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1.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage , Hope , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Male , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-77, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombectomy within 24 hours can improve outcomes in selected patients with a clinical-infarct mismatch. We devised an easy-to-use visual estimation tool that allows infarct volume estimation in centers with limited resources. METHODS: We identified 1,031 patients with cardioembolic or large-artery atherosclerosis infarction on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained before recanalization therapy and within 24 hours of onset, and occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Acute DWIs were mapped onto a standard template and used to create visual reference maps with known lesion volumes, which were then used in a validation study (with 130 cases) against software estimates of infarct volume. RESULTS: The DWI reference map chart comprises 144 maps corresponding to 12 different infarct volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mL) in each of 12 template slices (Montreal Neurological Institute z-axis –15 to 51 mm). Infarct volume in a patient is estimated by selecting a slice with a similar infarct size at the corresponding z-axis level on the reference maps and then adding up over all slices. The method yielded good correlations to software volumetrics and was easily learned by both experienced and junior physicians, with approximately 1 to 2 minutes spent per case. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting threshold infarct volumes ( 90%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed easy-to-use reference maps that allow prompt and reliable visual estimation of infarct volumes for triaging patients to thrombectomy in acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Decision Making , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Infarction , Medical Staff, Hospital , Methods , Middle Cerebral Artery , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or > 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge. Post-discharge recovery was defined as any improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from discharge to 3 months after stroke onset. Two analytic methods (multivariate and multivariable logistic regression) were applied to compare the effects of 18 known determinants of 3-month outcome and to verify whether in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occur independently. RESULTS: During 54 months, 11,088 patients with acute ischemic stroke meeting the eligibility criteria were identified. In-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 36% and 33% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression with an equality test for odds ratios showed that 7 determinants (age, onset-to-admission time, NIHSS score at admission, blood glucose at admission, systolic blood pressure, smoking, recanalization therapy) had a differential effect on in-hospital and post-discharge recovery in the way of the opposite direction or of the same direction with different degree (all P values < 0.05). Both in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 12% of the study population and neither of them in 43%. The incidence of post-discharge recovery in those with in-hospital recovery was similar to that in those without (33.8% vs. 32.7%, respectively), but multivariable analysis showed that these 2 types of recovery occurred independently. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in-hospital and post-discharge recovery may occur independently and largely in response to different factors.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Registries , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54–1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54–1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27–1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Epidemiology , Female , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Stroke
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has a high mortality rate and pandemic potential. However, the neurological manifestations of MERS have rarely been reported since it first emerged in 2012. METHODS: We evaluated four patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS coronavirus (CoV) infections who showed neurological complications during MERS treatment. These 4 patients were from a cohort of 23 patients who were treated at a single designated hospital during the 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea. The clinical presentations, laboratory findings, and prognoses are described. RESULTS: Four of the 23 admitted MERS patients reported neurological symptoms during or after MERS-CoV treatment. The potential diagnoses in these four cases included Bickerstaff's encephalitis overlapping with Guillain-Barré syndrome, intensive-care-unit-acquired weakness, or other toxic or infectious neuropathies. Neurological complications did not appear concomitantly with respiratory symptoms, instead being delayed by 2–3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Neuromuscular complications are not rare during MERS treatment, and they may have previously been underdiagnosed. Understanding the neurological manifestations is important in an infectious disease such as MERS, because these symptoms are rarely evaluated thoroughly during treatment, and they may interfere with the prognosis or require treatment modification.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Communicable Diseases , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Encephalitis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Mortality , Neurologic Manifestations , Pandemics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Prognosis , Republic of Korea
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The quality of anticoagulation is critical for ensuring the benefit of warfarin, but this has been less well studied in Korean ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who had an AF-related ischemic stroke and were treated with long-term warfarin therapy in 16 Korean centers. The quality of warfarin therapy was primarily assessed by the time in therapeutic range [TTR; international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0–3.0] and additionally by the proportion of INR values within the therapeutic range. RESULTS: The long-term warfarin-treated cohort comprised 1,230 patients. They were aged 70.1±9.7 years (mean±SD), 42.5% were female, and their CHA₂DS₂-VASc score was 4.75±1.41. The TTR analysis included 33,941 INR measurements for 27,487 months: per patients, 27.6 (SD, 22.4) INR measurements for 22.4 (SD, 12.9) months. The mean TTR of individual patients was 49.1% (95% confidence interval, 47.9–50.3%), and the TTR quartiles were 64.5%. None of the 16 centers achieved a mean TTR of >60%. Of all INR measurements, 44.6% were within the therapeutic range, 41.7% were 3.0. CONCLUSIONS: In Korean ischemic stroke patients who had AF, the quality of warfarin therapy was low and might be inadequate to effectively prevent recurrent stroke or systemic embolism.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Embolism , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Warfarin
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176890

ABSTRACT

“Clinical Practice Guideline for Stroke Rehabilitation in Korea 2016” is the 3rd edition of clinical practice guideline (CPG) for stroke rehabilitation in Korea, which updates the 2nd edition published in 2014. Forty-two specialists in stroke rehabilitation from 21 universities and 4 rehabilitation hospitals and 4 consultants participated in this update. The purpose of this CPG is to provide optimum practical guidelines for stroke rehabilitation teams to make a decision when they manage stroke patients and ultimately, to help stroke patients obtain maximal functional recovery and return to the society. The recent two CPGs from Canada (2015) and USA (2016) and articles that were published following the 2nd edition were used to develop this 3rd edition of CPG for stroke rehabilitation in Korea. The chosen articles' level of evidence and grade of recommendation were decided by the criteria of Scotland (2010) and the formal consensus was derived by the nominal group technique. The levels of evidence range from 1++ to 4 and the grades of recommendation range from A to D. Good Practice Point was recommended as best practice based on the clinical experience of the guideline developmental group. The draft of the developed CPG was reviewed by the experts group in the public hearings and then revised. “Clinical Practice Guideline for Stroke Rehabilitation in Korea 2016” consists of ‘Chapter 1; Introduction of Stroke Rehabilitation’, ‘Chapter 2; Rehabilitation for Stroke Syndrome, ‘Chapter 3; Rehabilitation for Returning to the Society’, and ‘Chapter 4; Advanced Technique for Stroke Rehabilitation’. “Clinical Practice Guideline for Stroke Rehabilitation in Korea 2016” will provide direction and standardization for acute, subacute and chronic stroke rehabilitation in Korea.


Subject(s)
Canada , Consensus , Consultants , Humans , Korea , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Rehabilitation , Scotland , Specialization , Stroke
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A substantial proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are not treated optimally; however, the inappropriateness of drug therapy has never been evaluated before or after a stroke event. We investigated the adherence to guidelines for therapy in AF patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) before stroke onset and at discharge, with the aim of identifying the factors associated with inappropriate therapy. METHODS: AIS patients with AF hospitalized within 7 days of onset were identified from a prospective nine-center stroke registry database. Two cohorts were defined: patients diagnosed with AF prior to the stroke event (admission cohort) and patients diagnosed with AF at discharge from hospital (discharge cohort). Any of the following conditions were regarded as nonadherence to guidelines in this study: use of anticoagulant or nonuse of antithrombotics with CHADS2 score=0, nonuse of antithrombotics with CHADS2 score=1, or nonuse of anticoagulant with CHADS2 score > or =2. RESULTS: Overall, 406 patients were enrolled in the admission cohort and 518 in the discharge cohort. The rates of nonadherence before a stroke event and at discharge were 77.8% and 33.3%, respectively. These rates varied widely for both cohorts, with interhospital differences being statistically significant. Multivariable analysis revealed that old age, stroke history, and congestive heart failure were associated with nonadherence before stroke. At discharge, males, coronary heart disease, inappropriate antithrombotic use before stroke, and functional disability at discharge were associated with nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that antithrombotic use in AIS patients with AF might be not optimal before and after stroke in Korea.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Infarction , Cohort Studies , Coronary Disease , Drug Therapy , Drug Utilization Review , Guideline Adherence , Heart Failure , Humans , Korea , Male , Morinda , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Stroke
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The claims data of the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system can be useful in stroke research. The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of hospital discharge data used for NHI claims in identifying acute stroke and use of thrombolytic therapy. METHODS: The hospital discharge data of 1,811 patients with stroke-related diagnosis codes were obtained from Jeju National University Hospital (JNUH) and Seoul Medical Center (SMC). Three algorithms were tested to identify discharges with acute stroke [ischemic stroke (IS), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)]: 1) all diagnosis codes up to nine positions, 2) one primary diagnosis and one secondary diagnosis, and 3) only one primary diagnosis code. Reviews of medical records were considered the gold standards. RESULTS: Overall, the degree of agreement (kappa) was higher for algorithms 1 and 2 than for algorithm 3, and the sensitivity and specificity of the first two algorithms for IS and SAH were both >90%, with almost perfect agreement (kappa=0.83-0.84) in the JNUH data set. Regarding ICH, only algorithm 1 yielded an almost perfect agreement (kappa=0.82). In the SMC data set, almost perfect agreement was found for both ICH and SAH in all three algorithms. In contrast, the three algorithms yielded a range of agreement levels, though all substantial, for IS. Almost perfect agreement was obtained for use of thrombolytic therapy in both data sets (kappa=0.91-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Discharge with hemorrhagic stroke and use of thrombolytic therapy were identified with high reliability in administrative discharge data. A substantial level of agreement was also obtained for IS, despite variation between the algorithms and data sets.


Subject(s)
Data Collection , Dataset , Diagnosis , Hospital Records , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Medical Records , National Health Programs , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thrombolytic Therapy
12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 344-351, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: About 30%-40% of stroke patients are taking antiplatelet at the time of their strokes, which might increase the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-TPA) therapy. We aimed to assess the effect of prestroke antiplatelet on the SICH risk and functional outcome in Koreans treated with IV-TPA. METHODS: From a prospective stroke registry, we identified patients treated with IV-TPA between October 2009 and November 2014. Prestroke antiplatelet use was defined as taking antiplatelet within 7 days before the stroke onset. The primary outcome was SICH. Secondary outcomes were discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of 1,715 patients treated with IV-TPA, 441 (25.7%) were on prestroke antiplatelet. Prestroke antiplatelet users versus non-users were more likely to be older, to have multiple vascular risk factors. Prestroke antiplatelet use was associated with an increased risk of SICH (5.9% vs. 3.0%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.79 [1.05-3.04]). However, at discharge, the two groups did not differ in mRS distribution (adjusted OR 0.90 [0.72-1.14]), mRS 0-1 outcome (34.2% vs. 33.7%; adjusted OR 1.27 [0.94-1.72), mRS 0-2 outcome (52.4% vs. 52.9%; adjusted OR 1.21 [0.90-1.63]), and in-hospital mortality (6.1% vs. 4.2%; adjusted OR 1.19 [0.71-2.01]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increased risk of SICH, prestroke antiplatelet users compared to non-users had comparable functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality with IV-TPA therapy. Our results support the use of IV-TPA in eligible patients taking antiplatelet therapy before their stroke onset.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Odds Ratio , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206097

ABSTRACT

Graves' ophthalmopathy occurs in 25-50% of patients with Graves' disease. Although patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy mostly present with hyperthyroidism, a minority of patients have euthyroid or hypothyroid characteristics, which may delay a correct diagnosis. Here, we report a case of euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy that was initially negative for thyroid autoantibodies, but later changed to positivity.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Diagnosis , Graves Disease , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Thyroid Gland
15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 38-53, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166388

ABSTRACT

Characteristics of stroke cases, acute stroke care, and outcomes after stroke differ according to geographical and cultural background. To provide epidemiological and clinical data on stroke care in South Korea, we analyzed a prospective multicenter clinical stroke registry, the Clinical Research Center for Stroke-Fifth Division (CRCS-5). Patients were 58% male with a mean age of 67.2+/-12.9 years and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3 [1-8] points. Over the 6 years of operation, temporal trends were documented including increasing utilization of recanalization treatment with shorter onset-to-arrival delay and decremental length of stay. Acute recanalization treatment was performed in 12.7% of cases with endovascular treatment utilized in 36%, but the proportion of endovascular recanalization varied across centers. Door-to-IV alteplase delay had a median of 45 [33-68] min. The rate of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (HT) was 7%, and that of any HT was 27% among recanalization-treated cases. Early neurological deterioration occurred in 15% of cases and were associated with longer length of stay and poorer 3-month outcomes. The proportion of mRS scores of 0-1 was 42% on discharge, 50% at 3 months, and 55% at 1 year after the index stroke. Recurrent stroke up to 1 year occurred in 4.5% of patients; the rate was higher among older individuals and those with neurologically severe deficits. The above findings will be compared with other Asian and US registry data in this article.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Humans , Korea , Length of Stay , Male , Stroke , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 302-311, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Estimating age- and sex-specific population attributable risks (PARs) of major risk factors for stroke may be a useful strategy to identify risk factors for targeting preventive strategies. METHODS: For this case-control matched study, consecutive patients aged 18-90 years and admitted to nine nationwide hospitals with acute ischemic stroke between December 2008 and June 2010, were enrolled as cases. Controls, individually matched by age and sex, were chosen from the 4th Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). Based on odds ratios and prevalence, standardized according to the age and sex structure of the Korean population, PARs of major risk factors were estimated according to age (young, or = 66 years) and sex subgroups. RESULTS: In 4,743 matched case-control sets, smoking (PAR, 45.1%) was the greatest contributing risk factor in young men, followed by hypertension (28.5%). In middle-aged men, the greatest contributing factors were smoking (37.4%), hypertension (22.7%), and diabetes (14.6%), whereas in women the greatest factors were hypertension (22.7%) and stroke history (10.6%). In the elderly, hypertension was the leading factor in men (23.7%) and women (23.4%). Other noticeable factors were stroke history (men, 19.7%; women, 17.3%) and diabetes (men, 12.5%; women, 15.1%). In young women, risk factors with a PAR greater than 10% were not found. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation in young people and hypertension and diabetes control in older people may be effective in reducing the burden of stroke on the population. In the elderly, secondary prevention could also be emphasized.


Subject(s)
Aged , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Secondary Prevention , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Stroke
17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 327-335, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In a recent pooled analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) improves the outcome in patients aged > or =80 years. However, it is uncertain whether the findings are applicable to clinical practice in Asian populations. METHODS: From a multicenter stroke registry database of Korea, we identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who were aged > or = 80 years. Using multivariable analysis and propensity score (PS)-matched analyses, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of intravenous TPA within 4.5 hours. RESULTS: Among 2,334 patients who met the eligible criteria, 236 were treated with intravenous TPA (mean age, 83+/-5; median NIHSS, 13 [IQR, 8-17]). At discharge, the TPA group compared to the no-TPA group had a favorable shift on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (multivariable analysis, OR [95% CI], 1.51 [1.17-1.96], P=0.002; PS-matched analysis, 1.54 [1.17-2.04], P=0.002) and was more likely to achieve mRS 0-1 outcome (multivariable analysis, 2.00 [1.32-3.03], P=0.001; PS-matched analysis, 1.59 [1.04-2.42], P=0.032). TPA treatment was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (multivariable analysis, 5.45 [2.80-10.59], P<0.001; PS-matched analysis, 4.52 [2.24-9.13], P<0.001), but did not increase the in-hospital mortality (multivariable analysis, 0.86 [0.50-1.48], P=0.58; PS-matched analysis, 0.88 [0.52-1.47], P=0.61). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of clinical practice, intravenous TPA within 4.5 hours improved the functional outcome despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in very elderly Korean patients. The findings, consistent with those from pooled analysis of RCTs, strongly support the use of TPA for this population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Korea , Propensity Score , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 199-209, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombolysis is underused in acute ischemic stroke, mainly due to the reluctance of physicians to treat thrombolysis patients. However, a computerized clinical decision support system can help physicians to develop individualized stroke treatments. METHODS: A consecutive series of 958 patients, hospitalized within 12 hours of ischemic stroke onset from a representative clinical center in Korea, was used to establish a prognostic model. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop the model for global and safety outcomes. An external validation of developed model was performed using 954 patients data obtained from 5 university hospitals or regional stroke centers. RESULTS: Final global outcome predictors were age; previous modified Rankin scale score; initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score; previous stroke; diabetes; prior use of antiplatelet treatment, antihypertensive drugs, and statins; lacunae; thrombolysis; onset to treatment time; and systolic blood pressure. Final safety outcome predictors were age, initial NIHSS score, thrombolysis, onset to treatment time, systolic blood pressure, and glucose level. The discriminative ability of the prognostic model showed a C-statistic of 0.89 and 0.84 for the global and safety outcomes, respectively. Internal and external validation showed similar C-statistic results. After updating the model, calibration slopes were corrected from 0.68 to 1.0 and from 0.96 to 1.0 for the global and safety outcome models, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A novel computerized outcome prediction model for thrombolysis after ischemic stroke was developed using large amounts of clinical information. After external validation and updating, the model's performance was deemed clinically satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Pressure , Calibration , Glucose , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Korea , Logistic Models , Stroke
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 161-172, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In order to improve inter-rater reliability and minimize diagnosis of undetermined etiology for stroke subtype classification, using a stroke registry, we developed and implemented a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based algorithm for acute ischemic stroke subtype classification (MAGIC). METHODS: We enrolled patients who experienced an acute ischemic stroke, were hospitalized in the 14 participating centers within 7 days of onset, and had relevant lesions on MR-diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). MAGIC was designed to reflect recent advances in stroke imaging and thrombolytic therapy. The inter-rater reliability was compared with and without MAGIC to classify the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) of each stroke patient. MAGIC was then applied to all stroke patients hospitalized since July 2011, and information about stroke subtypes, other clinical characteristics, and stroke recurrence was collected via a web-based registry database. RESULTS: The overall intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) value was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.31-0.57) for MAGIC and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.18-0.42) for TOAST. Large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was the most common cause of acute ischemic stroke (38.3%), followed by cardioembolism (CE, 22.8%), undetermined cause (UD, 22.2%), and small-vessel occlusion (SVO, 14.6%). One-year stroke recurrence rates were the highest for two or more UDs (11.80%), followed by LAA (7.30%), CE (5.60%), and SVO (2.50%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite several limitations, this study shows that the MAGIC system is feasible and may be helpful to classify stroke subtype in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Classification , Diagnosis , Humans , Magic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Recurrence , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy
20.
Journal of Stroke ; : 36-43, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Symptomatic steno-occlusion (SYSO) in acute ischemic stroke has a significant impact on treatment options and prognosis. However, the prevalence, distribution, clinical characteristics, and outcome of SYSO are not well known. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 3,451 patients hospitalized because of ischemic stroke within 24 hours of symptom onset at 9 stroke centers in South Korea. Patients who did not undergo magnetic resonance imaging were excluded. SYSO was defined as stenosis or occlusion of cerebral arteries with relevant ischemic lesions in the corresponding arterial territory. The number, location, and severity of SYSOs and their effects on functional outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 1,929 of 3,057 subjects (63.1%) had SYSO. The most frequently affected vessels were the middle cerebral artery (34.6%), extracranial internal carotid artery (14%), vertebral artery (12.4%), and basilar artery (8.7%). SYSO predicted poor outcome on the modified Rankin Scale 3-6 (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.15) with adjustments. Involvement of 2 or more vessels was observed in 30.6% of patients with SYSO and independently increased the risk of poor outcome (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 2.12-3.59). The severity of SYSO was associated with outcome and showed a significant dose-response trend (P<0.001). The effect of SYSO on outcome did not significantly differ by individual arterial location (P for contrast=0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of patients with acute ischemic stroke had SYSO, and the severity and number were inversely correlated with outcome. The results suggest that SYSO could predict stroke outcome.


Subject(s)
Basilar Artery , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Arteries , Cerebral Infarction , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Constriction, Pathologic , Hospital Distribution Systems , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Prevalence , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Vertebral Artery
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