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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3708-3727, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011150

ABSTRACT

The formation of learning and memory is regulated by synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Here we explored how gestational exposure to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used in clinical practice, has lasting effects on offspring's learning and memory. Adult offspring rats of prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) displayed significant impairments in novelty recognition and spatial learning memory, with some phenotypes maintained transgenerationally. PDE impaired synaptic transmission of hippocampal excitatory neurons in offspring of F1 to F3 generations, and abnormalities of neurotransmitters and receptors would impair synaptic plasticity and lead to impaired learning and memory, but these changes failed to carry over to offspring of F5 and F7 generations. Mechanistically, altered hippocampal miR-133a-3p-SIRT1-CDK5-NR2B signaling axis in PDE multigeneration caused inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission, which might be related to oocyte-specific high expression and transmission of miR-133a-3p. Together, PDE affects hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission, with lasting consequences across generations, and CDK5 in offspring's peripheral blood might be used as an early-warning marker for fetal-originated learning and memory impairment.

2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1840-1858, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010665

ABSTRACT

The mammalian brain is a highly complex network that consists of millions to billions of densely-interconnected neurons. Precise dissection of neural circuits at the mesoscopic level can provide important structural information for understanding the brain. Optical approaches can achieve submicron lateral resolution and achieve "optical sectioning" by a variety of means, which has the natural advantage of allowing the observation of neural circuits at the mesoscopic level. Automated whole-brain optical imaging methods based on tissue clearing or histological sectioning surpass the limitation of optical imaging depth in biological tissues and can provide delicate structural information in a large volume of tissues. Combined with various fluorescent labeling techniques, whole-brain optical imaging methods have shown great potential in the brain-wide quantitative profiling of cells, circuits, and blood vessels. In this review, we summarize the principles and implementations of various whole-brain optical imaging methods and provide some concepts regarding their future development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/physiology , Brain Mapping/methods , Neurons/physiology , Optical Imaging/methods , Mammals
3.
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 2339-2345, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998584

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of tuina manipulation with different cervical rotation angle on carotid atherosclerosis. MethodsTwenty-five New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected, 5 of which as the control group, and the other 20 rabbits as the modeling group. The modeling group were made by arterial intimal balloon injury combined with high-fat diet, and were randomly divided into model group, cervical rotation angle of 90° group, cervical rotation angle of 105° group and cervical rotation angle of 120° group (5 rabbits in each group) after successful modeling. After relaxing the neck muscles of rabbits with manipulation of one-finger meditation, rolling and dialing, the cervical vertebrae of each group was rotated by 90°, 105°and 120° respectively for 2 weeks, while the other two groups were not intervened. Then took the entire length of the left common carotid artery from the rabbit, observed the pathological morphology of the carotid artery tissue using HE staining, and observed the expression of CD68 and MMP-2 in the carotid artery tissue using immunohistochemistry staining, and conducted semi quantitative analysis. ResultsHE staining showed that there was no obvious pathological change in the carotid artery in the control group; the model group showed subintimal foam cells gathered, vascular smooth muscle cells increased and arranged disorderly, and some vascular smooth muscle cells entered the intima from the media to form a fibrous cap. Compared with the model group, the number of foam cells increased and the symptoms of lumen stenosis were improved in all groups of cervical rotation; compared with the group with 90°rotation, the endothelium tended to fall off slightly in the group with 105°rotation and 120°rotation. Compared with the control group, the model group and the cervical rotation angle of 90° group , cervical rotation angle of 105° group and cervical rotation angle of 120° group showed an increase in positive expression of CD68 and MMP-2 (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the positive expression of CD68 and MMP-2 in the cervical rotation angle of 90° group, cervical rotation angle of 105° group and cervical rotation angle of 120° group decreased (P<0.05); there was no statistically significant difference in CD68 positive expression among cervical rotation angle of 90° group, cervical rotation angle of 105° group and cervical rotation angle of 120° group compared in pairs (P>0.05); the positive expression of MMP-2 in the group of cervical rotation angle of 105° group and cervical rotation angle of 120 °group was higher than that in cervical rotation angle of 90° group (P<0.05). ConclusionTuina manipulation can promote the stability of plaque by reducing the CD68 content of macrophages and the level of MMP-2 in plaque; but as the rotation angle of the cervical spine increased, the expression of MMP-2 may increase, which may reduce the plaque stability to a certain extent and affect the therapeutic effect of tuina.

4.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 578-585, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996463

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To establish the gene-based esophageal cancer (ESCA) risk score prediction models via whole transcriptome analysis to provide ideas and basis for improving ESCA treatment strategies and patient prognosis. Methods    RNA sequencing data of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and adjacent tissues were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The edgeR method was used to screen out the differential genes between ESCA tissue and normal tissue, and the key genes affecting the survival status of ESCC and EAC patients were initially identified through univariate Cox regression analysis. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to further screen genes and establish ESCC and EAC risk score prediction models. Results    The risk score prediction models were the independent prognostic factors for ESCA, and the risk score was significantly related to the survival status of patients. In ESCC, the risk score was related to T stage. In EAC, the risk score was related to lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage. The constructed nomogram based on risk score showed good predictive ability. In ESCC, the risk score was related to tumor immune cell infiltration and the expression of immune checkpoint genes. However, this feature was not obvious in EAC. Conclusion 聽 聽The ESCC and EAC risk score prediction models have shown good predictive capabilities, which provide certain inspiration and basis for optimizing the management of ESCA and improving the prognosis of patients.

5.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 163-168, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995713

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the cut-off value of tetradecenoyl carnitine (C14∶1)/dodecenoyl carnitine(C12∶1) based on non-derivatized tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and to explore the application value of C14∶1/C12∶1 to screen newborns for very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), determining the best combination of indicators for screening VLCADD.Methods:This retrospective study included data from 17 newborns with VLCADD detected by MS/MS and confirmed by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain ( ACADVL) gene detection, and 423 507 newborns with normal MS/MS results. The data from these newborns were collected from January 2014 to December 2021 as the newborns received neonatal screening in Nanjing Neonatal Disease Screening Center and Suzhou Neonatal Disease Screening Center. All newborns were divided into 3 groups: all newborns group, full-term newborns group and normal-birth-weight newborns group, and the cut-off values of C14∶1/C12∶1 for VLCADD in these 3 groups were determined by their receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves individually. With these results, a total of 5 interpretation schemes were composed using different indicators alone or jointly: scheme 1 being C14∶1/C12∶1, scheme 2 being C14∶1, scheme 3 being C14∶1+C14∶1/C2+C14∶1/C16, scheme 4 being C14∶1/C12∶1+C14∶1, and scheme 5 being C14∶1/C12∶1+C14∶1+C14∶1/C2+C14∶1/C16. The detection rate, false-positive rate and positive predictive value of each scheme were calculated, and their screening efficiencies were statistically compared by Chi-square tests. Results:The cut-off values of C14∶1/C12∶1 for VLCADD in the 3 newborn groups were all 2.80. The detection rates of VLCADD with all 5 interpretation schemes were 17/17. Scheme 1 had the highest false positive rate [26.15‰ (11 075/423 524)] and the lowest positive predictive value [0.15% (17/11 092)]. Scheme 4 (Scheme 5) had the lowest false positive rate [0.02‰ (10/423 524)] and the highest positive predictive value [62.96% (17/27)]. Comparing scheme 4 (Scheme 5) with scheme 1, scheme 2 and scheme 3, the differences of false positive rate (χ2=302.30,11 191.50,32.06) and positive predictive value (χ2=102.51,3 485.61,13.83) were statistically significant (all P<0.001). Conclusion:C14∶1/C12∶1 was an effective auxiliary interpretive indicator for VLCADD in newborn screening, and the combination of C14∶1/C12∶1+C14∶1 was tested to be the best indicator for VLCADD screening based on non-derivatized tandem mass spectrometry.

6.
Chinese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 12-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995522

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the safety and feasibility of Ivor-Lewis procedure under uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopy(VATS) for esophageal cancer and Siewert type I esophago-gastric junction carcinoma.Methods:The patients with middle-lower segment esophageal cancer or Siewert type I esophago-gastric junction carcinoma received minimally invasive esophagectomy between October 2020 and June 2021, and the clinical data was collected and analyzed.Results:26 patients received Ivor-Lewis procedure underwent uniportal VATS, while 45 patients underwent McKeown surgery under multiport VATS. The average operation time of patients in the two groups were(265±110)min and (235±94)min, and the average intraoperative blood loss were(80±57)ml and(105±60)ml. The mean number of lymph nodes removed in the surgery were (19.3±2.9) and 18.6±2.7 respectively in two groups, and the mean length of hospital stay was(7.5±3.5)days and(8.3±2.7)days. The incidence of perioperative complications were not significantly different in two groups. The VAS score of patients received Ivor-Lewis procedure underwent uniportal VATS was lower than that of patients received McKeown surgery in ostoperative day 1, day 3, day 7 and 1 month. The difference was statistically significant in two groups( P<0.05). Conclusion:The Ivor-Lewis procedure under uniportal VATS for esophageal cancer and Siewert type I esophago-gastric junction carcinoma has the advantage of less postoperative pain, and the procedure is feasible in clinical practice.

7.
Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation ; (12): 346-353, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994676

ABSTRACT

Objective:To clarify the incidence and the related risk factors of postoperative delirium in liver transplantation (LT) recipients to provide rationales for early identification of delirium and constructing the related models.Methods:The authors used the "肝移植""移植术""肝移植手术""肝脏移植""移植肝""谵妄""谵语""危险因素""相关因素""影响因素"and "liver transplantation""liver transplant""delirium""delirious""delirium confusion""risk factors""relevant factors""root cause analysis"as the Chinese and English keywords, searching Wanfang data, China Biomedical Literature Database, CNKI, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, BMJ and the literature for the incidence or risk factors of postoperative delirium in LT recipients. The researchers independently performed literature screening, methodological evaluation and data extraction. And RevMan 5.4 and State16.0 software were employed for data processing.Results:A total of 19 articles involving 5003 samples were retrieved and 22 risk factors identifies. Meta-analysis showed that the incidence of POD was 23%(1151/5003). The statistically significant risk factors included preoperative blood ammonia concentration >46 mmol/L ( OR=3.51, 95% CI: 1.53-8.09, P<0.001), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >15 points ( OR=4.24, 95% CI: 2.51-7.16, P<0.001), preoperative hepatic encephalopathy ( OR=3.00, 95% CI: 2.09-4.31, P<0.001), preoperative dosing of diuretics ( OR=2.36, 95% CI: 1.38-4.04, P<0.001), history of alcoholism ( OR=3.16, 95% CI: 1.06-9.40, P=0.040), longer anhepatic period ( OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06, P<0.001) and elevated aspartate transaminase concentration at Day 1 post-operation ( OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.15-1.53, P<0.001). Conclusions:Preoperative blood ammonia concentration >46 mmol/L, MELD score >15, hepatic encephalopathy, dosing of diuretic, a history of alcoholism, longer anhepatic period and elevated aspartate transaminase at Day 1 post-operation are risk factors for postoperative delirium after LT. Postoperative reintubation is not a risk factor for postoperative delirium.

8.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 653-660, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992993

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) manifestations, cardiac function, and myocardial strain by feature tracking (FT) in Takayasu arteritis (TA) with pulmonary artery involvement (PTA) using cardiac MR (CMR), and then to investigate manifestations of the impaired myocardial structure and function.Methods:A retrospective study was performed on 32 patients with PTA and 21 healthy subjects without cardiopulmonary diseases from January 2017 to December 2020. All of them underwent CMR examinations. According to the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH),PTA patients were divided into two groups including PAH group (11 cases) and non-PAH group (21 cases). LGE manifestations were observed and Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis between the two groups. Cardiac function parameters and FT values including global peak strain of the left and right ventricle were calculated separately in PAH, non-PAH group of patients and healthy controls, using One-way ANOVA or non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical analysis including a pairwise comparison between groups. The correlations between FT values of the PAH group and parameters measured by right heart catheterization test (RHC) and transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed using Pearson or Spearman correlation analysis.Results:There were 23 PTA patients (71.9%) with LGE. LGE in the interventricular insertion points (IPs)(11/11), and in the mid-wall (11/11) or epicardial (10/11) myocardium was more common ( P values were 0.006,<0.001 and 0.011, respectively) in PAH group, compared with LGE in the IPs (11/21), and in the mid-wall (7/21) or epicardial (9/21) myocardium in non-PAH group. The absolute values of left ventricular global peak circumferential strain (LVGPCS), left ventricular global peak longitudinal strain (LVGPLS) and right ventricular global peak longitudinal strain in PAH group were smaller than those in healthy subjects ( P<0.05). The absolute values of LVGPCS and LVGPLS in non-PAH group were smaller than those in healthy subjects ( P<0.05). In PAH group, mean pulmonary artery pressure of RHC was correlated with several FT parameters ( P<0.05), especially left ventricular global peak radial strain ( r=-0.807, P=0.009) and LVGPCS ( r s=0.817, P=0.007). Conclusions:Myocardial injury can be seen in PTA patients. And LGE in the IPs and LGE in the mid-wall or epicardial myocardium is more common in PTA patients with PAH. LVGPCS and LVGPLS can early indicate left heart dysfunction in PTA patients without PAH.

9.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 150-156, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992947

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the impact of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) image quality and related factors on the diagnostic performance of CT-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR).Methods:Based on the CT-FFR CHINA trial, the prospective multicenter trial enrolled patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA, CT-FFR and FFR measurement. The subjective and objective assessments of CCTA image were performed on a per-vessel level. The objective assessments included the enhancement degree of coronary artery, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the aortic root. We used χ 2 test and DeLong test to compare the diagnostic performance of CT-FFR with FFR as the reference standard in different subjective groups (non-artifact vs. artifact), enhancement degree of coronary artery groups (≤400 vs. 401-500 vs.>500 HU), SNR of the aortic root groups (≤16.9 vs.>16.9), body mass index (BMI) groups (<25 kg/m 2 vs.≥25 kg/m 2) and heart rate groups (<75 bpm vs.≥75 bpm). FFR and CT-FFR values≤0.80 was identified as myocardial ischemia. Results:The study enrolled 317 patients with 366 vessels. All target vessels in CCTA images were successfully analyzed by CT-FFR. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and AUC of the non-artifact group were 90.45%, 86.75%, 93.10%, 90.00%, 90.76% and 0.928, respectively, and those of the artifact group were 83.23%, 87.21%, 79.01%, 81.52%, 85.33% and 0.869, respectively. The differences in accuracy and specificity were statistically significant (χ 2=4.23, P=0.040; χ 2=8.55, P=0.003). The diagnostic efficacy of CT-FFR had no statistically significant differences among different objective groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions:The artifact of CCTA image has an effect on CT-FFR in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. The degree of vascular enhancement, SNR, BMI, and heart rate have no significant effect on the diagnostic performance of CT-FFR.

10.
Chinese Journal of Postgraduates of Medicine ; (36): 184-188, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990989

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of femtosecond laser assistcataract extraction on the levels of inflammatory factors in aqueous humor, corneal perception and high order aberration.Methods:Forty-eight patients (56 eyes) undergoing cataract surgery in the Shouguang People′s Hospital from June 2018 to February 2020 were enrolled in this study, and they were divided into observation group (24 patients and 27 eyes, femtosecond laser cataract phacoemulsification) and control group (24 patients and 29 eyes, coaxial microincision phacoemulsification) by random number table method. The levels of prostglndin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in aqueous humor were detected before and after operation. Upper corneal and central corneal perception thresholds were recorded before surgery, 7 d after surgery, 1 month after surgery and 3 months after surgery. High order aberrations of the whole eye and cornea at 4mm pupil diameter before and after operation were recorded.Results:After operation, the levels of PGE2, IL-6 and IL-1β in aqueous humor in the observation group were lower than those in the control group: (45.62 ± 5.71) ng/L vs. (63.65 ± 5.62) ng/L, (15.25 ± 3.21) ng/L vs. (24.59 ± 6.13) ng/L, (17.16 ± 1.28) ng/L vs. (25.74 ± 4.62) ng/L, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The upper and central corneal perception threshold of observation group after operation for 7 d were higher than those in the control group: 4.55 ± 0.50 vs. 4.20 ± 0.33, 5.68 ± 0.49 vs. 5.52 ± 0.45, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The indexes of high order aberration of the whole eye decreased in the two groups ( P<0.05), while the indexes of cornea did not change significantly. The indexes of high order aberration of the whole eye and cornea between before and after surgery between the two groups had no significant differences ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Femtosecond laser assist cataractextraction can relieve inflammation, reduce the whole eye high order aberration, but not affect the cornea, and can improve corneal perception.

11.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 240-262, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982569

ABSTRACT

Detailed characterizations of genomic alterations have not identified subtype-specific vulnerabilities in adult gliomas. Mapping gliomas into developmental programs may uncover new vulnerabilities that are not strictly related to genomic alterations. After identifying conserved gene modules co-expressed with EGFR or PDGFRA (EM or PM), we recently proposed an EM/PM classification scheme for adult gliomas in a histological subtype- and grade-independent manner. By using cohorts of bulk samples, paired primary and recurrent samples, multi-region samples from the same glioma, single-cell RNA-seq samples, and clinical samples, we here demonstrate the temporal and spatial stability of the EM and PM subtypes. The EM and PM subtypes, which progress in a subtype-specific mode, are robustly maintained in paired longitudinal samples. Elevated activities of cell proliferation, genomic instability and microenvironment, rather than subtype switching, mark recurrent gliomas. Within individual gliomas, the EM/PM subtype was preserved across regions and single cells. Malignant cells in the EM and PM gliomas were correlated to neural stem cell and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell compartment, respectively. Thus, while genetic makeup may change during progression and/or within different tumor areas, adult gliomas evolve within a neurodevelopmental framework of the EM and PM molecular subtypes. The dysregulated developmental pathways embedded in these molecular subtypes may contain subtype-specific vulnerabilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/metabolism , Glioma/pathology , Neural Stem Cells/pathology , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 385-388, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986803

ABSTRACT

With the increasing number of obese patients worldwide, metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) has quickly become an effective way to treat obesity and related metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid abnormalities, etc. Although MBS has become an important part of general surgery, there is still controversy regarding the indications for MBS. In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a statement on the surgical treatment of severe obesity and other related issues, which continues to be the standard for insurance companies, health care systems, and hospital selection of patients. The standard no longer reflects the best practice data and lacks relevance to today's modern surgeries and patient populations. After 31 years, in October 2022, the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) and the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO), the world's leading authorities on weight loss and metabolic surgery, jointly released new guidelines for MBS indications, based on increasing awareness of obesity and its comorbidities and the accumulation of evidence of obesity metabolic diseases. In a series of recommendations, the eligibility of patients for bariatric surgery has been expanded. Specific key updates include the following: (1) MBS is recommended for individuals with BMI≥35 kg/m2, regardless of the presence, absence, or severity of co-morbidities; (2) MBS should be considered for individuals with metabolic diseases and BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m2; (3) the BMI threshold should be adjusted for the Asian population:: BMI≥25 kg/m2 suggest clinical obesity, and BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2 population should consider MBS; (4) Appropriately selected children and adolescents should be considered for MBS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/surgery , Bariatric Surgery , Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Weight Loss
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6500-6508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008849

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Jiaotai Pills on protein expression in the hippocampus of the rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS)-induced depression by quantitative proteomics and explore the anti-depression mechanism of Jiaotai Pills. The SD rats were randomized into control, model, Jiaotai Pills, and fluoxetine groups(n=8). Other groups except the control group were subjected to CUMS modeling for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of continuous administration, the changes of behavior and pathological morphology of the hippocampal tissue were observed. Proteins were extracted from the hippocampal tissue, and bioinformatics analysis was performed for the differentially expressed proteins(DEPs) identified by quantitative proteomics. Western blot was employed to verify the key DEPs. The results showed that Jiaotai Pills significantly alleviated the depression behaviors and hippocampal histopathological changes in the rat model of CUMS-induced depression. A total of 5 412 proteins were identified in the hippocampus of rats, including 65 DEPs between the control group and the model group and 35 DEPs between the Jiaotai Pills group and the model group. There were 16 DEPs with the same trend in the Jiaotai Pills group and the control group, which were mainly involved in sphingolipid, AMPK, and dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways. The Western blot results of Ppp2r2b, Cers1, and Ndufv3 in the hippocampus were consistent with the results of proteomics. In conclusion, Jiaotai Pills may play an anti-depression role by modulating the levels of Ppp2r2b, Cers1, Ndufv3 and other proteins and regulating sphingolipid, AMPK, and dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Depression/drug therapy , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Proteomics , Hippocampus , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Sphingolipids/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2403-2424, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982882

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of obesity has increased across the whole world. Many epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity strongly contributes to the development of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, liver diseases and other disorders, accounting for a heavy burden on the public and on health-care systems every year. Excess energy uptake induces adipocyte hypertrophy, hyperplasia and formation of visceral fat in other non-adipose tissues to evoke cardiovascular disease, liver diseases. Adipose tissue can also secrete adipokines and inflammatory cytokines to affect the local microenvironment, induce insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and activate associated inflammatory signaling pathways. This further exacerbates the development and progression of obesity-associated diseases. Although some progress in the treatment of obesity has been achieved in preclinical and clinical studies, the progression and pathogenesis of obesity-induced diseases are complex and unclear. We still need to understand their links to better guide the treatment of obesity and associated diseases. In this review, we review the links between obesity and other diseases, with a view to improve the future management and treatment of obesity and its co-morbidities.

15.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 562-566, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971893

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the change in mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) lymphocytes in peripheral blood of children with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and its clinical significance. Methods A total of 18 children with MAFLD who attended Hunan Children's Hospital from March to May, 2022, were enrolled as MAFLD group, and 20 normal children who attended the hospital during the same period of time were enrolled as control group. Peripheral blood samples were collected, and flow cytometry was used to measure the percentages of MAIT lymphocytes (CD3 + CDl61 + TCRVα7.2 + cells), different MAIT lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + CD8 - MAIT cells, CD4 - CD8 - MAIT lymphocytes, CD4 - CD8 + MAIT lymphocytes, and CD4 + CD8 + MAIT lymphocytes), and MAIT lymphocytes expressing PD-1, CD69, perforin, CD107α, CXCR3, CXCR6, and CCR6. The correlation of MAIT lymphocyte frequency with liver inflammation, fat content, and fibrosis degree was analyzed. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups. The Spearman correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis. Results Compared with the control group, the MAFLD group had significant increases in the percentage of MAIT lymphocytes in peripheral blood, the percentages of MAIT cells expressing PD-1, CD69, CD107α, CXCR3, CXCR6 and CCR6, and the percentages of CD4 + CD8 - MAIT cells and CD4 + CD8 + MAIT lymphocytes among MAIT cell subsets (all P < 0.05), as well as a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4 - CD8 + MAIT cells among MAIT cell subsets ( P < 0.001). The percentages of CD4 + CD8 + MAIT lymphocytes and CD107α-positive MAIT lymphocytes were negatively correlated with alanine aminotransferase ( r =-0.474 and -0.550, P =0.047 and 0.018). Conclusion The migration of peripheral blood MAIT lymphocytes to the liver plays a protective role against liver inflammation in children with MAFLD.

16.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 705-723, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) promotes the osteogenic differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), but the intrinsic relationship between BMP9 and ATRA keeps unknown. Herein, we investigated the effect of Cyp26b1, a critical enzyme of ATRA degradation, on the BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and unveiled possible mechanism through which BMP9 regulates the expression of Cyp26b1. @*METHODS@#ATRA content was detected with ELISA and HPLC–MS/MS. PCR, Western blot, and histochemical staining were used to assay the osteogenic markers. Fetal limbs culture, cranial defect repair model, and micro–computed tomographic were used to evaluate the quality of bone formation. IP and ChIP assay were used to explore possible mechanism. @*RESULTS@#We found that the protein level of Cyp26b1 was increased with age, whereas the ATRA content decreased. The osteogenic markers induced by BMP9 were increased by inhibiting or silencing Cyp26b1 but reduced by exogenous Cyp26b1. The BMP9-induced bone formation was enhanced by inhibiting Cyp26b1. The cranial defect repair was promoted by BMP9, which was strengthened by silencing Cyp26b1 and reduced by exogenous Cyp26b1. Mechanically, Cyp26b1 was reduced by BMP9, which was enhanced by activating Wnt/b-catenin, and reduced by inhibiting this pathway. b-catenin interacts with Smad1/5/9, and both were recruited at the promoter of Cyp26b1. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggested the BMP9-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated by activating retinoic acid signalling, viadown-regulating Cyp26b1. Meanwhile, Cyp26b1 may be a novel potential therapeutic target for the treatment of bone-related diseases or accelerating bone-tissue engineering.

17.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 431-436, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970224

ABSTRACT

In recent years, laparoscopic surgery and robotic surgery have been widely used, and various intraoperative image navigation systems have also developed rapidly. However, the liver itself has a complex vessel and duct system, which increase the difficulty of liver surgery. The augmented reality image navigation system combines the three-dimensional reconstructed image of the liver with the real liver anatomy, which presents the specific relationship between the tumor location and the surrounding vessels for the surgeon. Compared with other intraoperative image navigation methods, augmented reality has its unique advantages. This paper provides an overview of current advances in registration technology in augmented reality image navigation system, and focuses on its applications in liver surgery, including laparoscopic surgery and robotic surgery. Finally, the technological problems and difficulties still faced at present are summarized, and future directions worth studying in this field are proposed.

18.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 22-25, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014166

ABSTRACT

Nod-like receptor protein 3 ( NLRP3) is the most representative inflammasome in the kidney, which can mediate the occurrence of diseases through inflammasome dependent and non inflammasome dependent pathways in the process of renal ischemia-re j

19.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 619-625, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014125

ABSTRACT

Aim To explore the effect of Fuganlin on airway remodeling in obese asthmatic mice and its mechanism.Methods A model of chronic airway inflammation in C57 BL/6 mice with obese asthma induced by OVA and high-fat diet was established,and treated with Fuganlin 5.86,11.72 and 23.44 g·kg-1 by gavage.After the last challenge,the respiratory system resistance(Rrs),respiratory system elasticity(Ers),and respiratory system compliance(Crs)were measured with a lung function oscillator; the total number of white blood cells in whole blood was measured; tissue HE and MASSON staining were employed to observe the pathological changes.ELISA was used to detect the levels of IgE in serum and the levels of TGF-β1,Smad3 and SP in lung tissues; IHC was used to detect the expression levels of Smad3,SARA and protein in lung tissues.Results Fuganlin reduced the increase in the number of white blood cells in blood and inhibited the content of IgE in serum.Fuganlin could reduce the Rrs and Ers,enhance the Crs and regulate the respiratory function.Histopathological results showed that Fuganlin could reduce inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in the chronic airway inflammation model of obese mice,and inhibit bronchial mucosal proliferation; ELISA results showed that Fuganlin inhibited the expression of TGF-β1,Smad3,and SP; IHC results showed that Smad3 and SARA protein expression decreased.Conclusions The anti-obesity asthma effect of Fuganlin may help to improve respiratory function,control airway inflammation,and antagonize airway remodeling.

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Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; (12): 1446-1451, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990577

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical outcome and influencing factor of one-anastomosis duodenal switch (OADS) for obesity.Methods:The retrospective cohort study was conducted. The clinical data of 104 obesity patients who underwent OADS in the China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University from October 2018 to June 2021 were collected. There were 42 males and 62 females, aged 33(range, 18?66)years. The clinical outcome of each patient was evaluated using Textbook Outcome (TO). Observation indicators: (1) treatment situations for patients; (2) TO situa-tions; (3) analysis of factors affecting postoperative TO. Follow-up was conducted using outpatient examination or telephone interview to detect postoperative complication of patients up to November 2021. Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as Mean± SD, and comparison between groups was conducted using the t test. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M (range), and comparison between groups was conducted using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Count data were described as absolute numbers or percentages, and comparison between groups was conducted using chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the binary Logistic regression model. Results:(1) Treatment situations for patients. All 104 patients under-went OADS without conversion to laparotomy or death of patient. The operation time and duration of postoperative hospital stay of the 104 patients were (187±39)minutes and 6(range, 4?55)days, respectively. Two of the 104 patients were readmitted. The experiences of surgeons on OADS was (53±30)cases. There were 82 patients underwent OADS using the Da Vinci robotic surgical system, while there were 22 patients underwent OADS using laparoscopic surgery system. The complication rate of 104 patients was 7.69%(8/104). Cases with stage Ⅱ, stage Ⅲb and stage Ⅳ complications of the Clavien Dindo classification were 5, 2 and 1, respectively. (2) TO situation. Of the 104 patients, 62 cases achieved TO, while 42 cases did not achieve TO. The operation time, retention time of abdominal drainage tube, duration of postoperative hospital stay, experiences of surgeons on OADS, number of OADS for surgeons using Da Vinci robotic surgical system were (166±26)minutes, 0(range, 0?7)days, 6(range, 4?7)days, 62±28, 54 in patients achieved TO, versus (218±34)minutes, 3 (range, 0?11)days, 8(range, 5?55)days, 38±27, 28 in patients not achieved TO, showing significant differences in the above indicators between them ( t=?8.81, Z=?3.63, ?5.33, t=4.27, χ2=6.27, P<0.05). Cases with complications were 0 in patients achieved TO, versus 8 in patients not achieved TO, showing a significant difference between them ( P<0.05). (3) Analysis of factors affecting postoperative TO. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the experiences of surgeons on OADS was an independent influencing factor for postoperative TO in patients undergoing OADS ( odds ratio=1.04, 95% confidence interval as 1.01?1.06, P<0.05). Conclusions:OADS is safe and feasible for obesity patients with low postoperative complication incidence and satisfactory clinical outcome. The experiences of surgeons on OADS is an independent influencing factor for postoperative TO in patients undergoing OADS.

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