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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the outcome of stem cell transplantation (SCT), including overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-free/failure-free survival (GFFS), and to analyze prognostic factors in children with aplastic anemia (AA).METHODS: From 1991 to 2018, 43 allogeneic SCT recipients were enrolled in the study to investigate the demographic characteristics, survival outcomes and prognostic factors.RESULTS: With the median follow-up of 7.1 years, the estimated 10-year OS, FFS, GFFS were 86.0%, 60.5%, and 51.2%, respectively. Matched related donors (MRD, n = 28) showed better 10-year OS than unrelated donors (n = 15) (96.4% vs. 66.7%; P = 0.006). Engraftment failure was seen in 13 patients (30.2%). Donor-type aplasia was seen in 13.8% (4/29) after fludarabine (Flu)-based conditioning (Flu-group), while in 42.6% (6/14) after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based regimen (Cy-group) (P = 0.035). Six patients died. The 10-year OS in Cy-group was 92.9% (n = 14, all MRD), while that of Flu-group was 82.1% (n = 29; P = 0.367). But Flu-group tended to have better FFS and GFFS than Cy-group, although Flu-group had less MRDs (41.4% vs. 100%; P = 0.019), and higher proportion of previous immunosuppressive treatment (IST; 62% vs. 21.4%, P = 0.012). In MRD transplants, OS was similar between Flu-group (100%, n = 14) and Cy-group (92.9%, n = 14), while FFS (100.0% vs. 42.9%; P = 0.001) and GFFS (85.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.006) were significantly better in Flu-group. Stem cell sources, irradiation in the conditioning, and method of GvHD prophylaxis did not significantly influence the outcome.CONCLUSION: This study reviewed SCT outcomes for pediatric AA with changes of transplant strategies over the last 25 years. The FFS and GFFS were higher in Flu-group than in Cy-group, especially in matched related transplantation. Graft failure including donor-type aplasia remains troublesome even with Flu-based conditioning. Further refinement of transplant strategies to ensure better quality-of-life should be pursued.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease , Humans , Methods , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Unrelated Donors
2.
Blood Research ; : 63-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia (AL), not clearly assigned to myeloid, B-lymphoid, or T-lymphoid lineage, is classified as either biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) based on the European Group for Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) or acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) encompassing acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) and mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: Medical records of children newly diagnosed with BAL or ALAL, based on the EGIL or the 2008/2016 WHO criteria, respectively, admitted at Chonnam National University Hospital in 2001–2017 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Twelve (3.2%) of 377 AL patients satisfied the BAL or ALAL definitions based on the EGIL or the WHO criteria, respectively. Among 12 patients including 11 with BAL and another with undefined case based on the EGIL criteria, 7 (1.9%) had ALAL based on more stringent 2016 WHO criteria (AUL, 2; MPAL, 5). One patient had MPAL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), BCR-ABL+, and two had MLL gene abnormality. ALL-directed regimen was associated with better complete remission rate compared with AML-directed regimen (100.0% vs. 16.7%; P=0.015). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 51.1±15.8% and 51.9±15.7%, respectively. AUL was associated with poor OS and EFS compared with MPAL (0.0% vs. 75.0±21.7%; P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Due to the rarity of the cases, future multicenter, prospective studies incorporating large number of cases are urgently warranted to identify the clinical, biologic, and molecular markers for the prediction of prognosis and determine the best tailored therapy for each patient.


Subject(s)
Child , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute , Medical Records , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
3.
Blood Research ; : 25-34, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has recently improved. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology, changes in treatment strategies, and improvement of outcomes in Gwangju-Chonnam children with AML over 2 decades. METHODS: Medical records of 116 children with newly diagnosed AML were retrospectively reviewed for demographic characteristics, prognostic groups including cytogenetic risks, treatment protocols, and survival rates over the periods between 1996 and 2005 (Period I, N=53), and 2006 and 2015 (Period II, N=38). RESULTS: The annual incidence of AML has decreased with reduced pediatric population. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier (K-M) estimated overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates in 110 AML patients were 53.2±5.1% and 43.8±5.1%, respectively. The 5-year OS rate significantly improved during period II (70.3±7.0%) as compared to that during period I (40.0±6.8%) (P =0.001). The 5-year OS was not significantly different among cytogenetic risk groups (P =0.11). Fifty-eight patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The K-M 5-year estimated survival for transplanted patients was 53.7±7.0%, while that for chemotherapy-only patients was 30.1±9.1% (P =0.014). Among the prognostic factors, treatment modality was the only independent factor. The chemotherapy-only group had a relative risk of 2.06 for death compared with the transplantation group (P=0.015). CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean children with AML has improved to a level comparable with that of developed countries over 2 decades, owing to a change in induction strategy, better supportive care with economic growth, refinement of HSCT techniques including a better selection of patients based on prognostic groups, and stem cell donor selection.


Subject(s)
Child , Clinical Protocols , Cytogenetics , Developed Countries , Disease-Free Survival , Donor Selection , Economic Development , Epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Incidence , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Medical Records , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cells , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153372

ABSTRACT

Ethnically specific data on genetic variation are crucial for understanding human biology and for clinical interpretation of variant pathogenicity. We analyzed data obtained by deep sequencing 1303 Korean whole exomes; the data were generated by three independent whole exome sequencing projects (named the KOEX study). The primary focus of this study was to comprehensively analyze the variant statistics, investigate secondary findings that may have clinical actionability, and identify loci that should be cautiously interpreted for pathogenicity. A total of 495 729 unique variants were identified at exonic regions, including 169 380 nonsynonymous variants and 4356 frameshift insertion/deletions. Among these, 76 607 were novel coding variants. On average, each individual had 7136 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants and 74 frameshift insertion/deletions. We classified 13 pathogenic and 13 likely pathogenic variants in 56 genes that may have clinical actionability according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, and the Association for Molecular Pathology. The carrier frequency of these 26 variants was 2.46% (95% confidence interval 1.73–3.46). To identify loci that require cautious interpretation in clinical sequencing, we identified 18 genes that are prone to sequencing errors, and 671 genes that are highly polymorphic and carry excess nonsynonymous variants. The catalog of identified variants, its annotation and frequency information are publicly available (https://koex.snu.ac.kr). These findings should be useful resources for investigating ethnically specific characteristics in human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Biology , Clinical Coding , Exome , Exons , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Medical , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Pathology, Molecular , Virulence
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize Korean patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which is a rare but very challenging genetic disease. METHODS: The medical records of 12 FA patients diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 6.2 years. All patients showed evidence of marrow failure and one or more physical stigmata. Chromosome breakage tests were positive in 9 out of 11 available patients. The median follow-up duration was 69.5 months. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival of all patients was 83.3% at 10 years and 34.7% at 20 years, respectively. Seven patients underwent 9 stem cell transplantations (SCTs). Among them, 5 were alive by the end of the study. Ten-year KM survival after SCT was 71.4% with a median follow-up of 3.4 years. All 5 patients treated with supportive treatment alone died of infection or progression at the median age of 13.5 years, except for one with short follow-up duration. Acute leukemia developed in 2 patients at 15.4 and 18.1 years of age. Among 6 patients who are still alive, 3 had short stature and 1 developed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: We provide information on the long-term outcomes of FA patients in Korea. A nation-wide FA registry that includes information of the genotypes of Korean patients is required to further characterize ethnic differences and provide the best standard of care for FA patients.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Christianity , Chromosome Breakage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diagnosis , Fanconi Anemia , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Standard of Care , Stem Cell Transplantation , Treatment Outcome
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 62-70, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82705

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The repopulating lymphocytes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have an important role not only on the prevention of serious infections in the early transplantation period, but also on the killing of residual leukemic cells by graft-versus-leukemia effect. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of lymphocyte recovery after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children with hematologic malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 69 children transplanted for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n=34), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=26), chronic leukemia (n=7) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n=2) between 1996 and 2008 at the Chonnam National University Hospital, Korea. The patients were grouped based on absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) or =500/microL at D+21 and D+30 after transplant. RESULTS: Patients with a High ALC at D+21 and D+30 had a faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment. The High at D+30 group had a better 5 year overall survival (71% vs. 53%, p=0.043) and event-free survival (72% vs. 53%, p=0.065) than the Low at D+30 group. The incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and relapse rate did not differ by the ALC counts. However, the Low at D+30 group had a significantly increased risk for transplant-related mortality (p=0.019). The univariate analysis showed that the factors associated with decreased survival were a Low ALC at D+30, patients with high risk ALL, and grade II-IV aGVHD in patients with ALL and AML. CONCLUSION: Early posttransplant serial lymphocyte measurement would be a simple but useful method for predicting transplant outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Graft vs Leukemia Effect , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Leukemia/therapy , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Neutrophils/cytology , Prognosis , Recurrence , Remission Induction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cells/cytology , Transplantation Conditioning , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227751

ABSTRACT

Aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of transplantation by donor source and to help select the best alternative donor in children with leukemia. Donor sources included matched related donor (MRD, n = 35), allele-matched unrelated donor (M-UD, n = 10) or -mismatched (MM)-UD (n = 13) or unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB, n = 11). UCB group had a significantly higher incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease (MRD, 11.8%; M-UD, 30.0%; MM-UD, 15.4%, UCB, 54.4%, P = 0.004) but there was no difference in incidence of chronic graft versus host disease between 4 groups. The 5-yr leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 76.7%, 60.0%, 69.2%, and 45.5%, respectively (P = 0.128). MRD group showed higher LFS rate than UCB group (P = 0.022). However, LFS of M-UD and MM-UD together (65.2%) was not different from that of MRD group (76.7%, P = 0.325), or from that of UCB (45.5%, P = 0.190). The relapse incidence at 5 yr was 17.1%, 20.0%, 15.4%, and 0%, respectively (P = 0.460). The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 2.9%, 20.0%, 7.7%, and 36.4%, respectively (P = 0.011). Despite the limitations of small number of patients, unrelated donor transplants including even allele-mismatched ones, seem to be as effective in children with leukemia lacking suitable relative donors. Also, UCB transplant may serve as another possible option in urgent transplants.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Fetal Blood/transplantation , Graft vs Leukemia Effect , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Histocompatibility Testing , Humans , Infant , Leukemia/mortality , Male , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome , Unrelated Donors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222090

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute internal hemorrhage is an occasionally life-threatening complication in pediatric cancer patients. Many therapeutic approaches have been used to control bleeding with various degrees of success. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of selective internal iliac artery embolization for controlling acute intractable bleeding in children with malignancies. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the cases of 6 children with various malignancies (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and rhabdomyosarcoma), who had undergone selective arterial embolization (SAE) of the internal iliac artery at the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital between January 2004 and December 2009. SAE was performed by an interventional radiologist using Gelfoam(R) and/or Tornado(R) coils. RESULTS: The patients were 5 boys and 1 girl with median age of 6.9 years (range, 0.7-14.8 years) at the time of SAE. SAE was performed once in 4 patients and twice in 2, and the procedure was unilateral in 2 and bilateral in 4. The causes of hemorrhage were as follows: hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in 3 patients, procedure-related internal iliac artery injuries in 2 patients, and tumor rupture in 1 patient. Initial attempt at conservative management was unsuccessful. Of the 6 patients, 5 (83.3%) showed improvement after SAE without complications. CONCLUSION: SAE may be a safe and effective procedure for controlling acute intractable hemorrhage in pediatric malignancy patients. This procedure may obviate the need for surgery, which carries an attendant risk of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with critical conditions.


Subject(s)
Child , Cystitis , Embolization, Therapeutic , Hemorrhage , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Humans , Iliac Artery , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Leukemia, Myeloid , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Retrospective Studies , Rupture
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225002

ABSTRACT

We investigated the outcome of idarubicin plus N4-behenoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (BHAC)-based chemotherapy (BHAC group, n=149) compared to idarubicin plus cytarabine-based chemotherapy (cytarabine group, n=191) for childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Between January 1996 and December 2005, 340 children with AML from 5 university hospitals in Korea received the BHAC-based or cytarabine-based chemotherapy, with or without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After induction therapy, 264 (77.6%) of 340 children achieved a complete remission (CR) and 43 (12%) achieved a partial remission (PR). The CR rate in the BHAC group was higher than in the cytarabine group (85.2% vs. 71.7%, P=0.004). However, the overall response rate (CR+PR) was not different between the two groups (93.3% vs. 87.9%, P=0.139). The 5-yr estimates of overall survival (OS) of children in the two groups were similar (54.9% for the BHAC group vs. 52.4% for the cytarabine group, P=0.281). Although the results were analyzed according to the treatment type and cytogenetic risk, the OS showed no significant difference between the BHAC group and the cytarabine group. In the present study, the clinical outcomes of the BHAC-based chemotherapy, consisting of BHAC, idarubicin, and 6-TG, are comparable to that of the cytarabine-based chemotherapy for childhood AML.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytarabine/analogs & derivatives , Cytogenetics , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Male , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Thioguanine/therapeutic use , Young Adult
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43754

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the outcome of total body irradiation (TBI)- or non-TBI-containing conditioning regimens for leukemia in children. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 77 children conditioned with TBI (n=40) or non-TBI (n=37) regimens, transplanted at Chonnam National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 2007. The type of transplantation, disease status at the time of transplant, conditioning regimen, engraftment kinetics, development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), complications, cause of deaths, overall survival (OS), and event-free survival (EFS) were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Among 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 28 (82.4%) were in the TBI group, while 72.7% (24/33) of patients with myeloid leukemia were in the non-TBI group. Although the 5-year EFS of the 2 groups was similar for all patients (62% vs 63%), the TBI group showed a better 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group when only ALL patients were analyzed (65% vs 17%; P=0.005). In acute myelogenous leukemia patients, the non-TBI group had better survival tendency (73% vs 38%; P=0.089). The incidence of GVHD, engraftment, survival, cause of death, and late complications was not different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: The TBI and non-TBI groups showed comparable results, but the TBI group showed a significantly higher 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group in ALL patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies involving larger number of patients are needed to assess the late-onset complications and to compare the socioeconomic quality of life.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Incidence , Kinetics , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Transplantation Conditioning , Transplants , Whole-Body Irradiation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125466

ABSTRACT

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children younger than 4 years and is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure, and thrombocytopenia. HUS associated with diarrheal prodrome is usually caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 or by Shigella dysenteriae, which generally has a better outcome. However, atypical cases show a tendency to relapse with a poorer prognosis. HUS has been reported to be associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. The characteristics and the mechanisms underlying this condition are largely unknown. In this study, we describe the case of an 11-year-old boy in whom the diagnosis of ALL was preceded by the diagnosis of atypical HUS. Thus, patients with atypical HUS should be diagnosed for the possibility of developing ALL.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anemia, Hemolytic , Child , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Humans , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Shigella dysenteriae , Thrombocytopenia
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155211

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anemia, Hemolytic , Autoantibodies , Child , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Plasma , Plasma Exchange , Purpura , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Steroids , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Thymine Nucleotides
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77811

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was investigated in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Patients over 1 yr of age who were newly diagnosed with stage 4 neuroblastoma from January 2000 to December 2005 were enrolled in The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology registry. All patients who were assigned to receive HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the efficacy of single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Seventy and 71 patients were assigned to receive single or tandem HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis. Fifty-seven and 59 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR as scheduled. Twenty-four and 38 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group remained event free with a median follow-up of 56 (24-88) months. When the survival rate was analyzed according to intent-to-treat at diagnosis, the probability of the 5-yr event-free survival+/-95% confidence intervals was higher in the tandem HDCT group than in the single HDCT group (51.2+/-12.4% vs. 31.3+/-11.5%, P=0.030). The results of the present study demonstrate that the tandem HDCT/ASCR strategy is significantly better than the single HDCT/ASCR strategy for improved survival in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy/mortality , Drug Therapy/mortality , Female , Humans , Infant , Korea/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Neuroblastoma/mortality , Prevalence , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation/mortality , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7275

ABSTRACT

A 7-year-old boy presented with hematochezia and abdominal pain. A 3.7-cm-sized mass was identified in the ascending colon by abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy. The patient underwent surgical resection. Pathological examination revealed a low-grade perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). PEComa in the colon is very rare. Only a few cases have been reported so far. An effective treatment method for this rare tumor has not been established yet. The patient received adjuvant interferon-alpha immunotherapy for 1 year. He has been tumor-free for 26 months since the initial diagnosis. This report is the first documented case of the use of interferon-alpha for pediatric PEComa of the colon.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Child , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Colonoscopy , Epithelioid Cells , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interferon-alpha , Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157908

ABSTRACT

The clinical features of ring chromosome 13 include mental and growth retardation, CNS anomalies, facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, genital malformations, limb anomalies, skeletal deformities and anal malformations. Although many cases of ring chromosome 13 have been reported worldwide, only 6 cases have been reported in Korea, and the latter cases were not mosaic but pure ring chromosome 13. Here we report a case with mosaic ring chromosome 13. The baby boy was born at 37 weeks of gestation by induced vaginal delivery due to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). He was the second baby of a 28-year-old hepatitis B carrier mother and a 32-year-old father. There was no family history of chromosomal anomalies. The baby was a symmetric IUGR with a birth weight of 1,860 g, length of 44.8 cm, and head circumference of 29.4 cm. The physical examination revealed microcephaly, trigonocephaly, flat occiput, large ears, short neck and dysmorphic facial features, including microophthalmia, hypertelorism, antimongoloid slanting palpebral fissures, a flat nasal bridge, and micrognathia. The karyotype of this patient performed by peripheral blood lymphocytes was 46,XY,r(13)(p13q34)/45,XY,-13/46,XY,dic r(13;13)(p13q34;p13q34). The baby showed failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay. We report the first case of mosaic ring chromosome 13 in a male baby in Korea and compare this case with other Korean cases of non-mosaic ring chromosome 13.


Subject(s)
Adult , Birth Weight , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13 , Congenital Abnormalities , Craniosynostoses , Ear , Extremities , Failure to Thrive , Fathers , Fetal Growth Retardation , Head , Hepatitis B , Humans , Hypertelorism , Karyotype , Korea , Lymphocytes , Male , Microcephaly , Mosaicism , Mothers , Muscle Hypotonia , Neck , Physical Examination , Pregnancy , Ring Chromosomes
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163688

ABSTRACT

Facial palsy as the presenting symptom of leukemia is very rare, especially in acute myeloid leukemia. A review of the medical literature identified reports on 8 children with AML who had facial paralysis as the presenting sign. Whole brain irradiation (WBI) has been applied in most cases. We present the cases of 3 such children. Achieving a remission without WBI, the patients underwent stem cell transplantations (SCTs). Two patients remain event-free 52 months and 62 months after allotransplants. Facial palsy was the harbinger of leukemic relapse in one case after autotransplant. This patient is disease-free 59 months after unrelated SCT rescue. Facial palsy persisted in 2 cases. Allogeneic SCT without WBI may be an effective therapy in patients presenting with facial palsy. A brief review of the literature is presented here.


Subject(s)
Brain , Child , Facial Paralysis , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Recurrence , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38547

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is usually fatal unless stem cell transplant (SCT) is offered. However, SCT with conventional intensity conditioning is associated with high transplant-related mortality. We describe our experience with unrelated SCTs after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for patients with EBV-HLH with progressive CNS disease. This approach was associated with minimal toxicities and might be an effective option in patients with EBV-HLH with progressive CNS disease. Moreover, the addition of rituximab to RIC appears to be safe and effective in suppressing EBV in the patients with EBV-HLH.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Diseases , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Transplants , Rituximab
18.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 1355-1358, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103101

ABSTRACT

Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome is caused by deletion of chromosome 11p13, including the Wilms' tumor (WT1) and aniridia gene (PAX6) loci. Here, we report the first case of WAGR syndrome in Korea; the patient was a 2-year-old girl with bilateral aniridia from birth who presented with abdominal distention and mental retardation. Cytogenetically, she had deletion of chromosome 11p11.2-13. Bilateral Wilms' tumors were successfully treated by chemotherapy and surgery. She has been tumor-free for 19 months off chemotherapy with preserved renal function.


Subject(s)
Aniridia , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Korea , Parturition , Child, Preschool , WAGR Syndrome , Wilms Tumor
19.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 1123-1126, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154503

ABSTRACT

A lung hernia, defined as the protrusion of pulmonary tissue and pleural membranes through a defect in the thoracic wall, is a rare event. It can be congenital or acquired, and cervical, thoracic, or diaphragmatic in location. We report the rare occurrence of a congenital atraumatic lung herniation through the azygoesophageal recess. An 8 -month-old male infant, who was born at 3 5 weeks gestation, had a chronic cough. Chest radiography showed haziness at the right lower lobe of the lung (RLL). Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed herniation of the RLL through the azygoesophageal recess. If persistent unilateral haziness is observed on chest radiography, the possibility of lung herniation should be considered.


Subject(s)
Child , Cough , Hernia , Humans , Infant , Lung , Male , Membranes , Pregnancy , Thoracic Wall , Thorax
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153557

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection that occurs following the ingestion of infectious Paragonimus metacercariae from crabs or crayfish. Pulmonary paragonimiasis is the most common clinical manifestation of this infection, but several ectopic paragonimiasis cases have also been reported. Among them, cases of subcutaneous paragonimiasis are rare, especially in children. We report a case of subcutaneous paragonimiasis of the right abdominal wall with pleural effusion with hepatic involvement and without abnormal pulmonary infiltration in a boy aged 2 years and 5 months. He had eaten soybean sauce-soaked freshwater crabs (kejang) 6 months prior to complaining of right abdominal wall distension. On evaluation, right pleural effusion without abnormal pulmonary infiltration was detected, as well as blood eosinophilia, an elevated serum IgE level, pleural fluid eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detected P. westermani antibody in the serum. Thoracentesis, praziquantel administration, and excision of subcutaneous lesions were performed. After treatment, the eosinophil count and serum IgE level were decreased, and the subcutaneous lesions did not recur. The frequency of paragonimiasis has decreased recently, but it is still prevalent in Korea. Paragonimiasis should be suspected if pleural fluid eosinophilia is associated with blood hypereosinophilia and a high level of serum IgE; however clinicians should obtain a thorough history of travel and food habits.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Aged , Astacoidea , Child , Eating , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Feeding Behavior , Fresh Water , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Metacercariae , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus , Paragonimus westermani , Pleural Effusion , Praziquantel , Soybeans
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