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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874870

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastroparesis is identified as a subject that is understudied in Asia. The scientific committee of the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association performed a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices survey on gastroparesis among doctors in Asia. @*Methods@#The questionnaire was created and developed through a literature review of current gastroparesis works of literature by the scientific committee of Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association. @*Results@#A total of 490 doctors from across Asia (including Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) participated in the survey. Gastroparesis is a significant gastrointestinal condition. However, a substantial proportion of respondents was unable to give the correct definition and accurate diagnostic test. The main reason for lack of interest in diagnosing gastroparesis was “the lack of reliable diagnostic tests” (46.8%) or “a lack of effective treatment” (41.5%). Only 41.7% of respondents had access to gastric emptying scintigraphy. Most doctors had never diagnosed gastroparesis at all (25.2%) or diagnosed fewer than 5 patients a year (52.1%). @*Conclusions@#Gastroparesis can be challenging to diagnose due to the lack of instrument, standardized method, and paucity of research data on normative value, risk factors, and treatment studies in Asian patients. Future strategies should concentrate on how to disseminate the latest knowledge of gastroparesis in Asia. In particular, there is an urgent need to estimate the magnitude of the problems in high risk and idiopathic patients as well as a standardized diagnostic procedure in Asia.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833871

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 375-384, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716025

ABSTRACT

Anorectal disorders are common and present with overlapping symptoms. They include several disorders with both structural and functional dysfunction(s). Because symptoms alone are poor predictors of the underlying pathophysiology, a diagnosis should only be made after evaluating symptoms and physiologic and structural abnormalities. A detailed history, a thorough physical and digital rectal examination and a systematic evaluation with high resolution and/or high definition three-dimensional (3D) anorectal manometry, 3D anal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance defecography and neurophysiology tests are essential to correctly identify these conditions. These physiological and imaging tests play a key role in facilitating a precise diagnosis and in providing a better understanding of the pathophysiology and functional anatomy. In turn, this leads to better and more comprehensive management using medical, behavioral and surgical approaches. For example, patients presenting with difficult defecation may demonstrate dyssynergic defecation and will benefit from biofeedback therapy before considering surgical treatment of coexisting anomalies such as rectoceles or intussusception. Similarly, patients with significant rectal prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction or patients with complex enteroceles and pelvic organ prolapse may benefit from combined behavioral and surgical approaches, including an open, laparoscopic, transabdominal or transanal, and/or robotic-assisted surgery. Here, we provide an update on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of selected common anorectal disorders.


Subject(s)
Biofeedback, Psychology , Constipation , Defecation , Defecography , Diagnosis , Digital Rectal Examination , Humans , Intussusception , Manometry , Neurophysiology , Pelvic Floor , Pelvic Organ Prolapse , Rectal Diseases , Rectal Prolapse , Rectocele , Ultrasonography
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The correlation between the Bristol stool form scale (BSFS) and colonic transit time (CTT) has been reported in Western populations. Our study aims to study the relationship between BSFS, stool frequency, and CTT in Eastern patients with chronic constipation. METHODS: A total of 144 chronic functional constipation patients underwent colonic transit study by using radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry, and balloon expulsion test. Stool diary including stool forms and frequency was recorded. Delayed CTT was defined as the retention of more than 20.0% of radio-opaque markers in the colon on day 5. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (17.4%) had delayed colonic transit. Mean 5-day BSFS (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34–0.79; P = 0.021) and stool frequency (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44–0.83; P = 0.002) were independently associated with delayed CTT by logistic regression analysis. Mean 5-day BSFS (area under the curve [AUC], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62–0.84; P < 0.001) and stool frequency (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63–0.87; P < 0.001) fairly predicted delayed CTT. The optimal mean 5-day BSFS of ≤ 3 provided 68.0% sensitivity, 69.7% specificity, and 69.4% accuracy, and the optimal stool frequency ≤ 2 bowel movements in 5 days provided 64.0% sensitivity, 83.1% specificity, and 84.0% accuracy for predicting delayed CTT. CONCLUSIONS: Both stool form and frequency were significantly associated with delayed CTT. Stool frequency ≤ 2 and BSFS 1–3 rather than BSFS 1–2 that was used in the Westerners could be used as surrogate for delayed CTT in Eastern patients with constipation.


Subject(s)
Colon , Constipation , Humans , Logistic Models , Manometry , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78153

ABSTRACT

Dyssynergic defecation is common and affects up to one half of patients with chronic constipation. This acquired behavioral problem is due to the inability to coordinate the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles to evacuate stools. A detailed history, prospective stool diaries, and a careful digital rectal examination will not only identify the nature of bowel dysfunction, but also raise the index of suspicion for this evacuation disorder. Anorectal physiology tests and balloon expulsion test are essential for a diagnosis. Newer techniques such as high-resolution manometry and magnetic resonance defecography can provide mechanistic insights. Recently, randomized controlled trials have shown that biofeedback therapy is more effective than laxatives and other modalities, both in the short term and long term, without side effects. Also, symptom improvements correlated with changes in underlying pathophysiology. Biofeedback therapy has been recommended as the first-line of treatment for dyssynergic defecation. Here, we provide an overview of the burden of illness and pathophysiology of dyssynergic defecation, and how to diagnose and treat this condition with biofeedback therapy.


Subject(s)
Biofeedback, Psychology , Constipation , Cost of Illness , Defecation , Defecography , Diagnosis , Digital Rectal Examination , Humans , Laxatives , Manometry , Muscles , Pelvic Floor , Physiology , Problem Behavior , Prospective Studies
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46115

ABSTRACT

Chronic constipation (CC) may impact on quality of life. There is substantial patient dissatisfaction; possible reasons are failure to recognize underlying constipation, inappropriate dietary advice and inadequate treatment. The aim of these practical guidelines intended for primary care physicians, and which are based on Asian perspectives, is to provide an approach to CC that is relevant to the existing health-care infrastructure. Physicians should not rely on infrequent bowel movements to diagnose CC as many patients have one or more bowel movement a day. More commonly, patients present with hard stool, straining, incomplete feeling, bloating and other dyspeptic symptoms. Physicians should consider CC in these situations and when patients are found to use laxative containing supplements. In the absence of alarm features physicians may start with a 2-4 week therapeutic trial of available pharmacological agents including osmotic, stimulant and enterokinetic agents. Where safe to do so, physicians should consider regular (as opposed to on demand dosing), combination treatment and continuous treatment for at least 4 weeks. If patients do not achieve satisfactory response, they should be referred to tertiary centers for physiological evaluation of colonic transit and pelvic floor function. Surgical referral is a last resort, which should be considered only after a thorough physiological and psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asians , Colon , Constipation , Health Resorts , Humans , Pelvic Floor , Physicians, Primary Care , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Referral and Consultation , Sprains and Strains
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211954

ABSTRACT

Antroduodenal manometry is one of the methods to evaluate stomach and duodenal motility. This test is a valuable diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal motility disorders especially small intestinal pseudo-obstruction which is difficult to make definite diagnosis by clinical manifestations or radiologic findings. Manometric findings that have no evidence of mechanical obstruction and suggestive of pseudo-obstruction with neuropathy or myopathy can avoid unnecessary surgery and the treatment can be directly targeted. Moreover, among patients who have clinically suspected small intestinal pseudo-obstruction but with normal manometric findings, the alternative diagnosis including psychiatric disorder or other organic disease should be considered. The application of this test to the patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms especially to find the association of motor abnormalities to the symptom has less impressive yield. Antroduodenal manometry is now readily available only in some tertiary care centers. The aim of this review is to describe the antroduodenal manometry technique, interpretation and clinical utility.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Motility , Humans , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Manometry , Muscular Diseases , Stomach , Tertiary Care Centers , Unnecessary Procedures
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the value of a 2-week high dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment on patients with overlapping non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (NERD) and functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Sixty overlapping NERD and FD patients with symptom onset > 3 months prior underwent 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring studies. All patients received rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. for 2 weeks. The reflux and dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated using a symptom questionnaire with 4-point Likert scales before and at the end of treatment. A positive PPI test was defined as score improvement in > or = 50% from the baseline in the typical reflux symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of each reflux and dyspeptic symptom did not differ significantly between patients with positive and negative pH tests. After the PPI treatment, epigastric burning, acid regurgitation, heartburn, nausea, vomiting and chest discomfort scores were significantly improved compared to pretreatment values (P < 0.05), whereas postprandial abdominal fullness, early satiation, belching and food regurgitation were not. The proportion of patients who responded to the PPI treatment did not differ significantly between patients with positive and negative pH tests. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 2-week high dose rabeprazole treatment for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease were 47%, 38%, 50%, 35% and 43%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The two-week high dose PPI treatment was not effective for early satiation, postprandial abdominal fullness, regurgitation or belching symptoms in patients with overlapping NERD and FD. Acid exposure in the distal esophagus could not predict the response of symptoms to PPI. In addition, the 2-week PPI test provided limited value for gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnosis in patients with overlapping NERD and FD.


Subject(s)
2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles , Burns , Dyspepsia , Eructation , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Esophagus , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nausea , Prevalence , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons , Surveys and Questionnaires , Satiation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thorax , Vomiting , Weights and Measures
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