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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 725-733, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003059

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has a prognostic value in cardiovascular disease, infection, inflammatory disease, and several malignancies. Therefore, the NLR has a possible predictive value in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but this predictive value has not been validated. Here, we aimed to investigate the possibility of NLR as a predictor of CKD progression. @*Methods@#This retrospective observational study included 141 patients with non-dialysis CKD. The participants were divided into terciles (T1, T2, and T3) according to NLR. The primary outcome was defined as a composite kidney event, which included a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 50% or initiation of renal replacement therapy during the follow-up period. @*Results@#The mean follow-up duration was 5.45 ± 2.11 years. The mean NLRs were 1.35 ± 0.05 in T1 (n = 47), 2.16 ± 0.04 in T2 (n = 47), and 4.29 ± 0.73 in T3 (n = 47). The group with the highest NLR (T3) had higher baseline CKD and serum creatinine and lower eGFR levels than the group with the lowest NLR (T1). The cumulative incidence rate of composite kidney events was significantly higher in T3 compared with T1 (p < 0.001, log-rank test). Cox regression analysis revealed that high NLR was associated with the risk of composite kidney events (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–7.76). @*Conclusions@#A higher NLR reflects the more advanced stage of CKD and suggests a role for NLR as a biomarker for predicting CKD progression.

2.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 251-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001969

ABSTRACT

Urine chloride has recently been suggested as a biomarker of renal tubule function in patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), as low urinary chloride concentration is associated with an increased risk of CKD progression. We investigate the association between urinary chloride excretion and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods: A total of 1,065 patients with nondialysis CKD were divided into tertiles by spot urine chloride-to-creatinine ratios. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd tertiles were defined as low, moderate, and high urinary chloride excretion, respectively. The study outcome was CAC progression, which was defined as an increase in coronary artery calcium score of more than 200 Agatston units during the 4-year follow-up period. Results: Compared to moderate urinary chloride excretion, high urinary chloride excretion was associated with decreased risk of CAC progression (adjusted odds ratio, 0.379; 95% confidence interval, 0.190–0.757), whereas low urinary chloride excretion was not associated with risk of CAC progression. Restricted cubic spine depicted an inverted J-shaped curve, with a significant reduction in the risk of CAC progression in subjects with high spot urine chloride-to-creatinine ratios. Conclusion: High urinary chloride excretion is associated with decreased risk of CAC progression in patients with nondialysis CKD.

3.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 229-242, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001963

ABSTRACT

Although multiple factors influence the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), the effects of socioeconomic status on MACE in the presence and absence of renal dysfunction (RD) have not been comprehensively explored in Korea. Methods: We examined the effects of socioeconomic status on MACE in individuals with and without RD. The data of 44,473 Koreans from 2008 to 2017 were obtained from the Health Care Big Data Platform of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea. Their socioeconomic status was assessed using a socioeconomic score (SES) based on marital status, education, household income, and occupation. The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death was compared according to SES level (0–4). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes based on participant SES. Results: MI risk was only affected by education level. The participants’ income, education, and SES affected their stroke risk, whereas death was associated with all four socioeconomic factors. The incidence of stroke and death increased as SES worsened (from 0 to 4). SES was positively related to risk of stroke and death in participants without RD. SES did not affect MI, stroke, or death in participants with RD. Conclusion: A low socioeconomic status is associated with risk of stroke and death, especially in individuals without RD.

4.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 86-97, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967940

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported that depression is prevalent in patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. However, the relationship between weight changes and the risk of depression has not been elucidated in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods: From the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we selected 67,866 patients with DKD and body weight data from two consecutive health examinations with a 2-year interval between 2009 and 2012. Weight change over 2 years was categorized into five groups: ≥–10%, <–10% to ≥–5%, <–5% to <5%, ≥5% to <10%, and ≥10%. The occurrence of depression was monitored via the codes of International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision through the end of 2018. Results: During the 5.24-year follow-up, 17,023 patients with DKD developed depression. Weight change and the risk of depression had a U-shaped relationship: patients with ≥–10% weight change (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12) and those with ≥10% weight change (HR, 1.11) showed higher HRs for depression than those with <–5% to <5% weight change, even after adjusting for several confounding factors. In the subgroup analyses, the risk of depression tended to increase as weight gain or weight loss increased in all subgroups. Conclusion: Both weight loss and weight gain increased the risk of depression in patients with DKD.

5.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 200-208, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938416

ABSTRACT

Osteoprotegerin is an important regulator of bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The association between serum osteoprotegerin level and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression has not been elucidated. We investigated the prognostic value of serum osteoprotegerin levels in nondialysis CKD patients. Methods: We analyzed 2,082 patients enrolled in the Korean Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients with CKD between 2011 and 2016. Patients were divided into quartiles by their serum osteoprotegerin levels. The primary outcome was the occurrence of ≥1 of the following: dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, a two-fold increase in serum creatinine level from baseline, or a 50% decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate the prognostic value of the serum osteoprotegerin level to CKD progression. Results: The median follow-up period was 48.9 months, and 641 patients (30.8%) experienced the primary outcome. The hazard ratio of serum osteoprotegerin for renal progression in the full extended Cox proportional hazard model was 1.064 (95% confidence interval, 1.041–1.088). Subgroup analyses by age, presence of diabetes, and eGFR showed significant results consistent with the overall analysis results. Conclusion: Serum osteoprotegerin level is independently associated with renal prognosis and could have prognostic importance in CKD progression.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 146-153, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919213

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension is considered a risk factor in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). However, after IgAN diagnosis, the relationship between early blood pressure control and renal prognosis remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the association between the prognosis of IgAN patients and a controlled status of hypertension within the first year of IgAN diagnosis. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 2,945 patients diagnosed with IgAN by renal biopsy. The patients were divided into ‘normal,’ ‘new-onset,’ ‘well-controlled,’ and ‘poorly-controlled’ groups using blood pressure data from two consecutive measurements performed within a year. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression model were used to survey the independent association between recovery from hypertension and the risk of IgAN progression. The primary endpoint was IgAN progression defined as the initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation. @*Results@#Before IgAN diagnosis, 1,239 patients (42.1%) had been diagnosed with hypertension. In the fully adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models, the risk of IgAN progression increased by approximately 1.7-fold for the prevalence of hypertension. In the subgroup analyses, the ‘well-controlled’ group showed a statistically significant risk of IgAN progression (hazard ratio [HR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.103 to 9.245; p = 0.032). Moreover, the ‘new-onset’ and ‘poorly-controlled’ groups had an increased risk of IgAN progression compared to the ‘normal’ group (HR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.016 to 6.545; p = 0.046 and HR, 3.85;95% CI, 1.541 to 9.603; p = 0.004, respectively). @*Conclusions@#Although hypertension was well-controlled in the first year after IgAN diagnosis, it remained a risk factor for IgAN progression.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 639-652, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927027

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The obesity paradox has been known in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the effect of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the development of ESRD is not clear. @*Methods@#Using nationally representative data from the Korean National Health Insurance System, we enrolled 140,164 subjects without ESRD at enrolment who underwent PCI between 2010 and 2015, and were followed-up until 2017. Patients were stratified into five levels based on their baseline BMI and six levels based on their WC with 5-cm increments. BMI and WC were measured at least 2 years prior to PCI. The primary outcome was the development of ESRD. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 2,082 (1.49%) participants developed ESRD. The underweight group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.331; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.955 to 1.856) and low WC (< 80/< 75) (HR, 1.589; 95% CI, 1.379 to 1.831) showed the highest ESRD risk and the BMI 25 to 30 group showed the lowest ESRD risk (HR, 0.604; 95% CI, 0542 to 0.673) in all participants after adjusting for all covariates. In the subgroup analysis for diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, WC < 85/80 cm (men/women) increased ESRD risk in only the DM group (DM < 5 years and DM ≥ 5 years) compared to the reference group (85–90/80–85 of WC), but not the normal or impaired fasting glucose group. @*Conclusions@#Low WC prior to PCI showed an increased ESRD risk in patients with DM undergoing PCI as compared to those without DM.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S90-S98, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875491

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated the impact of obesity on the clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#We included South Koreans aged > 20 years who underwent the Korean National Health Screening assessment between 2009 and 2012. Obesity was defined using the body mass index (BMI), according to the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Abdominal obesity was defined using the waist circumference (WC), as defined by the Korean Society for Obesity. The odds and hazard ratios in all-cause mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates. Patients were followed up to the end of 2017. @*Results@#Among 130,490 subjects who underwent PCI, the mean age negatively correlated with BMI. WC, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels correlated with the increased BMI. The mortality rates were higher in the lower BMI and WC groups than the higher BMI and WC groups. The non-obese with abdominal obesity group showed a mortality rate of 2.11 per 1,000 person-years. Obese with no abdominal obesity group had the lowest mortality rate (0.88 per 1,000 person-years). The mortality showed U-shaped curve with a cut-off value of 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC. @*Conclusions@#The mortality showed U-shaped curve and the cut-off value of lowest mortality was 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC. The abdominal obesity may be associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients who underwent PCI.

9.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 51-55, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914226

ABSTRACT

We report a case of severe hyperphosphatemia in advanced CKD with poor compliance. A 55-year-old male patient with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease presented emergently with general weakness and altered mental status. The creatinine level was 14 mg/dL (normal range: 0.5-1.3 mg/dL) 2 months prior to consultation, and he was advised initiation of hemodialysis, which he refused. Subsequently, the patient stopped taking all prescribed medications and self-medicated with honey and persimmon vinegar with the false belief it was detoxifying. At the time of admission, he was delirious, and his laboratory results showed blood urea nitrogen level of 183.4 mg/dL (8-23 mg/dL), serum creatinine level of 26.61 mg/dL (0.5-1.3 mg/dL), serum phosphate level of 19.3 mg/dL (2.5-5.5 mg/dL), total calcium level of 4.3 mg/dL (8.4-10.2 mg/dL), vitamin D (25(OH)D) level of 5.71 ng/mL (30-100 ng/mL) and parathyroid hormone level of 401 pg/ml (9-55 pg/mL). Brain computed tomography revealed non-traumatic spontaneous subdural hemorrhage, presumably due to uremic bleeding.Emergent hemodialysis was initiated, and hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia were rectified; calcium acetate and cholecalciferol were administered. The patient’s general condition and laboratory results improved following dialysis. Strict dietary restrictions with patient education were implemented. Multifaceted interventions, including dietary counseling, administration of phosphate-lowering drugs, and lifestyle modifications, should be implemented when encountering patients with CKD, considering the extent of the patient’s adherence.

10.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 432-444, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917063

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for mortality and morbidity in chronic kidney disease and coronary artery syndrome. The effect of hypertension prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. @*Methods@#We used nationally representative data from the Korean National Health Insurance System—140,164 subjects were enrolled during 2010–2015; they were free of ESRD at enrolment, underwent PCI, and were followed up until 2017. Blood pressure (BP) was measured within at least 2 years prior to PCI. The primary outcome was the development of ESRD. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 2,082 participants (1.5%) developed ESRD. The highest systolic BP group (>160 mmHg) showed a higher hazard ratio (3.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.61–5.23) than the reference group (110–119 mmHg). Similar results were observed in the highest diastolic BP group (>120 mmHg), which showed a higher hazard ratio than the reference group (70–79 mmHg). However, ESRD risk showed a J-shaped relationship with baseline systolic and diastolic BP at 113 and 74 mmHg in diabetes mellitus subgroup, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. @*Conclusion@#Our study showed that a high systolic or diastolic BP prior to PCI was independently associated with an increased incidence of ESRD.

11.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 411-418, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917051

ABSTRACT

Background@#Minimal change disease (MCD) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome worldwide. Hyperuricemia increases the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk in glomerulonephritis. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of high serum uric acid levels on the progression to ESRD in MCD. @*Methods@#A total of 800 patients diagnosed with MCD by kidney biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. We determined the relationship of hyperuricemia with the progression to ESRD in MCD using the Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The primary outcome was defined as the initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation. @*Results@#A total of 42 patients (5.3%) progressed to ESRD during the follow-up period. In the restricted cubic spline curve, serum uric acid levels exhibited a positive correlation with ESRD progression in patients with MCD. In the fully adjusted model, the risk of MCD progression increased by 29% for every 1 mg/dL increase in the baseline serum uric acid level (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.54; p = 0.004). Falling into the high uric acid group (serum uric acid level > 7 mg/dL in men and > 6 mg/dL in women) was also a risk factor for progression of MCD to ESRD (HR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.59–7.31; p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our study shows that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for the progression to ESRD in patients with MCD.

12.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 43-46, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788301

ABSTRACT

An anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is rare and surgical intervention is recommended when the patient is symptomatic. We performed coronary artery bypass graft surgery in a 21-year-old male patient with a right coronary artery anomalously originating from the left coronary sinus. The artery was significantly stenosed by external compression between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. However, the graft became occluded 1 year after the operation. In such cases, the dynamic nature of the stenosis can cause relatively intact antegrade competitive flow from the native coronary artery and lead to an occlusion of the grafted artery. Methods for evaluating flow rates or intraluminal pressures of native arteries could be helpful in decision-making in similar cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Aorta , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Disease , Coronary Sinus , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Coronary Vessels , Mammary Arteries , Pulmonary Artery , Transplants
13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 593-597, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152298

ABSTRACT

We present a case of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis caused by Citrobacter freundii complicated by a fungal infection with abscess formation. A 34-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain. Isolate cultures were confirmed as Citrobacter freundii by DNA sequencing of the 16s ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA). Antibiotic therapy was ineffective and Candida tropicalis was isolated in follow-up blood cultures. We administered an antifungal agent and removed the peritoneal catheter. A sudden fever developed, and abdominal computed tomography showed intra-abdominal abscesses. Percutaneous drainage was performed, but no bacteria were cultured. After draining the abscesses, the patient recovered. Citrobacter species are unusual pathogens in peritonitis, and fungal peritonitis is a serious complication of bacterial peritonitis. Indwelling catheters should be removed and appropriate antibiotic therapy provided. Suspicion of a fungal infection combined with bacterial peritonitis will improve the prognosis of patients on peritoneal dialysis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Abdominal Abscess , Abdominal Pain , Abscess , Bacteria , Candida tropicalis , Catheters , Catheters, Indwelling , Citrobacter , Citrobacter freundii , Drainage , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Peritoneal Dialysis , Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory , Peritonitis , Prognosis , RNA , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sequence Analysis, DNA
14.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 43-46, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133645

ABSTRACT

An anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is rare and surgical intervention is recommended when the patient is symptomatic. We performed coronary artery bypass graft surgery in a 21-year-old male patient with a right coronary artery anomalously originating from the left coronary sinus. The artery was significantly stenosed by external compression between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. However, the graft became occluded 1 year after the operation. In such cases, the dynamic nature of the stenosis can cause relatively intact antegrade competitive flow from the native coronary artery and lead to an occlusion of the grafted artery. Methods for evaluating flow rates or intraluminal pressures of native arteries could be helpful in decision-making in similar cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Aorta , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Disease , Coronary Sinus , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Coronary Vessels , Mammary Arteries , Pulmonary Artery , Transplants
15.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 43-46, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133644

ABSTRACT

An anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is rare and surgical intervention is recommended when the patient is symptomatic. We performed coronary artery bypass graft surgery in a 21-year-old male patient with a right coronary artery anomalously originating from the left coronary sinus. The artery was significantly stenosed by external compression between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. However, the graft became occluded 1 year after the operation. In such cases, the dynamic nature of the stenosis can cause relatively intact antegrade competitive flow from the native coronary artery and lead to an occlusion of the grafted artery. Methods for evaluating flow rates or intraluminal pressures of native arteries could be helpful in decision-making in similar cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Aorta , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Disease , Coronary Sinus , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Coronary Vessels , Mammary Arteries , Pulmonary Artery , Transplants
16.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 187-191, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Korean version of ASAS-HI in patients with spondyloarthritis in Korea. METHODS: A total of 91 patients were enrolled. We evaluated the validity by calculating the correlation coefficients between the Korean version of ASAS-HI and other clinical parameters, including patient global assessment (PGA), spinal back pain score, Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (AS-DAS), work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) number 5 and number 6, hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), health Survey Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-5D VAS). Using a Pearson correlation coefficient, the validity was assessed by making a comparison between the correlation of the ASAS HI and clinical parameters in all patients. RESULTS: The Korean version of ASAS-HI score was correlated with PGA, spinal back pain score, BASDAI, BASFI, AS-DAS, WPAI number 5, WPAI number 6, HADS, and EQ-5D (r=0.331, 0.403, 0.638, 0.500, 0.595, 0.480, 0.573, 0.626, -0.497, p=0.002, <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this study, the clinical effectiveness of the Korean version of ASAS-HI was proved by calculating the correlation with other clinical parameters. The Korean version of ASAS-HI can be used in clinical practice and research to assess the healthy state of spondyloarthritis patients in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Back Pain , Baths , Depression , Efficiency , Health Surveys , Korea , Patient Outcome Assessment , Spondylitis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing
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