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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 271-276, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922923

ABSTRACT

KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated human oncogenes. In spite of mounting efforts on the development of direct or indirect inhibition targeting KRAS, little has been achieved because of insurmountable difficulties, titling KRAS "undruggable". Recently, subtype-specific inhibitors have shown great hope. Some KRASG12C inhibitors have entered clinical trials, including adagrasib and sotorasib, and have shown preliminary clinical effectiveness. Experiences from the inhibitors targeting the downstream factors of RAS pathways show that the anticancer activity of these drugs will be limited due to the development of drug resistance. Preclinical studies of KRASG12C inhibitors have revealed that the application of these agents might be hampered by the drug resistance issue. The current review aims to describe the current status of KRASG12C inhibitors, and discuss the mechanisms underlying KRASG12C inhibitor resistance, so as to provide the clues for the combat of drug resistance.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921631

ABSTRACT

The effects of four natural organic soil amendments on the quality and pesticide residues of Panax notoginseng were investigated through field experiments and the suitable dosage ratio of each soil amendment was selected to provide a new idea for the pollution-free cultivation of P. notoginseng. The four natural organic soil amendments used in this study were Jishibao, Jihuo, Fudujing, and omnipotent nutrients, which were produced by mixed fermentation of aboveground parts of different plants, biological waste residue, and biochar. During the experiments, only four soil amendments were applied to P. notoginseng instead of any pesticides and fertilizers. The experiment was designed as four factors and three levels. There were three dosage gradients(low, medium, and high) for Jishibao(A), Jihuo(B), Fudujing(C), and omnipotent nutrients(D). When the dosage of one soil amendment changed, the do-sage of the other soil amendments remained medium. There were 10 groups in addition to the soil amendment-free group as control(CK). The results showed that the four soil amendments could significantly improve the growth environment of P. notoginseng and increase the seedling survival rate and saponin content of P. notoginseng. The seedling survival rates of the treatment groups increased by 8.24%-30.05% as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng was too low to be detected, and that of heavy metals in P. notoginseng was far lower than the specified content in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The optimal effect was achieved at medium dosage for all the soil amendments with the highest content of saponins, high seedling survival rate, and significantly reduced heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Panax notoginseng , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911419

ABSTRACT

The measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels has been widely used in the clinical setting. However, isolated elevation of serum ALP levels is also commonly seen and needs to be extensiuely evaluated Herein, we present a case of gastric adenocarcinoma with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow (DCBM). In this case, isolated elevation of serum ALP levels was the only clinical manifestation with no other notable symptom. Additionally, imaging studies including whole body computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) were all negative, which resulted in the misdiagnosis of Paget′s disease of bone initially. This highlights that malignancies involving bones presenting with isolated elevation of serum ALP levels might be misdiagnosed in asymptomatic individuals.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911366

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the pathogenesis of Cushing′s syndrome induced by medullary thyroid carcinoma.Methods:Started from April 2011 to present, three medullary thyroid carcinoma patients with Cushing′s syndrome were enrolled in this study. All patients were 40 to 50 years old, one female and two males. The blood pressure, blood glucose, thyroid function and antibodies, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)were detected. The qualitative and localized diagnosis of Cushing′s syndrome was performed by high- and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests as well as imaging examinations. The biopsies of all patients were taken to test the immunostaining of calcitonin, adrenocorticotropin(ACTH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone(CRH).Results:According to the clinical manifestation and function tests, three patients were diagnosed as medullary thyroid carcinoma accompanied by ACTH-dependent Cushing′s syndrome. All patients showed positive immunohistochemical staining of calcitonin and CRH, with negative immunostaining of ACTH in one and positive immunostaining of ACTH in two patients. Therefore, the diagnosis of ectopic CRH syndrome caused by medullary thyroid carcinoma was definite.Conclusions:Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of Cushing′s syndrome. Tumor cells secrete ACTH and CRH, which in turn cause hypercorticoremia. Ectopic CRH syndrome is very rare. Early diagnosis can be made by immunohistochemical staining of biopsy tissues to guide early targeted treatment and improve the prognosis.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888180

ABSTRACT

Four new lanostane triterpenoids, 3β-hydroxy-12α-methoxylanosta-7,9(11),24-triene(1), 3β-hydroxy-12α-methoxy-24-methylene-lanost-7,9(11)-dien(2), 3,7-dioxo-lanosta-8,24-diene(3), and 3,7-dioxo-24-methylene-lanost-8-en(4), were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia resinifera with a variety of chromatography methods. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data and/or comparison with the data reported in previous research. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed moderate inhibition of LPS-induced NO production by RAW264.7, with IC_(50) of 30.4, 37.5, and 28.3 μmol·L~(-1), respectively.


Subject(s)
Euphorbia , Latex , Molecular Structure , Steroids , Triterpenes
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909338

ABSTRACT

Although the issue of hyperuricemia (HUA) and gout in adults has attracted much attention in recent years, our understanding of HUA and gout in children and adolescents is still very limited. HUA is an important metabolic disease in children and adolescents, who are more likely to develop complications such as renal dysfunction than adult patients. Positive family history, growth history and obesity are risk factors for HUA in children and adolescents. The etiology of HUA in children and adolescents is different from that in adults, including secondary factors, genetic diseases and other diseases complicated with hyperuricemia and gout. Similar to the treatment strategies in adults, it is very important to control body weight and reduce the intake of high purine and high fructose diet on the premise of ensuring normal growth and development. If necessary, uric-acid-lowering drugs with favorable safely profiles in children and adolescents should be used with monitoring of renal uric acid excretion.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 4008-4019, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922456

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has emerged as an intractable cancer with scanty therapeutic regimens. The aberrant activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are reported to be common in CCA patients. However, the underpinning mechanism remains poorly understood. Deubiquitinase (DUB) is regarded as a main orchestrator in maintaining protein homeostasis. Here, we identified Josephin domain-containing protein 2 (JOSD2) as an essential DUB of YAP/TAZ that sustained the protein level through cleavage of polyubiquitin chains in a deubiquitinase activity-dependent manner. The depletion of JOSD2 promoted YAP/TAZ proteasomal degradation and significantly impeded CCA proliferation

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866745

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota is considered as the cornerstone of maintaining the health of human host, because it not only helps to obtain nutrition and energy from the food, but also regulates the energy metabolism through the metabolites produced, which plays an important role in the occurrence and development of various metabolic diseases. In recent years, with the development of science and technology, hypoglycemic treatment has been gradually promoted, safer and more efficient hypoglycemic drugs have been emerging, including sulfonylureas, biguanides, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase Ⅳ inhibitors, glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and various types of insulin preparations. A large number of studies have proved that intestinal flora may be one of the targets for hypoglycemic drugs to control blood glucose. In this article, we aim to review the effects of hypoglycemic drugs on the composition of intestinal flora and the regulation of nutrition and energy metabolism, and provide reference for future researches on mechanism and target of new antidiabetic drugs.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865205

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically evaluate the correlation between vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy and the outcome of preterm birth.Method PubMed,Embase,the Cochrane Library,Web of Science,Ebsco,CBM,CNKI and Wanfang Data databases were searched to collect cohort studies and case-control studies on the correlation between vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy and preterm birth outcomes,and the retrieval time was from the establishment of the database to June 2019.Two researchers independently reviewed the literature,extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias in the included studies.RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta analysis.Result A total of 6 cohort studies and 3 nested case-control studies were included.A total of 30 891 newborns were included,including 1 912 premature infants.3 Chinese articles and 6 English articles were reviewed including three studies from China,three from North America,two from Europe and one from Australia.The diagnostic criteria for vitamin D deficiency and preterm birth were similar in these studies.After adjusting for age,race and other confounding factors,Meta-analysis results showed that vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy did not increase the risk of preterm birth (OR =1.04,95% CI 0.90 ~ 1.20,P =0.63).Subgroup analysis were conducted according to the study type,measurement method and regional population,and the results were consistent with the overall results.No significant publication bias was found in the meta-analysis results.Conclusion Current evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy has no significant influence on preterm birth.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The dense microstructure of biological scaffolds and the limitation of cell growth microenvironment are the two major difficulties in the application of biological scaffolds in bone tissue repair. OBJECTIVE: To prepare fluffy hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite fiber scaffold, so that cells can easily enter into the scaffold and to realize three-dimensional culture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS: Fluffy hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite scaffold was prepared by using modified electrospinning technology combined with biomineralization. The physical and chemical properties of the fiber scaffold were measured and observed. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were inoculated on the fluffy hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite scaffold and traditional hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite scaffold. Cell proliferation, adherence and morphological changes were detected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The thickness of hydroxyapatite coating in the fluffy hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite scaffold was about 8.3 µm, most of hydroxyapatite fibers were in discrete state with a diameter of 8-14 µm. The fibers were connected by pores, and the pore diameter was (65±35) µm. The surface area, porosity and water absorption of the scaffold were significantly higher than those of the traditional scaffold (P < 0.01). (2) After 12 hours of culture, the adherence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the two scaffolds was similar, 83% and 81% cells adhered on the traditional and fluffy scaffolds, respectively. (3) After 7 days of culture, the number of proliferated cells in the fluffy hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite scaffold was significantly more than that in the traditional hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite scaffold (P < 0.01). (4) After 7 days of culture, FDA staining and scanning electric microscopy showed that cell-cell independent shape appeared in the traditional scaffold. A large number of cells appeared in the fluffy scaffold and grew into cell clusters with high cell activity, which formed a cell-fiber construction. These results indicate that this new type hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite scaffold is beneficial for cell entry and proliferation.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828001

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical investigation on the methanolic extract of Mastic by using various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of 9 compounds. Based on the analysis of spectroscopic data(NMR and MS) and/or comparisons with the data reported in the literature, their structures were elucidated as 3β,8α,13-trihydroxypolypoda-14-methoxy-14-methyl-17,21-diene(1), 4-hydroxymyrtenal(2),3-methyl-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-3-ene-1, 2-diol(3), 2-oxo-Δ~3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentynyl acidic acid(4),(1S,2R,3R,5R)-6,6-dimethyl-4-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]-heptane-2,3-diol(5),(4R)-1-methyl-4-(1-hydroxyisopropyl)cyclohexene-6-one(6), 6,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxy[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid(7), 6,6-dimethyl[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid(8), 6,6-dimethyl-4-oxobicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid(9). Compound 1 is a new compound and 2-9 were isolated from this species for the first time. In vitro cytotoxicity assay results indicated that compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects against human lung cancer cell line A549 with IC_(50) values of 20.4, 25.1 and 22.5 μmoL·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Phytochemicals , Pistacia
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905756

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To analyze the development trends and issues of clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation.Methods Clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, China Biology Medicine disc, CNKI, Wangfang database, Medlive, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, World Health Organization and Guidelines International Network from establishiment to January 11, 2020. The number, publication date, distribution of countries, journals, institutions, subject areas and methods for developing guidelines of included literatures were analyzed. Results A total of 84 clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation were included, in which there were 17 published in Chinese and 67 in English. The top four countries that published rehabilitation guidelines were the United States (19 articles), China (17 articles), the United Kingdom (12 articles) and Canada (11 articles). The guidelines were developed mainly by the health professional societies and associations (49 articles). The main health conditions involved stroke (12 articles), cardiovascular disease (9 articles), shoulder joint injury (5 articles), pulmonary disease (5 articles) and spinal cord injury (5 articles). There were 35 guidelines expressiong evidence classification and recommendation intensity (42%), and 22 guidelines (26%) would update regularly.Conclusion Clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation focuse on neurological and musculoskeletal system diseases and cardiopulmonary dysfunction. There are relatively few published clinical practice guidelines for rehabilitation. Most guidelines are based on literature review or expert opinions, while a few are evidence-based. It is proposed to implement standardized approaches to develop clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802103

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the difference of intestinal flora between the patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage due to hyperactivity of liver-Yang and the healthy population. Method: The fecal samples of 9 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage due to hyperactivity of liver-Yang from the first affiliated hospital of Guangzhou university of traditional Chinese medicine in 2018 were selected as observation group,and 6 stool samples from healthy subjects were selected as the control group.The total bacterial DNA was extracted from the two groups of samples,amplified according to the 16S rRNA V4 region,and paired-end sequencing was performed on the Illumina MiSeq platform.The sequencing results were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis software.The flora composition and structure of the samples from two groups were compared. Result:Venn analysis of operational taxonomic units(OTU) showed significant difference in OTU numbers between the observation group and control group.Partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) showed that there was a significant difference in the composition of intestinal flora between patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and healthy subjects.On the analysis of species and abundance,at the classification level of phylum,compared with the control group,the ratio of relative abundance values of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes(F/B) in the observation group was significantly increased,and the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia was significantly decreased(PPrevotella,Bacteroides,Akkermansia,Blautia and Acidaminococcus(PPBacteroides and Prevotella(B/P) in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group;at the classification level of species,there were significant differences between the two groups in P. copri,A. muciniphila,B. ovatus,B. fragilis and Ruminococcus callidus(PPConclusion:Acute cerebral hemorrhage due to hyperactivity of liver-Yang is associated with structural disorder of intestinal flora,which is closely related to the decrease in relative abundance of P. copri and A. muciniphila.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797508

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To systematically review the barriers and facilitators affecting the implementation of clinical pathways for the clinical pathways.@*Methods@#PubMed, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, Cvip databases were searched to collect articles about clinical pathways implementation barriers and facilitators from inception to January 4th, 2019. The tool of confidence in the evidence from reviews of qualitative research(CERQual)was used to grade the confidence of each study.@*Results@#A total of 43 articles from 12 countries were included.There were 8 main categories and 31 subcategories of the barriers about clinical pathways, including content of the clinical pathways, negative outcomes of clinical pathways, physicians knowledge, physicians attitude, resource availability, implementation of activities, patients factors and social factors. The first three barriers of high confidence were lacking of time, capital, equipment, staff and other resources(15 articles, 34.9%), increasing workload(14 articles, 32.6%), unrecognizing pathways(12 articles, 27.9%). There were 6 main categories and 28 subcategories of the facilitators about clinical pathways, including pathways content related, physician related, resource factor and implementation activity. The first three facilitators of high confidence were communication, education and training(25 articles, 58.1%), supporting from managers and colleagues(21 articles, 48.8%)and establishing a clinical pathway facilitation committee(17 articles, 39.5%).@*Conclusions@#The successful implementation of clinical pathways connects with its development process, aftereffect evaluation and feedback. It will be implemented effectively only by the completely and environmentally acceptable pathways design, adequate resources, effective organizational activities, continuous audit, evaluation and feedback and physicians active cooperation.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792204

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically review the barriers and facilitators affecting the implementation of clinical pathways for the clinical pathways.Methods PubMed, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, Cvip databases were searched to collect articles about clinical pathways implementation barriers and facilitators from inception to January 4th, 2019. The tool of confidence in the evidence from reviews of qualitative research ( CERQual) was used to grade the confidence of each study. Results A total of 43 articles from 12 countries were included.There were 8 main categories and 31 subcategories of the barriers about clinical pathways, including content of the clinical pathways, negative outcomes of clinical pathways, physicians knowledge, physicians attitude, resource availability, implementation of activities, patients factors and social factors. The first three barriers of high confidence were lacking of time, capital, equipment, staff and other resources (15 articles, 34.9% ), increasing workload (14 articles, 32.6% ), unrecognizing pathways(12 articles, 27.9% ). There were 6 main categories and 28 subcategories of the facilitators about clinical pathways, including pathways content related, physician related, resource factor and implementation activity. The first three facilitators of high confidence were communication, education and training(25 articles, 58.1% ), supporting from managers and colleagues ( 21 articles, 48.8% ) and establishing a clinical pathway facilitation committee(17 articles, 39.5% ).Conclusions The successful implementation of clinical pathways connects with its development process, aftereffect evaluation and feedback. It will be implemented effectively only by the completely and environmentally acceptable pathways design, adequate resources, effective organizational activities, continuous audit, evaluation and feedback and physicians active cooperation.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755680

ABSTRACT

We reported a case of hypophysitis caused by a programmed death-1 ( PD-1) inhibitor. The patient was a 59-year-old female with metastatic malignant melanoma who participated in the phaseⅡclinical trial of a PD-1 inhibitor toripalimab. More than five months after the administration of toripalimab,she experienced fatigue, depression, nausea, and anorexia. Laboratory examinations showed mild hyponatremia, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and secondary hypothyroidism. MRI revealed the enlargement of her pituitary with obvious enhancement. The patient was diagnosed as hypophysitis caused by the PD-1 inhibitor and was given replacement therapy with physiological doses of corticosteroid and levothyroxine sodium. Her symptoms were then improved. MRI revealed that her pituitary size returned to normal after 8 weeks of treatment and remained stable during every 3-month follow-up. This case reminds us of the possibility of hypophysitis when patients suffere from fatigue and anorexia during the process of PD-1 inhibitor treatment. Correct diagnosis, proper therapy, and regular follow-up are important to ensure the patients' safety, and to improve their prognosis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753870

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the long-term outcome of postpartum glucose metabolism among patients with gestational hyperglycemia and its risk factors.Methods Patients with gestational hyperglycemia,diagnosed by 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during 24th to 28th gestation week between 2010 and 2012 and giving the childbirth in Peking Union Medical College Hospital,were included.The glucose metabolism outcomes were evaluated by 75 g OGTT.The risk factors influencing the glucose metabolism outcome and the glucose metabolism parameter changes between the pregnancy term and now were also analyzed.Results Forty patients with gestational hyperglycemia were included.The follow-up time was postpartum 5-8 years and (6.83±0.74) years on average.Among them,3 patients were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 9 patients were diagnosed with impaired glucose intolerance.The overall rate of abnormal glucose metabolism was 30 percent.The third-hour glucose of OGTT larger than 7.45 mmol/L and the area under the glucose curve (Glu AUC) during OGTT larger than 24.875 mmol×h/L were the risk factors for the abnormal glucose metabolism outcome,with the odds ratio of 5.769 (95% confidence interval 1.064-31.270,P=0.042) and 12.5 (95% confidence interval 2.226-70.187,P=0.004).Using the 2-hour glucose larger than 8.25 mmol/L and 3-hour glucose larger than 7.45 mmol/L in the OGTT of midtrimester to judge the glucose state in the follow-up visit can achieve the diagnostic efficacy with the sensitivity of 75%,specificity of 82%,positive prediction value of 64% and negative prediction value of 88%.Comparing with now,the fasting glucose in the midtrimester was lower ([5.49±0.43] vs.[4.55±0.47] mmol/L,P<0.001),the fasting insulin in the midtrimester was high-er (12.30 [6.35,16.55] vs.8.31 [6.79,12.00] μIU/ml,P=0.048),HOMA-β in the midtrimester was higher (202.67 [145.71,335.71] vs.85.41 [78.63,112.13],P<0.001).Conclusion The third-hour glucose larger than 7.45 mmol/L and the glucose area under the curve larger than 24.88 mmol×h/L in the OGTT of midtrimester are the risk factors for the abnormal glucose state in the postpartum long-term follow-up.The combination of the second-hour and the third-hour glucoses in the 100 g OGTT of midtrimester can help to predict the postpartum long-term glucose state.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824186

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the difference of gut microbiota between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic population in Beijing. Methods 83 T2DM patients were selected as T2DM group and 64 non-diabetic subjects were selected as control group. Fecal samples were collected from all the subjects. The intestinal flora was detected by metagenome sequencing technology. Results 11 bacterialphyla were detec-ted in the two groups, there were significant differences in species diversity of Actinobacteria (P=0. 013), Firmicutes (P=0. 005), Fusobacteria (P=0. 001), Proteobacteria (P<0. 001) between the two groups. Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria were all enriched in the T2DM group, Firmicutes were enriched in the control group. 152 bacterial genera were detected in the two groups with 31 bacterial genera ofsignificant differences. In T2DM group, the levels of Roseburia, Eubacterium and Faecalibacterium decreased, while the levels of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Escherichia increased. Conclusion There are significant differ-ences in the composition of gut microbiota between T2DM patients and non-diabetic population. Regulation of gut microbiota in T2DM patients may be helpful to improve the condition of T2DM.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776113

ABSTRACT

Popliteal cyst is a common peri-knee cyst, also known as a Baker's cyst. With the current development of popliteal cysts, the pathogenesis is mainly due to increased pressure in the knee joint caused by various reasons, leading to a fluid-filled sac that can form behind the knee as a result of enlargement of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa. The current diagnostic methods include X-ray computed, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Among them, magnetic resonance imaging is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of popliteal cysts. There are various treatments, including conservative treatment, traditional surgical resection and arthroscopic surgery. In recent years, the focus of the treatment of popliteal cysts has gradually shifted from the simple removal of cysts to arthroscopic treatment of intra-articular lesions and the treatment of joint-cyst communication, and achieved a good effect. However, there are still controversies about the most effective treatment, and the best surgery method is still uncertained. It is hoped that high quality prospective studies will be able to directly compare different surgery methods, so as to select the best treatment for popliteal cyst. This article reviews past literature research and describes in detail the epidemiology, pathological mechanism, clinical manifestations and signs, auxiliary examination, diagnosis and differential diagnosis and clinical treatment of popliteal cysts. Different diagnosis methods and treatment methods are compared and summarized to provide basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Arthroscopy , Bursa, Synovial , Humans , Knee Joint , Popliteal Cyst , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Prospective Studies
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776060

ABSTRACT

Severe hyperthyroidism can cause the injuries of multiple organs including heart and liver and ultimately be fatal. A 26-year-old young woman admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital for severe hyperthyroidism due to irregular use of anti-thyroid drugs. She had heart failure,atrial fibrillation,and severe liver damage at admission. Anti-thyroid drugs were then actively used to treat the primary disease,along with interventions to correct heart failure and control atrial fibrillation. Severe total bilirubin elevation was found during the treatment, which was resolved after the use of glucocorticoid and liver-protective therapy. The patient was regularly followed up after discharge,and the clinical manifestations were good.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atrial Fibrillation , Female , Heart Failure , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Liver Diseases
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