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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286584

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influential factors for job burnout among the managerial staff in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer in Guangzhou, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 288 managers in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer were surveyed using the Occupational Stress Indicator, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Social Support Rating Scale.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>On the depersonalization dimension, the male managers had significantly higher scores than the female managers. The scores of emotion exhaustion and depersonalization of MBI showed significant differences among the managers with different levels of occupational stress. The path analysis showed that occupational stress, neuroticism, and psychoticism had negative effects on emotion exhaustion, while job satisfaction and utilization of social support had direct positive effects on emotion exhaustion. Occupational stress, psychoticism, and passive coping style had direct negative effects on depersonalization, while job satisfaction, objective support, and utilization of social support had positive effects on depersonalization. Job satisfaction and active coping style had positive effects on sense of personal accomplishment, while passive coping style had a negative effect on sense of personal accomplishment. Personality exerted its effect on social support through coping style and thus on job satisfaction and job burnout.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Male managers have a greater propensity to depersonalization than their female counterparts. High occupational stress is a risk factor for job burnout. Personality, social support, and coping style are influential factors for job burnout.</p>


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Psychology , Adult , Burnout, Professional , Psychology , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 192-195, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295896

ABSTRACT

To study the intervention programs on smoking cessation in a general hospital and to evaluate its effects of the programs. Four methods including: a) the intervention through specialists in the smoking cessation clinic, b) short-time intervention in the out-patient department,c) free medical intervention, d) group intervention, were adopted for different smokers, with health counseling, psychological intervention and drug treatment. Intervention effect was evaluated by standard methods. During the 20-month period of the project, we treated 690 cases and 402 completed 6-month follow-up. Preliminary results in 402 cases showed that the three methods of smoking cessation interventions could reduce the amount of cigarette smoking and increase the quitting rate. Motivation to quit smoking, intervention methods and intensity of intervention seemed cessation clinic (31.6%) and in the group intervention (30.9%) was higher than short-time intervention in free medical events (15.1%). The successful rate of smoking cessation depended on the motivation of quitters, and the attitude, methods and intervention skills of the physicians.Therefore, it is necessary to explore and develop smoking cessation service models suitable to national context and individual intervention methods in China.

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 121-125, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277677

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the serum leptin and adiponectin levels among relatively healthy older people and their association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors.Methods Personal medical history and blood sample were collected from 1515 older people of Guangzhou.Fasting serum glucose,lipids,leptin and adiponectin were measured.Results(1)In relatively healthy older adults aged 50 or above,from Guangzhou,the following data were seen:serum leptin levels(x-±s)in men and women were(3.90±2.36)ng/ml and(12.17 ±2.01)ng/ml respectively;serum adiponectin levels in men and women were(5.33 ± 2.78)mg/L and(7.18 ± 2.58)mg/L respectively.(2)Serum leptin and adiponectin level increased with age.After adjusting for body mass index,the trend for serum leptin level in men(P<0.001)and adiponectin level in women(P<0.05)were significantly associated with age.(3)No association was found between cigarette smoking and levels of leptin or adiponectin in both men and women after adjusting for age(P from 0.09 to 0.76).(4)In both men and women,serum leptin and adiponectin levels were positively associated with waist circumference/body mass index,systolic blood pressure,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride(P from 0.04 to<0.001).In men,leptin was also significantly associated with the increase of diastolic blood pressure and glucose but decreased with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(P from 0.03 to 0.02).(5)Decreased adiponectin level was associated with increased waist circumference and triglyceride in both men and women(P from 0.003 to<0.001)and with the increased body mass index,fasting plasma glucose as well as with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men(P from 0.05 to<0.001)but with increased systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol in women(P from 0.05 to 0.006).Conclusion In Guangzhou city,among relatively healthy older adults aged 50 or above,their serum leptin and adiponectin levels were lower in men than in women.Serum leptin level in men and adiponectin level in women were significantly associated with the increase of age.Increased leptin and decreased adiponectin levels were associated with increased traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 742-746, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341045

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the association between genetic polymorphism of rs1409181 in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) among older Chinese in Guangzhou. Methods 390 subjects aged ≥50 years were randomly selected from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study-CVD. Information on personal history, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids were collected. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure the indicators of LVH, including left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (LVIDD) , thickness of the interventricular septum diastolic wall (IVSD) and the posterior wall diastolic diameter (LVPWD). LVIDD was calculated using Devereux ventricular mass (LVM)equation while the Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) equation was used to estimate LVH. The genotype of rs1409181 was determined by Taqman SNP genotyping kits using the ABI 7900HT real time PCR system. Results In the GG, CG and CC genotype groups, the proportions of LVH were 21.5%, 28.2% and 37.5% respectively. Compared with GG, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the LVH were 1.39(0.78-2.50) and 2.36(1.21-4.60) for CG genotype and CC genotype of ENPP1 respectively (P for trend=0.01). Conclusion Polymorphism of ENPP1 gene rs1409181 was associated with LVH in the older Chinese people in Guangzhou.

5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 983-987, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341019

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the dose-response relationship of smoking status with carotid atherosclerosis in 959 relatively healthy Chinese men. Methods 959 older Chinese men were selected from Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) on cardiovascular disease. Personal histories were collected and fasting plasma glucose and lipids, blood pressure, and common carotid artery intima-median thickness (CCA-IMT) were measured. Results ( 1 ) Composition of the cases:39.1% were non-smokers, 25.7% were former smokers and 35.2% were current smokers. The mean (95% confidence interval) carotid IMT was 0.78 (0.77-0.79) mm. 18.4% of the subjects had carotid IMT equal to or thicker than 1.0 mm while 34.1% had carotid plaque. (2)After adjusting for age, sex,physical activity, body mass index, fasting glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,systolic and diastolic blood pressure, compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly increased risk for thicker IMT and carotid plaque [odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% GI: 1.30-2.55 and OR=1.95, 95%CI: 1.38-2.75, respectively, all P<0.001]. The risk for thicker IMT and carotid plaque increased with the increasing amount (cigarettes/day) and duration of smoking (years) as well with cigarette pack-years (P for trend all ≤0.01 ). Conclusion An elevated risk with a clear doseresponse relationship was found between cigarette smoking and carotid atherosclerosis. Quitting smoking or reducing the amount of smoking may lower the risk of atherosclerosis, preventing and controlling the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and reducing the related cardiovascular mortalities.

6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 776-779, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261282

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the impact of lifestyle-related,physiological and biochemical factors on aortic arch calcification(AAC).Methods 20 430 subjects aged 50 to 85 years were included in this study from the first and second recruitment phase of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.All the subjects received face-to-face interviews to collect detailed information on their socio-demographic background,occupational exposures,living environment,lifestyle,family and personal disease histories,and received a physical examination and tests including 12-lead ECG,chest radiograph,and pulmonary function testing.Each subject was screened for a range of fasting biochemical parameters.Radiographs were reviewed by two senior radiologists.300 radiographs were independently read by the two radiologists to assess agreement using Kappa coefficient.Logistic regression was used to assess the association between life style,physiological and biocheroical factors and AAC.Resuits (1)The rate of agreement on diagnosis for the two radiologists was 85% and Kappa coefficient was 0.68(P<0.01) which showed a moderate agreementbetween the two radiologists.(2) Except hypertension,the subjects were significantly difierent on their lifestyle,physiological and biochemical factors in both men and women(P<0.05).(3)AAC was significantly associated with older age,smoking status,LDL-C,and hypertension(P<0.01)in both genders.Ors(95%CI)indicated the following results:age was 1.11(1.10-1.12) in men and 1.12 (1.12-1.13)in women;smoking as 1.31(1.17-1.47)in men and 1.31(1.09-1.57)in women;LDL-Cas 1.16(1.06-1.27) in men and 1.38(1.22-1.56) in women,hypertension as 1.33(1.18-1.50) in men and 1.27(1.18-1.38) in women.However,diabetes was found to be associated with an increased risk of AAC in women[OR(95%CI)]1.38(1.22-1.56).Conclusion Age,smoking,hypertension and Low-density lipoprotcin level were risk factors to beth genders,on AAC,while diabetes increased the risk of AAC,in women.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347228

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the health status and intention of quitting smoking in factory workers, so as to provide scientific evidence for smoking control.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cross-sectional survey was carried out on smoking behavior, self-reported health status (SRHS), and intention of quitting smoking in 668 Guangzhou factory workers with different job types. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used on current smokers. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of SRHS, difficulty of quitting smoking (DQS) with some risk factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) 65.0% (n = 348) male and 3.0% (n = 4) female workers were ever-smokers. 90.6% of male smokers usually smoked when getting together with friends or smokers, staying at home, or at leisure time, or just after a meal. (2) 10.7% of the daily smokers and ex-smokers had a worse SRHS than the general same-age people, which is significantly higher than 5.1% of the occasional smokers and those who were never smoking. The OR was 2.22 (95% CI 1.08 approximately 4.59) after adjusting age and education. (3) Of male daily smokers, 50.5% ever thought of quitting smoking. The proportions of ever-thought of quitting smoking were 73.3%, 50.0% and 37.2% respectively in those with better, pretty the same and worse SRHS than the general same-age people (P = 0.009). The proportions of DQS self-scored 30 or less, 31 to 60 and 60 or more were 26.9%, 24.9% and 48.2% respectively in male daily smokers. The OR for DQS (self-scored > 30 vs < or =30) increased with increasing number of colleague smoked and worked around, and with nicotine dependence.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Daily smokers and former smokers have worse SRHS than those who are occasional smokers or never smokers in male workers, and most of those with worse SRHS who ever thought of quitting smoking. The DQS is mainly significantly associated with number of colleague smoking and working around, and with nicotine dependence.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Intention , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use Disorder , Epidemiology
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1061-1063, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298319

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (ND), so as to provide evidence for tobacco control in workers. Methods A cross-sectional study to investigate smoking behavior and ND in 668 workers with different job assignment in Guangzhou. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between ND and some risk factors. Results (1) The prevalence of ever-smoking was 65.0 % ( 348/535 ) in men ( 55.5 % daily smokers, 5.4% occasional smokers and 4.1% ex-smokers), and 3.0% (4/133) in women. The prevalence of current smoking for manual workers and safety officers were 67.6 % and 64.5 % respectively.(2) Among daily and occasional smokers, 66.7% and 89.7% of them had low ND respectively. Among daily smokers, ND increased with the duration of smoking. Manual workers and officers had higher ND. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking was relatively high in workers and officers and in men. However,majority of the smokers were with low ND and could be the prioritized target for a primary smoking cessation intervention program.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343073

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish the method of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of the cotinine (COT) in human urine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The conjugated trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) and COT were hydrolyzed in human urine with beta-glucuronidase. The composition of COT was extracted with the mixture of dichloromethane and n-butyl acetate (2:1) and was separated with HP-5MS fused-silica capillary column. The GC-MS was used for determining its content.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The monitoring limit of this method was 0.02 microg/L. Its recovery rate was higher than 90%, Its accuracy rate was 4.30%. It was used for the determination of the cotinine in human urine in Guangzhou Biological Bank the Elderly Cohort.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The GC-MS method is a good microanalysis for monitoring the cotinine in human urine rapidly and accurately with little background disturbance. It has been applied in our Guangzhou Cohort Study for determining cotinine in human urine.</p>


Subject(s)
Cotinine , Urine , Female , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Humans , Male , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smoking , Urine
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340080

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the main causes of death in workers from different industries in Guangzhou.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The industrial systems in Guangzhou were classified into six categories according to the Chinese Public Health Inspection Statistical Report. Baseline data on 79,547 workers, age > or = 35, were retrieved from individual health records under the Guangzhou Occupational Health Surveillance Record System established in 1989-1992. In this prospective cohort study, the workers' vital status and causes of death were followed up until 31 December 1998. Using SPSS 10.0, crude death rates were calculated and relative risks(RR) (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional-hazard models.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Among 79,547 workers were 49,355 men and 30,192 women, with mean age of (43.8 +/- 6.5) years, and 64% were aged 35-44. The mean age difference of workers in different industries was +/- 1 year. At baseline, 41% had been exposed to occupational hazards. Exposure was most prevalent in petroleum chemical industry(53.9%), followed by metallurgical industry, and the lowest exposure was in mechanical industry (30.2%). (2) The mean follow-up period was (8.0 +/- 1.3) years with 633,510 person-years. 1,577 workers had died with a total death rate of 248.9 per 100,000 person-years. The death rate in rubber industry was the highest, followed by metallurgical and petroleum chemical industries. Malignant neoplasms, vascular and respiratory diseases were most common, constituting 80.3% of all causes of death. (3) For all causes of death and the three main categories, the top three crude death rates were observed in rubber and petroleum chemical industries, and in the metallurgical industry except for vascular causes. The rubber industry had the highest crude death rate for all and vascular causes, and the metallurgical industry for malignant neoplasms and respiratory causes. (4) With the light industry as a reference (RR = 1.0), the metallurgical industry had the highest adjusted relative risks (RR) (95% CI) of 1.62(1.20-2.18) and 7.42(3.38-16.31) for malignant neoplasms and respiratory causes, respectively. The rubber industry had the highest RR of 1.69(1.40-2.04) for all causes. A significant RR of 2.03(1.43-2.88) for vascular causes was observed only in the rubber industry.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The main causes of death varied from industry. Malignant neoplasms and respiratory diseases were the leading causes in metallurgical and petroleum chemical industries. In rubber industry, vascular and respiratory causes were most common. Preventive measures for disease control should be tailor-made for each industry.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Industry , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases , Mortality , Occupational Exposure , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340062

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of dust exposure and smoking on mortality.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Based on the Guangzhou Occupational Health Surveillance Record System established in 1989-1992, 61,648 factory workers, aged > or = 30, occupationally exposed to dust and non-exposure to dust or any other hazardous substances(controls), were included in a prospective cohort study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) 28 were lost to follow-up. Malignant neoplasm was most common among 1,186 deaths. (2) Most subjects were male workers, aged 35 to 44, with secondary education, and married. 42.2% had ever smoked and 32.8% were ever-drinkers. (3) To compare with non-exposure, non-smoking + non-smoking and non-exposure respectively, the adjusted RR of death from all causes, malignant neoplasm and respiratory diseases were 1.24, 1.34 and 1.96 respectively for dust exposed workers(compared to control, P < 0.01), 1.16, 1.37 and 1.63 respectively for those smoking(compared to non-smoker except RR of death from respiratory diseases, P < 0.01), and 1.48, 1.85 and 3.12 respectively for those smoking and dust exposure, which were far greater than those either smoked or exposed to dust alone(P < 0.01). (4) The influence of dust exposure on death was mainly showed in occupational exposure to silica dust and wood dust.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both dust exposure and smoking may increase the mortality, and they had synergistic effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Cohort Studies , Dust , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Exposure , Prospective Studies , Silicon Dioxide , Smoking , Mortality , Wood
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