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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875526

ABSTRACT

Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children under 5 years old worldwide, and is the most common cause of malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. In Rwanda, diarrhea is the third leading cause of death in children under 5 years old. This study examined the association between sociodemographic factors and diarrhea in children under 5 years using the data of 7,474 households in the 2014-2015 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey. Overall prevalence of diarrhea in this study was 12.7% in children. An increased risk for diarrhea was found for children aged 12-23 months (odds ratio (OR)=4.514), those with a low economic status (OR=1.64), those from the Western province (OR=1.439), those with poorly-educated mothers (OR=5.163), and those with families engaged in agricultural activities (OR=1.624). In conclusion, sociodemographic factors significantly affect the risk of developing diarrhea in children under 5 years in Rwanda. Designing and implementing health education promoting awareness of early interventions and rotavirus vaccination are essential to reduce diarrheal diseases for the Rwandan community.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919318

ABSTRACT

A nationwide survey of chigger mites causing scrub typhus and an investigation of epidemiologic factors for chigger mites was conducted at 16 localities in 8 provinces in Korea during autumn 2009, 2012, and 2013. A total of 233 Apodemus agrarius were captured, and all were infested with chigger mites. The chigger index was highest in Chungcheongbuk-do in 2009 (358.3) and 2012 (290.1) and Chungcheongnam-do in 2013 (294.4). The predominant chigger mite species was Leptotrombidium pallidum in the northern and central parts and L. scutellare in the southern and western parts, Korea. L. pallidum was not found in Jellanam-do and Gyeongsangnam-do and the distribution of L. scutellare had been expanded in the northern parts of Korea. The chigger index of L. pallidum was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with humidity. The incidence of scrub typhus is dependent on L. scutellare index. These findings could be helpful to monitor the distribution of chigger mites and to develop a preventive measures for scrub typhus in Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919316

ABSTRACT

Ticks can transmit pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, and viruses to humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the microbiomes of Haemaphysalis longicornis according to sex and life stages. The Shannon index was significantly higher for nymphs than adult ticks. Principal coordinates analysis showed that the microbiome composition of female adult and male adult ticks were different. Notably, Coxiella-like bacterium (AB001519), known as a tick symbiont, was found in all nymphs and female adult ticks, but only one out of 4 male adult ticks had Coxiella-like bacterium (AB001519). In addition, Rickettsia rickettsii, Coxiella burnetii, and Anaplasma bovis were detected in this study.

4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 427-440, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834275

ABSTRACT

Korea had been one of hyperendemic countries of human parasitic infections until 1970s.In 1966, the Law for the Prevention of Parasitic Diseases was enacted, and the nationwide anti-parasitic control program began in 1969. The initiation of the national program was supported financially by Japan. The program included screening of whole students in Korea and treatment of all egg positive cases twice a year, and ended in 1995. In addition to student program, deworming campaign was run in the community, and 8 national status surveys were implemented from 1971 to 2012. Whole helminth egg positive rate was 84.3% in 1971 and decreased to 2.6% in 2012. Ascaris and other intestinal nematodes, Paragonimus, Taenia, and intestinal protozoa had decreased significantly throughout the country, but Clonorchis sinensis and intestinal trematodes are still prevalent locally in endemic areas. Lymphatic filariasis had been endemic in Jeju-do and other southern islands but elimination was endorsed in 2008. The control of parasitic infection in Korea was successful with statistical prevalence data, which can be a benchmarking model. In conclusion, the successful control in Korea could be achieved by social agreement of the priority, professional guidelines and systematic approach with good anthelminthics supply, and simultaneous economic growth.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833820

ABSTRACT

Cockroaches inhabit various habitats, which will influence their microbiome. Although the microbiome can be influenced by the diet and environmental factors, it can also differ between species. Therefore, we conducted 16S rDNAtargeted high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the overall bacterial composition of the microbiomes of 3 cockroach species, Periplaneta americana, P. japonica, and P. fuliginosa, raised in laboratory for several generations under the same conditions. The experiments were conducted using male adult cockroaches. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was not significantly different among the 3 species. With regard to the Shannon and Pielou indexes, higher microbiome values were noted in P. americana than in P. japonica and P. fuliginosa. Microbiome composition was also evaluated, with endosymbionts accounting for over half of all OTUs in P. japonica and P. fuliginosa. Beta diversity analysis further showed that P. japonica and P. fuliginosa had similar microbiome composition, which differed from that of P. americana. However, we also identified that P. japonica and P. fuliginosa host distinct OTUs. Thus, although microbiome compositions may vary based on multiple conditions, it is possible to identify distinct microbiome compositions among different Periplaneta cockroach species, even when the individuals are reared under the same conditions.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833798

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular protozoa that can cause neurological disease or death in fetuses and even in immunocompromised human adults. Ticks are recognized as vectors of many microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. Recent studies detected T. gondii in various tick species in many countries. In this study, we performed PCR detection of the T. gondii B1 gene from Haemaphysalis ticks collected from vegetation in 4 localities, Wonju, Gunsan, Miryang, and Yangsan, in Korea. We analyzed DNA from 314 ticks (268 Haemaphysalis longicornis and 46 Haemaphysalis flava) and the B1 gene of T. gondii was detected in 13 of these. The detection of T. gondii in ticks differed significantly by region (P=0.021). T. gondii was detected in the following percentages of collected ticks: 3.7% (7 of 189) in Gunsan, 10% (5 of 50) in Wonju, 16.7% (1 of 6) in Yangsan, and 0% (0 of 69) in Miryang. The detection of T. gondii in ticks was not associated with tick species or development stage. This is the first report of T. gondii detection in ticks in Korea. Our results provide important information necessary to understand toxoplasmosis transmission.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833787

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Echinostoma aegyptica Khalil and Abaza, 1924 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is extremely rare. In this study, we confirmed E. aegyptica infection in 5 riparian residents living along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. The patients revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, echinostomes, and other parasites in fecal examinations using the Kato-Katz technique. Following treatment with praziquantel 30-40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10-15 mg/kg in a single dose and purging with magnesium salts, adult specimens of various helminth species were collected. Among the trematodes, echinostome flukes of 4.5-7.6 mm in length (n = 134; av. 22.3 specimens per case) were of taxonomic interest and subjected in this study. The flukes were morphologically characterized by having total 43-45 collar spines arranged in 2 alternating rows (corner spines usually 5 on each side) and compatible with previous descriptions of E. aegyptica. The patients were mixed-infected with other helminths, so specific clinical manifestations due to this echinostome fluke were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. aegyptica infections in Lao PDR. This is the second report of human infection (2nd-6th cases) with E. aegyptica in the world following the first one from China.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833766

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma haematobium affect more than 3 billion people globally and mainly occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study assessed the overall infection status of a 1716-student cohort of school-children in Zanzibar and applied mass drug administration (MDA) to the cohort from 2007 to 2009. Schools in Pemba, Zanzibar, had a much higher prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections than those in Unguja, and the Chaani, Ghana, and Machui schools of Unguja exhibited high S. haematobium infection rates. The MDA program only partially controlled parasite infections, owing to high rates of re-infection. The infection rate of S. haematobium across all 10 schools, for example, was only reduced by 1.8%, and even this change not significant, even though the S. haematobiuminfection rates of the Chaani and Mzambarauni schools were significantly reduced from 64.4 and 23.4%, respectively, at the first screening, to 7.3 and 2.3% at the last screening. The overall infection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced from 36.0% at the first screening to 22.6% at the last screening. However, the infection rates for both Trichuris trichiuraand hookworm were generally unaffected by MDA. In the future, parasite control programs should involve strategically designed MDA schedules and holistic intervention (e.g., sanitation improvement, hygiene behavior changes, and control of intermediated hosts).

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833753

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis occurs mainly in areas with heavy livestock farming, such as Central Asia, America, and Australia. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) infection causes echinococcosis in intermediate hosts, such as sheep, cattle, goats, camels, and horses. Numerous cases of echinococcosis occur in Uzbekistan as stock farming is a primary industry. Epidemiological and genetic studies of E. granulosus s.l. are very important for mitigating its impact on public health and the economy; however, there are no such studies on E. granulosus s.l. in Uzbekistan. In the present study, to determine which genotypes exist and are transmitted, we isolated Echinococcus sp. from definitive hosts (one isolate each from jackal and dog) and intermediate hosts (52 isolates from humans and 6 isolates from sheep) in Uzbekistan and analyzed the isolates by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA components (cox1 and nad1). The results showed that all of isolates except one belonged to the E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and G3 genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 sequences showed that 42 isolates from humans, 6 isolates from sheep, and one isolate from jackal were the G1 genotype, whereas the remaining 8 isolates from human and the one isolate from dog were the G3 genotype. These results suggest that the G1 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus s.s. are predominant in Uzbekistan, and both wild animals and domestic animals are important for maintaining their life cycle. Only one isolate from human sample was confirmed to be E. eqiinus (G4 genotype), which is known to be for the first time.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786636

ABSTRACT

We identified the echinostome metacercariae in Chinese mystery snails, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, from Xiengkhuang Province, Lao PDR with morphologies of adult worms recovered. Total 20 snails were examined with artificial digestion method and then the collected metacercariae were orally infected to a mouse and a rat. Adult worms recovered from experimental animals were observed with a light microscope and a SEM. The metacercariae were round, 125×123 μm in average size, with a moderately thick cyst wall, collar spines distributed in the head collar and excretory granules in 2 canals of excretory tube. Adult flukes (3-week-old in a rat) were elongated, ventrally curved and 5.310×1.023 mm in average size. Head collar distinct, bearing 43 collar spines with 5 end group ones on each side. Oral sucker subterminal, prepharynx very short, pharynx well developed, and esophagus relatively short. Cirrus sac well developed, with a saccular seminal vesicle, and ventral sucker very large. Ovary round and on the median line of the body. Testes tandom and elongated. Eggs operculated, elliptical and 90×57 μm in average size. In the SEM observation, the head crown prominent, with 43 collar spines resembled with horns of younger stag. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the surface between the head collar and ventral sucker, and their densities were decreased posteriorly. Conclusively, the metacercariae detected in C. chinensis malleata from Lao PDR were identified as those of Echinostoma macrorchis based on the morphological characteristics of adult worms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asians , Crowns , Digestion , Echinostoma , Eggs , Esophagus , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Metacercariae , Methods , Mice , Ovary , Ovum , Pharynx , Rats , Seminal Vesicles , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chironomids (nonbiting midges) are widely and abundantly distributed near ponds, rivers, and artificially dammed pools used for irrigation. Chironomids contain allergens and cause airway allergy in humans. In this study, we aimed to examine the allergic potential of chironomids in inhabitants living near artificially dammed pools. METHODS: We examined immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to chironomid extracts in the sera of residents living around installed dams and assessed the correlations of IgE responses between chironomids (Chironomus flaviplumus, Chironomus kiiensis, Cricotopus bicinctus) and house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae). In addition, we identified potential IgE binding proteins specific for adult C. bicinctus, a popular species in Korea. Specific IgE antibodies in sera collected from the participants against the extracts were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The average IgE-positive rates were 10.4%, 8.1%, and 8.2% in C. bicinctus, C. flaviplumus, and C. kiiensis, respectively. The IgE-positive rate and IgE titer of C. bicinctus antigen were higher in residents living around installed dams than in those who lived other places (P = 0.013). Western blotting using sera having high IgE titers to C. bicinctus in ELISA showed the presence of a protein of approximately 42 kDa that was homologous to the actin protein isoform in C. bicinctus extracts as demonstrated using mass spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that people living near installed dams were more sensitized to C. bicinctus and that the 42 kDa IgE-binding protein could be useful for further studies on chironomid allergic disease and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adult , Allergens , Antibodies , Blotting, Western , Chironomidae , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Galectin 3 , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Mass Spectrometry , Ponds , Pyroglyphidae , Rivers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761767

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasitic infections and associated risk factors for the human infection among the people of Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Infection status of helminths including Echinococcus granulosus was surveyed in domestic and wild animals from 4 sites in the Samarkand region, Uzbekistan during 2015–2018. Fecal samples of each animal were examined with the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and the recovery of intestinal helminths was performed with naked eyes and a stereomicroscope in total 1,761 animals (1,755 dogs, 1 golden jackal, and 5 Corsac foxes). Total 658 adult worms of E. granulosus were detected in 28 (1.6%) dogs and 1 (100%) golden jackal. More than 6 species of helminths, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium nolleri, Mesocestoides lineatus, Toxocara canis, and Trichuris vulpis, were found from 18 (1.0%) dogs. Six (T. hydatigena, Toxascaris leonina, Alaria alata, Uncinaria stenocephala, D. caninum, and M. lineatus) and 2 (D. nolleri and M. lineatus) species of helminths were also detected from 5 Corsac foxes and 1 golden jackal, respectively. Taeniid eggs were found in 2 (20%) out of 10 soil samples. In the present study, it was confirmed that the prevalences of helminths including E. granulosus are not so high in domestic and wild animals. Nevertheless, the awareness on the zoonotic helminth infections should be continuously maintained in Uzbekistan for the prevention of human infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Animals, Wild , Dogs , Echinococcus granulosus , Eggs , Foxes , Helminths , Humans , Jackals , Mesocestoides , Ovum , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Soil , Taenia , Toxascaris , Toxocara canis , Trichuris , Uzbekistan
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761750

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinochasmus caninus n. comb. (Verma, 1935) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) (syn. Episthmium caninum Yamaguti, 1958) were recovered from 11 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, the cases revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, hookworms, and in 2 cases echinostome eggs. To recover the adult helminths, praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10–15 mg/kg in a single dose were given and purged with magnesium salts. Various species of trematodes (including O. viverrini and Haplorchis spp.), cestodes, and nematodes were recovered from their diarrheic stools. Among the trematodes, small echinostome flukes (n=42; av. 3.8 specimens per case) of 0.7–1.2 mm in length are subjected in this study. They are morphologically characterized by having 24 collar spines interrupted dorsally and anterior extension of vitellaria from the cirrus sac or genital pore level to the posterior end of the body. Particularly based on this extensive distribution of vitellaria, the specific diagnosis was made as Echinochasmus caninus. The cases were co-infected with various other helminth parasites; thus, clinical manifestations specific for this echinostome infection were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. caninus infections in Lao PDR. Our cases marked the 4–14th human infections with this echinostome around the world following the 3 previous cases reported from Thailand.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Cestoda , Comb and Wattles , Diagnosis , Eggs , Helminths , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Praziquantel , Pyrantel Pamoate , Rivers , Salts , Spine , Thailand , Trematoda
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742244

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to disclose the prevalence rate of tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from cattle and wild animals in Tanzania in 2012. Ticks were collected from slaughtered cattle and dead wild animals from November 5 to December 23, 2012 and identified. PCR for detecting Anaplasmataceae, Piroplamidae, Rickettsiaceae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella spp. were done. Among those tested, Rickettsiaceae, Piroplasmidae, and Anaplasmataceae, were detected in ticks from the 2 regions. Rickettsiaceae represented the major tick-borne pathogens of the 2 regions. Ticks from animals in Maswa were associated with a higher pathogen detection rate compared to that in ticks from Iringa. In addition, a higher pathogen detection rate was observed in ticks infesting cattle than in ticks infesting wild animals. All examined ticks of the genus Amblyomma were infected with diverse pathogens. Ticks of the genera Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were infected with 1 or 2 pathogens. Collectively, this study provides important information regarding differences in pathogen status among various regions, hosts, and tick species in Tanzania. Results in this study will affect the programs to prevent tick-borne diseases (TBD) of humans and livestock in Tanzania.


Subject(s)
Anaplasmataceae , Animals , Animals, Wild , Borrelia , Cattle , Coxiella , Humans , Livestock , Piroplasmida , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Rhipicephalus , Rickettsiaceae , Tanzania , Tick-Borne Diseases , Ticks
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742219

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts. A total of 658 adult fluke specimens were recovered from the 2 people; 456 from case 1 and 202 from case 2. Specimens from case 1 consisted of 335 echinostomes (301 E. ilocanum and 34 species undetermined), 120 O. viverrini, and 1 Haplorchis taichui, and those from case 2 consisted of 36 E. ilocanum, 134 O. viverrini, and 32 H. taichui. Thus, the number of E. ilocanum specimens was 337 in total (average per person, 168.5). From this study, it is suggested that foodborne intestinal flukes and liver flukes are highly prevalent along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province. The present report describes for the first time human infections with E. ilocanum in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Echinostoma , Echinostomiasis , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Praziquantel , Rivers , Salts , Trematoda
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69361

ABSTRACT

Pentastomiasis, a zoonotic parasite infection, is typically found in the respiratory tract and viscera of the host, including humans. Here, we report for the first time an extremely rare case of intraosseous pentastomiasis in the human maxilla suffering from medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). A 55-year-old male had continuously visited the hospital for MRONJ which had primarily developed after bisphosphonate and anti-neoplastic administration for previous bone metastasis of medullary thyroid cancer. Pain, bone exposure, and pus discharge in the right mandible and left maxilla were seen. Osteolysis with maxillary cortical bone perforation at the left buccal vestibule, palate, nasal cavity, and maxillary sinus was observed by radiologic images. A biopsy was done at the left maxilla and through pathological evaluation, a parasite with features of pentastome was revealed within the necrotic bone tissue. Further history taking and laboratory evaluation was done. The parasite was suspected to be infected through maxillary open wounds caused by MRONJ. Awareness of intraosseous pentastomiasis should be emphasized not to be missed behind the MRONJ. Proper evaluation and interpretation for past medical history may lead to correct differential diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for parasite infections.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone and Bones , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Jaw , Male , Mandible , Maxilla , Maxillary Sinus , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteolysis , Osteonecrosis , Palate , Parasites , Pentastomida , Respiratory System , Suppuration , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Viscera , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168661

ABSTRACT

The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145–165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6–10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. They were plump or elongated, ventrally curved, 6.0–8.1×1.6–2.0 mm in size, and characterized by the head collar bearing 43 collar spines, including 5 end group ones on each side, a long cirrus sac extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, a submedian ovary, and 2 deeply lobed testes. Eggs in uteri were operculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 120–135×68–75 μm in size. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with collar spines looking like horns. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around suckers. By this study, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of A. malayanum exists in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cambodia , Cricetinae , Digestion , Eggs , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Intestine, Small , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae , Mice , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovary , Ovum , Rats , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda , Uterus
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192949

ABSTRACT

The ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum is a common household pest worldwide. The present study examined the occurrence of the species in urban homes in Korea. During the period of September 2014 to January 2016, T. melanocephalum workers were collected from 58 homes at 29 different localities using bait traps with 10% sugar solution. The species was widely distributed throughout urban homes at 29 different localities, and the indoor occurrence of T. melanocephalum was highest in Seoul (32.7%) and metropolitan areas of Gyeonggi-do (Province) (29.3%). The indoor incidence rate of T. melanocephalum peaked in September (22.8%), remained moderate from October through April, and peaked again in May (15.7%). In contrast, a low incidence was observed from June to August (7.0%). The present study provides evidence that native ants, such as T. melanocephalum, are potential indoor pests of homes in Korea throughout the year.


Subject(s)
Ants , Family Characteristics , Incidence , Korea , Seoul
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72750

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225153

ABSTRACT

A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cestode Infections/epidemiology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestines/parasitology , Laos/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platyhelminths/classification , Young Adult
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