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1.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 210-215, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999752

ABSTRACT

Arachnoid cysts are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. However, cysts may occasionally rupture because of minor head trauma. We describe the radiologic follow-up of 5 patients with ruptured arachnoid cysts featuring spontaneous resolution, subdural hygroma formation, and cystic and subdural hemorrhage. From January 2004 through July 2020, 5 patients (1.3%) with ruptured arachnoid cysts were evaluated out of 388 patients with arachnoid cysts encountered at our institution at that time. The 5 patients were all male, and they ranged in age from 6–17 years (median, 12 years).The median duration of radiologic follow-up was 3.5 years (range, 2.3–10.1 years). All of the ruptured arachnoid cysts were overlying the temporal lobe with Galassi type II. The median cyst diameter was 4.9 cm (range, 4.4–8.9 cm). Four patients had a history of recent minor head trauma. There were no particular neurologic symptoms in their past medical history in all patients. In the follow-up, two patients’ cysts resolved spontaneously without hemorrhage. One patient’s cyst resolved post-burr-hole drainage for chronic subdural hemorrhage. Another patient, whose cyst led to a hemorrhage and chronic subdural hemorrhage, recovered following a craniotomy, hematoma removal, and cyst fenestration. Another patient, presenting with hygroma, cystic hemorrhage, and chronic subdural hemorrhage, was treated with burr-hole drainage. Three patients recovered postoperatively. Arachnoid cysts rarely rupture, and surgical intervention is required for some cases associated with hemorrhage. Postoperatively, all patients had good outcomes without complications in this series.

2.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 94-102, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999747

ABSTRACT

The paper provides a comprehensive overview of the growth and development of Hwasun Neurosurgery at Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital over the past 18 years. As the first brain tumor center in Korea when it was established in April 2004, Hwasun Neurosurgery has since become one of the leading institutions in brain tumor education and research in the country. Its impressive clinical and basic research capabilities, dedication to professional education, and numerous academic achievements have all contributed to its reputation as a top-tier institution. We hope this will become a useful guide for other brain tumor centers or educational institutions by sharing the story of Hwasun Neurosurgery.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 396-405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925685

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The KNOG-1101 study showed improved 2-year PFS with temozolomide during and after radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone for patients with anaplastic gliomas. This trial investigates the effect of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). @*Materials and Methods@#In this randomized, open-label, phase II trial, 90 patients with World Health Organization grade III glioma were enrolled across multiple centers in South Korea between March 2012 to February 2015 and followed up through 2017. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and 20-item EORTC QLQ-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) were used to compare HRQoL between patients assigned to concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (arm A) and radiotherapy (RT) alone (arm B). @*Results@#Of the 90 patients in the study, 84 patients (93.3%) completed the baseline HRQoL questionnaire. Emotional functioning, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, constipation, appetite loss, diarrhea, seizures, itchy skin, drowsiness, hair loss, and bladder control were not affected by the addition of temozolomide. All other items did not differ significantly between arm A and arm B throughout treatment. Global health status particularly stayed consistent at the end of adjuvant temozolomide (p=0.47) and at the end of RT (p=0.33). @*Conclusion@#The addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide did not show negative influence on HRQoL with improvement of progression-free survival for patients with anaplastic gliomas. The absence of systematic and clinically relevant changes in HRQoL suggests that an overall long-term net clinical benefit exists for concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

4.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 896-900, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920170

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The study reports on the clinical experience of repairing white-eyed orbital blow out fracture through a retrospective study of various incidences of white-eyed orbital blow out fracture that resulted in different treatment methods and outcomes.Subjects and Method A retrospective study was performed on 22 patients with white-eyed blowout fracture who underwent operation between March 2009 and June 2019 at our clinic. Patients were divided into 2 groups by age: 6 to 12 and 13 to 18. A review of medical records included demographic data, cause of injury, preoperative symptoms, trauma to operation time and surgical outcomes including improvement of postoperative ocular symptoms and complications. @*Results@#The study population included 20 males and 2 female patients ranging from 6 to 18 years (mean, 14.2 years) of age. Fifteen of 21 patients with diplopia or limitation of eyeball movement showed a complete improvement of symptoms after surgery and 6 (28.5%) had remaining symptoms. One patient had no ocular symptom, but had oculocardiac reflex including nausea and vomiting. Two cases were re-operated due to adhesion of graft material. There was one sinus infection related to the implant. @*Conclusion@#This study shows that early reconstruction and release of incarcerated muscle within 5 days after trauma for white-eyed blowout fracture gives successful result that does not accompany major complications. All of the 22 patients who were operated for white-eyed blowout fractures had successful results.

5.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 983-994, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915583

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) in the treatment of brain metastases is well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of maximizing the radiation dose in GKR and the factors influencing tumor control in cases of small and medium-sized brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). @*Methods@#: We analyzed 230 metastatic brain tumors less than 5 mL in volume in 146 patients with NSCLC who underwent GKR. The patients had no previous radiation therapy for brain metastases. The pathologies of the tumors were adenocarcinoma (n=207), squamous cell carcinoma (n=18), and others (n=5). The radiation doses were classified as 18, 20, 22, and 24 Gy, and based on the tumor volume, the tumors were categorized as follows : small-sized (less than 1 mL) and medium-sized (1–3 and 3–5 mL). The progression-free survival (PFS) of the individual 230 tumors and 146 brain metastases was evaluated after GKR depending on the pathology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score (PS), tumor volume, radiation dose, and anti-cancer regimens. The radiotoxicity after GKR was also evaluated. @*Results@#: After GKR, the restricted mean PFS of individual 230 tumors at 24 months was 15.6 months (14.0–17.1). In small-sized tumors, as the dose of radiation increased, the tumor control rates tended to increase (p=0.072). In medium-sized tumors, there was no statistically difference in PFS with an increase of radiation dose (p=0.783). On univariate analyses, a statistically significant increase in PFS was associated with adenocarcinomas (p=0.001), tumors with ECOG PS 0 (p=0.005), small-sized tumors (p=0.003), radiation dose of 24 Gy (p=0.014), synchronous lesions (p=0.002), and targeted therapy (p=0.004). On multivariate analyses, an improved PFS was seen with targeted therapy (hazard ratio, 0.356; 95% confidence interval, 0.150–0.842; p=0.019). After GKR, the restricted mean PFS of brain at 24 months was 9.8 months (8.5–11.1) in 146 patients, and the pattern of recurrence was mostly distant within the brain (66.4%). The small and medium-sized tumors treated with GKR showed radiotoxicitiy in five out of 230 tumors (2.2%), which were controlled with medical treatment. @*Conclusion@#: The small-sized tumors were effectively controlled without symptomatic radiation necrosis as the radiation dose was increased up to 24 Gy. The medium-sized tumors showed potential for symptomatic radiation necrosis without signifcant tumor control rate, when greater than 18 Gy. GKR combined targeted therapy improved the tumor control of GKR-treated tumors.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e256-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915490

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is no clear consensus on the optimal treatment with curative intent for patients with positive surgical margins (PSMs) following radical prostatectomy (RP). The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions and treatment patterns of Korean urologists regarding the resection margin after RP. @*Methods@#A preliminary questionnaire was prepared by analyzing various studies on resection margins after RP. Eight experienced urologists finalized the 10-item questionnaire.In July 2019, the final questionnaire was delivered via e-mail to 105 urologists in Korea who specialize in urinary cancers. @*Results@#We received replies from 91 of the 105 urologists (86.7%) in our sample population.Among them, 41 respondents (45.1%) had performed more than 300 RPs and 22 (24.2%) had completed 500 or more RPs. In the question about whether they usually performed an additional biopsy beyond the main specimen, to get information about surgical margin invasion during surgery, the main opinion was that if no residual cancer was suspected, it was not performed (74.7%). For PSMs, the Gleason score of the positive site (49.5%) was judged to be a more important prognostic factor than the margin location (18.7%), multifocality (14.3%), or margin length (17.6%). In cases with PSMs after surgery, the prevailing opinion on follow-up was to measure and monitor prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels rather than to begin immediate treatment (68.1%). Many respondents said that they considered postoperative radiologic examinations when PSA was elevated (72.2%), rather than regularly (24.4%). When patients had PSMs without extracapsular extension (pT2R1) or a negative surgical margin with extracapsular extension (pT3aR0), the response ‘does not make a difference in treatment policy’ prevailed at 65.9%. Even in patients at high risk of PSMs on preoperative radiologic screening, 84.6% of the respondents said that they did not perform neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Most respondents (75.8%) indicated that they avoided nerve-sparing RP in cases with a high risk of PSMs, but 25.7% said that they had tried nerve-sparing surgery. Additional analyses showed that urologists who had performed 300 or more prostatectomies tended to attempt more nerve-sparing procedures in patients with a high risk of PSMs than less experienced surgeons (36.6% vs. 14.0%; P = 0.012). @*Conclusion@#The most common response was to monitor PSA levels without recommending any additional treatment when PSMs were found after RP. Through this questionnaire, we found that the perceptions and treatment patterns of Korean urologists differed considerably according to RP resection margin status. Refined research and standard practice guidelines are needed.

7.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 100-105, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913769

ABSTRACT

We report a patient with severe neurological deterioration due to leptomeningeal metastases involving brain and spinal cord from anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung adenocarcinoma, managed rapidly and successfully with lorlatinib therapy. A 48-year-old male patient presented with acute mental deterioration, severe headache, and weakness of both legs. The patient’s previous medical history included cerebral metastases from ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma, which had been successfully managed via whole brain radiation therapy and gamma knife radiosurgery one year and three months before, respectively. Physical examination revealed neck stiffness and paraparesis with motor grade I.Gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI showed newly developed leptomeningeal enhancement along cerebellar folia, and whole spine MRI revealed similar leptomeningeal metastasis along the whole spinal axis. Lorlatinib was started orally with a dose of 100 mg/day. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement after one week. The patient was alert and the headache disappeared, while the paraparesis improved to normal ambulatory status. Two months of lorlatinib treatment resulted in almost complete disappearance of previous leptomeningeal enhancement of brain and spinal cord, and absence of newly developed metastatic lesions in the central nervous system, based on MRI results. The patient had been regularly followed with ongoing lorlatinib therapy for 5 months without any systemic complications or neurological abnormality. Conclusively, lorlatinib could be a rapid and effective treatment for patients with central nervous system leptomeningeal metastases arising from ALK-positive lung cancer.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

10.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 275-281, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834700

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that affects smooth muscle tissue and it is very rare in the field of oral and maxillofcial surgery.The purpose of this study was to obtain information on diagnosis of and treatment methods for leiomyosarcoma by retrospectively reviewing of the cases. @*Patients and Methods@#The study included nine patients who were diagnosed with leiomyosarcoma in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Seoul National University Dental Hospital. The subjects were analyzed with respect to sex, age, clinical features, primary site of disease, treatment method, recurrence, and metastasis. @*Results@#Particular clinical features included pain, edema, mouth-opening limitations, dysesthesia, and enlarged lymph nodes. All cases except one were surgically treated, and recurrence was found in two cases. Four of nine patients were followed up without recurrence and one patient underwent additional surgery due to recurrence. @*Conclusion@#In our case series, notable symptoms included pain, edema, mouth-opening limitations, and dysesthesia; however, it was difficult to label these as specific symptoms of leiomyosarcoma. Considering the aggressive characteristics of the disease and poor prognosis, surgical treatment is necessary with careful consideration of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e288-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831530

ABSTRACT

Background@#In February 2020, a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak was reported in fitness centers in Cheonan, Korea. @*Methods@#From February 24 to March 13, an epidemiological investigation was conducted on the fitness center outbreak. All those who were screened were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Contacts were traced and self-isolated for 14 days. We determined the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and estimated the time-dependent reproduction number to assess the transmission dynamics of the infection. @*Results@#A total of 116 cases were confirmed, and 1,687 contacts were traced. The source cases were 8 Zumba instructors who led aerobics classes in 10 fitness centers, and had the largest average number of contacts. A total of 57 Zumba class participants, 37 of their family members, and 14 other contacts were confirmed as cases. The attack rate was 7.3%. The contacts at Zumba classes and homes had a higher attack rate than other contacts. The mean serial interval (± standard deviation) were estimated to be 5.2 (± 3.8) days. The time-dependent reproduction number was estimated to be 6.1 at the beginning of the outbreak, but it dropped to less than 1, 2 days after the epidemiological investigation was launched. @*Conclusion@#The results suggest that the COVID-19 outbreak was effectively contained with rigorous contact tracing, isolating, and testing in combination with social distancing without a lock-down.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 505-515, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831048

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the efficacy of temozolomide during and after radiotherapy in Korean adultswith anaplastic gliomas without 1p/19q co-deletion. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a randomized, open-label, phase 2 study and notably the first multicenter trial forKorean grade III glioma patients. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and hadnewly diagnosed non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma with an Eastern Cooperative OncologyGroup performance status of 0-2. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive radiotherapyalone (60 Gy in 30 fractions of 2 Gy) (control group, n=44) or to receive radiotherapy withconcurrent temozolomide (75 mg/m2/day) followed by adjuvant temozolomide (150-200mg/m2/day for 5 days during six 28-day cycles) (treatment group, n=40). The primary endpointwas 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Seventy patients (83.3%) were availablefor the analysis of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) mutation status. @*Results@#The two-year PFS was 42.2% in the treatment group and 37.2% in the control group. Overallsurvival (OS) did not reach to significant difference between the groups. In multivariableanalysis, age was a significant risk factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidenceinterval [CI], 1.04 to 4.16). The IDH1mutation was the only significant prognostic factor forPFS (HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.59) and OS (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.50). Adverseevents over grade 3 were seen in 16 patients (40.0%) in the treatment group and werereversible. @*Conclusion@#Concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in Korean adults with newly diagnosed nonco-deleted anaplastic gliomas showed improved 2-year PFS. The survival benefit of this regimenneeds further analysis with long-term follow-up at least more than 10 years.

13.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : e16-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831029

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been widely used for intracranial meningiomas as an alternative or adjuvant treatment, guidelines have not been established for the selection of patients with petroclival meningioma (PCM) for GKRS. In this study, we reported the factors related to tumor progression and postoperative complications in PCM patients treated by GKRS, with a review of the literatures. @*Methods@#Between 2004 and 2019, 64 patients (52 patients for alternative and 12 patients for adjuvant treatment) with PCM underwent GKRS in our institution. The clinical and radiological factors were retrospectively analyzed. The mean radiologic follow-up duration was 58.4 months (range, 6-164 months). The mean tumor volume and diameter before GKRS were 13.4㎤ and 2.9 cm, respectively.The median marginal dose was 12 Gy (range, 10-14 Gy) with a 50% median isodose line. Fractionation was used in 19 cases (29%, two fractionations in 5 cases & three fractionations in 14 cases). @*Results@#Progression was noted in 7 cases (10.9%) and the progression-free survival rates were 91.1% at 5 years and 69.6% at 10 years. Although large in volume, moderate to severe peritumoral edema and male gender were somewhat related to progression, they did not reach statistical significance. Ten patients (15.6%) developed complications after GKRS. The most common complication was cranial nerve deficit (n=8), followed by hemiparesis, cognitive dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. Large size (maximal diameter ≥5 cm) [hazard ratio (HR) 0.091, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.014-0.608;p=0.013] and multiplicity (HR 0.102, 95% CI 0.018-0.573; p=0.009) were independent factors for developing complications after GKRS. @*Conclusion@#GKRS can be considered an effective and safe treatment for large-volume PCM. However, for patients with large size or multiple masses, the treatment method should be determined with caution because the probability of complications after GKRS may increase.

14.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : e17-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831028

ABSTRACT

From 2004 to 2020, we studied three pediatric patients (age: 9-13 years, all male) and one adult patient (age: 29 years, female) with tectal plate glioma with obstructing hydrocephalus on MRI. One patient had neurofibromatosis type 1. All patients complained about headaches and vomiting, and one patient had diplopia. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) was underwent in all patients and a biopsy was obtained from two patients. Pathologic diagnoses were a pilocytic astrocytoma and a lowgrade glioma. After ETV with or without biopsy, neurological symptoms were improved in all patients.Three patients did the clinical and radiological follow-up without adjuvant treatment. One patient underwent gamma knife radiosurgery. In two pediatric patients and the adult patient, there was no clinical and radiological progression after 6.2, 6.9, and 8.0 years, respectively. One pediatric patient whose lesion had focal enhancement had radiologic progression without any neurologic symptoms after 5.1 years. Without adjuvant treatment for this lesion, there was no clinical deterioration neither further radiological progression for 6.2 years after radiological aggravation. Tectal plate gliomas showed indolent clinical courses, even after radiologic tumor progression. After the treatment of obstructing hydrocephalus, clinical and radiologic follow-up can be recommended for indolent tectal plate gliomas.

15.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 140-146, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836782

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate whether estramustine phosphate (EMP) monotherapy is applicable to castration-resistantprostate cancer (CRPC) patients who cannot receive cytotoxic chemotherapy. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective single-arm study was conducted in CRPC patients who had notexperienced cytotoxic chemotherapy and received EMP monotherapy (560 mg/day) at 2 institutions from 2008to 2017. We analyzed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses, overall survival, and adverse effects of EMPtreatment. @*Results@#A total of 28 patients were analyzed. A reduction in serum PSA was observed in 11 patients (39.3%).Seven cases (25.9%) achieved more than 25% reduction of PSA, and 5 of them (18.5%) experienced more than50% reduction. Median overall survival was 23 months (interquartile range, 10–60 months). Multivariable analysesdemonstrated that low level of PSA at diagnosis of CRPC and long duration of prior androgen deprivation therapywere independent favorable factors predicting long-term overall survival. Adverse effects were edema (n=2; grade2), nausea/vomiting (n=1; grade 2), gynecomastia (n=1; grade 2), and dyspnea (n=1; grade 1). Neither thromboembolicevent nor grade 3–5 toxicity was observed. There was no discontinuation caused by side effects ofEMP. @*Conclusions@#EMP monotherapy could be considered as a safe treatment option with some effectiveness for CRPCpatients who did not undergo cytotoxic chemotherapy. EMP is not generally recommended anticancer drug in thecurrent guidelines for CRPC, but EMP monotherapy is thought to have an alternative role when a standard treatmentcannot be selected due to patient's age, health condition, or comorbidity.

16.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 619-625, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788825

ABSTRACT

The Korean Women Neurosurgical Society (KWNS) was founded in 2008. To commemorate its 10th anniversary, herein we review its history and the status of Korean Neurosurgical Society (KNS)-certified women neurosurgeons. Based on the academic and social activity of the KWNS, we can expect to promote professional work as members of the KNS, facilitate interaction among neurosurgeons, and sustain professional careers.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Anniversaries and Special Events , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery
17.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 476-486, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The functional information of ¹¹C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) images can be applied for Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) and its image quality may affect defining the tumor. This study conducted the phantom-based evaluation for geometric accuracy and functional characteristic of diagnostic MET-PET image co-registered with stereotactic image in Leksell GammaPlan® (LGP) and also investigated clinical application of these images in metastatic brain tumors.METHODS: Two types of cylindrical acrylic phantoms fabricated in-house were used for this study : the phantom with an array-shaped axial rod insert and the phantom with different sized tube indicators. The phantoms were mounted on the stereotactic frame and scanned using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and PET system. Three-dimensional coordinate values on co-registered MET-PET images were compared with those on stereotactic CT image in LGP. MET uptake values of different sized indicators inside phantom were evaluated. We also evaluated the CT and MRI co-registered stereotactic MET-PET images with MR-enhancing volume and PET-metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in 14 metastatic brain tumors.RESULTS: Imaging distortion of MET-PET was maintained stable at less than approximately 3% on mean value. There was no statistical difference in the geometric accuracy according to co-registered reference stereotactic images. In functional characteristic study for MET-PET image, the indicator on the lateral side of the phantom exhibited higher uptake than that on the medial side. This effect decreased as the size of the object increased. In 14 metastatic tumors, the median matching percentage between MR-enhancing volume and PET-MTV was 36.8% on PET/MR fusion images and 39.9% on PET/CT fusion images.CONCLUSION: The geometric accuracy of the diagnostic MET-PET co-registered with stereotactic MR in LGP is acceptable on phantom-based study. However, the MET-PET images could the limitations in providing exact stereotactic information in clinical study.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Clinical Study , Electrons , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Phantoms, Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiosurgery , Tumor Burden
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e234-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common type of cancer in men worldwide and the fifth most common cancer among Korean men. Although most PCs grow slowly, it is unclear whether a longer time interval from diagnosis to treatment causes worse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate whether the time interval from diagnosis to radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with clinically localized PC affects postoperative oncologic outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 427 men who underwent RP for localized PC between January 2005 and June 2016. The patients were divided into two groups based on the cutoff median time interval (100 days) from biopsy to surgery. The associations between time interval from biopsy to surgery (< 100 vs. ≥ 100 days) and adverse pathologic outcomes such as positive surgical margin, pathologic upgrading, and upstaging were evaluated. Biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival rates were analyzed and compared based on the time interval from biopsy to surgery. RESULTS: Pathologic upgrading of Gleason score in surgical specimens was more frequent in the longer time interval group and showed marginal significance (38.8% vs. 30.0%; P = 0.057). Based on multivariable analysis, an association was observed between time interval from biopsy to surgery and pathologic upgrading (odds ratio, 2.211; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.342–3.645; P = 0.002). BCR-free survival did not differ based on time interval from biopsy to surgery, and significant association was not observed between time interval from biopsy to surgery and BCR on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 1.285; 95% CI, 0.795–2.077; P = 0.305). CONCLUSION: Time interval ≥ 100 days from biopsy to RP in clinically localized PC increased the risk of pathologic upgrading but did not affect long-term BCR-free survival rates in Korean men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 63-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
20.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 74-84, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
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