral calcium carbonate with alfacalcidol. His symptoms improved gradually, but hypocalcemia persisted despite the calcium supplementation. We suggest that ingestion of inappropriately prepared D. tokoro can cause symptomatic hypocalcemia in patients with unbalanced calcium homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Calcium , Calcium Carbonate , Calcium Gluconate , Colitis , Dioscorea , Eating , Foot , Hand , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypesthesia , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Infusions, Intravenous , Length of Stay , Male , Medicine, Korean Traditional , Middle Aged , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Spasm , Tea , Vitamin D , Water
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 259-268, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study used the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) data to analyze the flow of emergency and critical emergency patients and to identify the patterns of emergency medical service usage in Korea.@*METHODS@#The relevance index (RI) and commitment index (CI) were calculated from the 2016 NEDIS data. In this study, the number of clusters was determined using NbClust, and cluster analysis was used to analyze the usage patterns of emergency and critical emergency patients.@*RESULTS@#The RI and CI were calculated using 8,389,766 cases of 214 districts. The results of the RI and CI suggested that there were 3 types of clusters among the emergency patients. In Cluster 1, 54 districts (25.2%) had low RI and high CI, and it was of outflow type. Cluster 2 was categorized as the influx-type in 58 districts (27.1%) irrespective of RI and low CI. Cluster 3 was categorized as the self-sufficient type found in 102 districts (47.7%), with high RI and high CI. The cluster analysis of the critical emergency patients was divided into 2 types. Cluster 1 was categorized as outflow type with high CI found in 129 districts (60.3%), while Cluster 2 was categorized as inflow type with low CI found in 85 districts (39.7%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study elucidates the regional status of usage patterns of emergency and critical emergency patients in Korea. This study might serve as a basis for the establishment and selection of emergency medical service areas and vulnerable emergency medical service areas.


Subject(s)
Cluster Analysis , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Republic of Korea
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the d-dimer level indicating hyperfibrinolysis could be a predictor of early poor outcome (massive transfusion, death within 24 hours) associated with trauma-induced coagulopathy in blunt trauma without significant brain injury. METHODS: This study was a retrospective observational study using 516 blunt trauma patients without significant brain injury. The poor outcome group, including patients receiving massive transfusion and those who died within 24 hours, consisted of 33 patients (6.4%). The variables were compared between the poor outcome group and good outcome group, and logistic regression analysis was performed using statistically significant variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the poor outcome prediction ability of the initial d-dimer level. RESULTS: The poor outcome group showed more serious anatomical, physiological, and laboratory data than the good outcome group. In the ROC curve analysis for evaluation of the poor outcome prediction of the d-dimer level, the area under the curve value was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.90) while the cut-off value was 27.35 mg/L. In the logistic regression analysis, the high d-dimer level was shown to be an independent predictor of poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 14.87; 95% CI, 2.96–74.67). CONCLUSION: The high d-dimer level (>27.35 mg/L) can be used as a predictor for the poor outcome of patients with blunt trauma without significant brain injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion , Brain Injuries , Brain , Humans , Logistic Models , Multiple Trauma , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Wounds, Nonpenetrating
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223866

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The serum ammonia level was postulated as a surrogate marker for severe neurotoxicity in glufosinate ammonium (GLA) poisoning. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the level of serum ammonia can predict delayed neurologic complications in patients with GLA poisoning presented with alert mentality. METHODS: Thirty-six GLA-poisoned patients presented to our emergency department with alert mentality initially were analyzed retrospectively. The baseline characteristics, laboratory findings, ammonia level (initial and second ammonia level, frequency of hyperammonemia, and difference of ammonia level), and clinical outcomes were compared between non-neurologic (n=16) and neurologic complication groups (n=20). RESULTS: Neurologic complications occurred in 20 patients (55.6%) with 14.3 hours (median) of latent period. The initial ammonia level and frequency of initial hyperammonemia did not show any difference between the two groups. However, the difference of ammonia level between the 2nd and 1st samples was an independent predictor of delayed neurologic complication (adjusted odds ratio; 1.184 (95% confidence interval (CI); 1.01-1.387, p=0.037)). The area under the curve and cut-off point of the difference of ammonia level for the prediction of delayed neurologic complication was 0.936 (95% CI; 0.756-0.992) and 15.4 umol/L respectively. CONCLUSION: The difference of ammonia level rather than the initial ammonia level could be used to predict delayed neurologic complication in GLA-poisoned patients presented with alert mentality.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Ammonium Compounds , Biomarkers , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hyperammonemia , Odds Ratio , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136325

ABSTRACT

Some carnivorous gastropods have heat stable tetramine toxins in their salivary glands. This toxin is an autonomic ganglionic blocking agent that enables them to catch the prey easily by paralyzing their targets. Acute tetramine toxin poisoning in humans from eating whelks has been well described based on numerous cases, but is rare in Korea. Symptoms of tetramine poisoning include eyeball pain, blurred vision, headache, dizziness, muscular twitching, tingling of hands and feet, weakness, paralysis and sometimes collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting can also occur. However, intoxication is self-limiting and patients will usually recover in about 24 hours. Herein, we report 2 cases of tetramine poisoning after ingestion of Buccinum striatissinum as meat and soup.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Dizziness , Eating , Foot , Ganglia, Autonomic , Gastropoda , Hand , Headache , Hot Temperature , Humans , Korea , Meat , Nausea , Paralysis , Poisoning , Salivary Glands , Vomiting
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136324

ABSTRACT

Some carnivorous gastropods have heat stable tetramine toxins in their salivary glands. This toxin is an autonomic ganglionic blocking agent that enables them to catch the prey easily by paralyzing their targets. Acute tetramine toxin poisoning in humans from eating whelks has been well described based on numerous cases, but is rare in Korea. Symptoms of tetramine poisoning include eyeball pain, blurred vision, headache, dizziness, muscular twitching, tingling of hands and feet, weakness, paralysis and sometimes collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting can also occur. However, intoxication is self-limiting and patients will usually recover in about 24 hours. Herein, we report 2 cases of tetramine poisoning after ingestion of Buccinum striatissinum as meat and soup.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Dizziness , Eating , Foot , Ganglia, Autonomic , Gastropoda , Hand , Headache , Hot Temperature , Humans , Korea , Meat , Nausea , Paralysis , Poisoning , Salivary Glands , Vomiting
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217700

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute endosulfan poisoning is rare but causes significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study is to describe complications and features of seizure and determine factors associated with mortality in acute endosulfan poisoning. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult patients with acute endosulfan poisoning admitted to our emergency department during a 15-year period were studied retrospectively. The clinical features of seizure, use of antiepileptic drugs during seizure, and hospital courses were evaluated. Clinical factors between survived group and non-survived group were compared for identification of factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Of the 28 patients with endosulfan poisoning, 4 patients (14.3%) died and 15 (53.6%) patients developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Thirteen patients (46.4%) and 5 patients (17.9%) progressed to status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE), respectively. SE and RSE were associated with mortality. Almost all significant complications including shock, acute renal failure, hepatic toxicity, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac injury developed in SE and RSE patients. CONCLUSION: SE and RSE were important contributors to death in endosulfan poisoning. Emergency physicians treating endosulfan poisoning should make an effort not to progress seizure following endosulfan poisoning to SE and RSE using a rapid and aggressive antiepileptic drug.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Anticonvulsants , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endosulfan , Humans , Mortality , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Rhabdomyolysis , Seizures , Shock , Status Epilepticus
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223749

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted in order to determine the characteristics and risk factors of pediatric eye injury patients in the emergency department and to offer strategies for prevention of pediatric eye injury. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted by use of a standardized eye injury survey of patients under the age of 16 years who were treated for ocular injury at nine emergency medical centers, from March to September of 2010. The following data were collected; general characteristics of the study population, type and location of injury, causative activities, and materials of injury. Risk factors associated with open-globe injury were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1,151 patients were enrolled in the study; 75% were male. The highest incidence was observed between the age of 11 and 16 years (34.5%); 79.2% of patients had closed globe injury. The most common type of injury was contusion (65.4%) in closed globe injury and penetration (5.1%) in open-globe injury. Eye injury occurred most commonly at home (48.6%), followed by school/institution (19.4%). The most common causative activity and material were play (42.4%) and person/animal/plant (17%). Application of eye protective equipment (odds ratio: 24.33; 95% CI: 11.32~52.29) was found to be a statistically significant factor for occurrence of an open-globe injury. CONCLUSION: Establishment of safety measures considering gender and age is important since characteristics of pediatric eye injury differ based on such risk factors. The risk of open-globe eye injury increased with application of personal protective equipment, therefore, public education and promotion to use protective equipment of adequate level would be considered important.


Subject(s)
Contusions , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Eye Injuries , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Pediatrics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to estimate one mouthful volume in a single swallow and average volume per swallow (AVS) in multiple swallows in the situation of toxic liquid poisoning. METHODS: Thirty five men and 35 women were included in this study. Each subject was asked to drink one swallow and three consecutive swallows from bottle containing water and a bottle containing saline separately. We calculated one mouthful volume in a single swallow and AVS in three swallows. One mouthful volume and AVS were compared according to sex and content, respectively. One mouthful volume of water and saline was then compared with AVS of each. RESULTS: Sixty seven adults(34 men; 26.9+/-3.2 years, 33 women; 25.6+/-2.4 years) completed the study. Men had larger one mouthful volume of water(49.1+/-19.9 ml vs 39.7+/-10.2 ml, p=0.02) and saline(20.7+/-10.9 ml vs 14.0+/-4.6 ml, p=0.004) and AVS of water(28.5+/-11.9 ml vs 21.5+/-5.9 ml, p=0.004) and saline(11.9+/-6.3 ml vs 7.9+/-2.0 ml, p=0.001) than women. One mouthful volume and AVS of saline swallow were lower than those of water swallow. AVS of three consecutive swallows was lower than one mouthful volume in water and saline swallow. CONCLUSION: We suggest that one mouthful volume in a single swallow is 21 ml in men and 14 ml in women and AVS in multiple swallows is 12 ml in men and 8 ml in women. AVS in multiple swallows is two-threefold lower than reference values(20~30 ml) commonly used in poisoning study.


Subject(s)
Adult , Deglutition , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth , Poisoning , Swallows , Water , Young Adult
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19478

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed in order to determine the changes over time in preventable and potentially preventable traumatic death rates, and to assess the factors that affected the deaths of trauma patients which occurred in Korean pre-hospital and hospital settings. METHODS: All trauma deaths occurring either in the emergency department (ED) or after admission at twenty Korean hospitals between August 2009 and July 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The deaths were initially reviewed by a team of multidisciplinary specialists and classified into non-preventable, potentially preventable, and preventable deaths. Only preventable and potentially preventable deaths were the subject of our analysis. Structured data extraction included patient demographics, vital signs, injury severity, probability of survival, preventability of mortality, reported errors in the evaluation and management of the patient, and classification of error types (system, judgment, knowledge). RESULTS: During the study period, 446 trauma victims died in the ED or within 7 days after admission. The mean age was 52 years, 74.1% were men and the mean time from injury to death was 35.6 hours. The most common cause of death was head injury (44.7%) followed by hemorrhage (30.8%) and multi-organ failure (8.0%). The rates of preventable/potentially preventable deaths were 35.2% overall and 29.8% when limited to patients surviving to admission. Of all death classifications, 31.2% were potentially preventable and 4.0% were preventable. Errors leading to preventable death occurred in the emergency department (51.2%), pre-hospital setting (30.3%) and during inter-hospital transfer (60.8%). Most errors were related to clinical management (48.4%) and structural problems in the emergency medical system (36.5%). CONCLUSION: The preventable death rates for Korean trauma victims were higher than those found in other developed countries, possibly due to poorly established emergency medical systems for trauma victims in pre-hospital and hospital settings. A system wide approach based on the emergency medical system and well-developed in-hospital trauma teams should be adopted in order to improve the quality of care of trauma victims in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Craniocerebral Trauma , Demography , Developed Countries , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Hemorrhage , Humans , Judgment , Korea , Male , Retrospective Studies , Specialization , Vital Signs
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141525

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many patients in South Korea are brought to hospitals by ambulance. As such, bacterial contamination within the ambulance and their critical or semi-critical equipment may be dangerous, especially for immunocompromised patients. No previous studies have examined the distribution patterns of pathogenic bacteria in ambulances or the bacterial contamination rate associated with riding in an ambulance in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of pathogenic bacteria species in ambulances, and to investigate the bacterial contamination rate associated with ambulances and their equipment, in South Korea. METHODS: Thirty ambulances (17 from private facilities and 13 from regional emergency centers) were enlisted for this study. We took 955 swabs and isolated the resulting bacteria. We surveyed the intervals between cleaning and disinfecting of the ambulances and their equipment. We compared the distributional of the bacterial species, following Spaulding's classification, between critical equipment (CE), semi-critical equipment (SCE) and non-critical equipment (NCE) in the ambulances, using the chi-square test. RESULTS: The ambulances were cleaned and disinfected every 5 and 8 days, respectively. The equipment was cleaned and disinfected once every 22 and 30 days, respectively. Of the 955 swabs, 159 (16.6%) were found to be contaminated by bacteria. Fourteen pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the CE and SCE, but no methicillin-resistant or vancomycin-resistant bacteria were found. CONCLUSION: Approximately 16.6% of the ambulances and their equipment were contaminated by bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria were found on both CE and SCE. Consequently, in South Korea, we find a risk associated with the hazard presented by bacterial contamination in ambulance CE and SCE.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Bacteria , Emergencies , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Methicillin Resistance , Republic of Korea
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many patients in South Korea are brought to hospitals by ambulance. As such, bacterial contamination within the ambulance and their critical or semi-critical equipment may be dangerous, especially for immunocompromised patients. No previous studies have examined the distribution patterns of pathogenic bacteria in ambulances or the bacterial contamination rate associated with riding in an ambulance in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of pathogenic bacteria species in ambulances, and to investigate the bacterial contamination rate associated with ambulances and their equipment, in South Korea. METHODS: Thirty ambulances (17 from private facilities and 13 from regional emergency centers) were enlisted for this study. We took 955 swabs and isolated the resulting bacteria. We surveyed the intervals between cleaning and disinfecting of the ambulances and their equipment. We compared the distributional of the bacterial species, following Spaulding's classification, between critical equipment (CE), semi-critical equipment (SCE) and non-critical equipment (NCE) in the ambulances, using the chi-square test. RESULTS: The ambulances were cleaned and disinfected every 5 and 8 days, respectively. The equipment was cleaned and disinfected once every 22 and 30 days, respectively. Of the 955 swabs, 159 (16.6%) were found to be contaminated by bacteria. Fourteen pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the CE and SCE, but no methicillin-resistant or vancomycin-resistant bacteria were found. CONCLUSION: Approximately 16.6% of the ambulances and their equipment were contaminated by bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria were found on both CE and SCE. Consequently, in South Korea, we find a risk associated with the hazard presented by bacterial contamination in ambulance CE and SCE.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Bacteria , Emergencies , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Methicillin Resistance , Republic of Korea
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