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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101036, jan., 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249300


ABSTRACT Homeless people are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis. We investigated the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among homeless individuals in a large city in Central-Western Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed and tested 355 individuals from September 2014 to August 2015. Rapid test samples positive for syphilis were retested using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Blood samples from HIV-infected participants were collected for POL sequencing using HIV-1 RNA extracted from plasma, reverse transcription, and nested polymerase chain reaction. Anti-HIV-1-positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the nucleotides of HIV-1 protease and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase genes. Transmitted and acquired drug resistance mutations and susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs were also analyzed. Anti-HIV was positive in 14 patients (3.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-6.4). HIV-1 RNA was detected in 8 of the 14 samples. Two of the eight (25%) isolates showed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. Furthermore, 78 (22%; 95% CI: 17.9-26.5) and 29 (8.2%; 95% CI: 5.6-11.4) homeless individuals tested positive for syphilis using the rapid test and VDRL test, respectively. Two individuals were anti-HIV-1 and VDRL test positive. Daily alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4), sex with people living with HIV (PLWH) infection (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 1.9-25.0), and sex with people of the same sex (AOR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.7-17.5) were predictors of HIV infection. Age ≤35 years (AOR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.4-10.8), previous syphilis testing (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.4-8.4), history of genital lesions (AOR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.3-19.1), and crack use in the last six months (AOR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3-7.6) were predictors of syphilis. Our findings highlight the importance of STI prevention and control strategies among the homeless.

Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210017, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251267


ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare social characteristics, risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections among travestis and transsexual women. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities in Goiás, Central Brazil. Trans women were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, discrimination, prejudice, sexual behavior, illicit drugs, and previous testing for HIV and syphilis between April 2018 and August 2019. Results: A total of 166 travestis and 249 transsexual women were investigated. Although sexual, physical, and verbal violence were common to both groups, sexual behavior, use of illicit drugs, prison, and previous positive HIV and syphilis testing were more frequent among travestis than in transsexual women. Conclusion: The present findings confirm that Brazilian travestis are at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), indicating that health services should take this imbalance into account in terms of health intervention proportions.

RESUMO: Objetivo: Comparar características sociais, comportamentos de risco e infecções sexualmente transmissíveis entre travestis e mulheres transexuais. Métodos: Estudo transversal conduzido em três cidades de Goiás, Brasil Central. De abril de 2018 a agosto de 2019, foram entrevistadas mulheres trans a respeito de características sociodemográficas, discriminação, preconceito, comportamentos sexuais, drogas ilícitas e testagem prévia para HIV e sífilis. Resultados: Um total de 166 travestis e 249 mulheres transexuais foram investigadas. Embora as violências sexual, física e verbal fossem comuns para ambos os grupos, comportamentos sexuais, uso de drogas ilícitas, prisão e teste positivo para HIV e sífilis foram mais frequentes entre as travestis quando comparadas às mulheres transexuais. Conclusão: Os presentes resultados ratificam que as travestis brasileiras apresentam maior risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST); portanto, os gestores de saúde devem levar em conta esse desequilíbrio nas propostas de medidas de intervenção em saúde.

Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3360, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1126995


Objective to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks among Brazilian individuals in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method cross-sectional study conducted in the five Brazilian regions, among adult individuals, via an electronic form disseminated in social media, addressing general information and the use of masks. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks. Results 3,981 (100%) individuals participated in the study. In total, 95.5% (CI 95%: 94.8-96.1) reported using masks. Fabric masks were more frequently reported (72.7%; CI 95%: 71.3-74.1), followed by surgical masks (27.8%; CI 95%: 26.5-29.2). The percentage of reuse was 71.1% (CI 95%: 69.7-72.5). Most (55.8%; CI 95%: 51.7-60.0) of those exclusively wearing surgical masks reported its reuse. Being a woman and having had contact with individuals presenting respiratory symptoms increased the likelihood of wearing masks (p≤0.001). Additionally, being a woman decreased the likelihood of reusing surgical masks (p≤0.001). Conclusion virtually all the participants reported the use of masks, most frequently fabric masks. The findings draw attention to a risky practice, that of reusing surgical and paper masks. Therefore, guidelines, public policies, and educational strategies are needed to promote the correct use of masks to control and prevent COVID-19.

Objetivo identificar los factores asociados con el uso y la reutilización de máscaras entre brasileños durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Método estudio transversal desarrollado en las cinco regiones brasileñas, entre adultos, aplicándose un formulario electrónico a través de las redes sociales, que contiene información general y relativo al uso de máscaras. Se utilizaron análisis bivariados y regresiones logísticas binarias para identificar los factores asociados con el uso y la reutilización. Resultados 3.981 (100%) personas participaron en el estudio. El uso de máscaras totalizó 95.5% (IC 95%: 94.8-96.1), particularmente las de tejido (72.7%; IC 95%: 71.3-74.1) y la quirúrgicas (27.8%; IC 95%: 26.5-29.2). El porcentaje de reutilización fue del 71,1% (IC 95%: 69,7-72,5). La mayoría (55.8%; IC 95%: 51.7-60.0) que usa exclusivamente una máscara quirúrgica la reutiliza. El género femenino y el contacto previo con personas con síntomas respiratorios aumentaron las posibilidades de uso (p≤0.001). Sin embargo, el sexo femenino disminuyó la posibilidad de reutilizar la máscara quirúrgica (p≤0.001). Conclusión casi todos los participantes informaron haber usado máscaras, siendo aquella de tejido más frecuente. Los hallazgos llaman la atención sobre una práctica arriesgada, la reutilización de la máscara quirúrgica y de papel. Las directrices, políticas públicas y estrategias educativas son necesarias para el desarrollo de prácticas asertivas en el control y la prevención del COVID-19.

Objetivo identificar os fatores associados à utilização e à reutilização de máscaras entre brasileiros durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Método estudo transversal desenvolvido nas cinco regiões brasileiras, entre adultos, via formulário eletrônico por meio de mídias sociais, contendo informações gerais e referentes à utilização de máscaras. Foram utilizadas análises bivariadas e regressões logísticas binárias para identificar fatores associados à utilização e à reutilização. Resultados participaram do estudo 3.981 (100%) pessoas. A utilização de máscaras totalizou 95,5%, (IC 95%: 94,8-96,1), com destaque para as de tecido (72,7%; IC 95%: 71,3-74,1) e as cirúrgicas (27,8%; IC 95%: 26,5-29,2). A porcentagem de reutilização foi de 71,1% (IC 95%: 69,7-72,5). A maioria (55,8%; IC 95%: 51,7-60,0) que usa, exclusivamente, máscara cirúrgica reutiliza-a. O sexo feminino e o contato prévio com pessoas com sintomas respiratórios aumentaram as chances de utilização (p≤0,001). Contudo, o sexo feminino diminuiu a possibilidade de reutilização da máscara cirúrgica (p≤0,001). Conclusão a quase totalidade dos participantes relatou utilizar máscaras, sendo mais recorrente a de tecido. Os achados chamam atenção para uma prática de risco, a reutilização da máscara cirúrgica e de papel. Diretrizes, políticas públicas e estratégias educativas são necessárias para o desenvolvimento de práticas assertivas no controle e prevenção da COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Equipment Reuse , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disease Prevention , Pandemics , Masks
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3306, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101703


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and associated factors in sugarcane cutters. Method: a cross-sectional, analytical study with 937 sugarcane cutters from Paraíba and Goiás, states of Brazil, respectively. An outcome variable was the positive results in some rapid tests for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. Bivariate and multiple analyses were performed to identify the association between these infections and sociodemographic and behavioral variables. Results: all participants were male, most were young adults and had low schooling. Prevalence of STI was estimated at 4.1% (95% CI: 3.0-5.5). According to multiple regression analysis, the variables age over 40 years (OR 5.0; CI 95%: 1.8-14), alcohol consumption (OR 3.9; CI 95%: 1.3-11.9), and illicit drugs (OR 2.9; CI 95%: 1.3-6.3) were factors associated with the STIs investigated. On the other hand, having some religion (OR 0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.8), and work in the Midwest Region (OR 0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.9) were factors negatively associated with these infections. Conclusion: presence of risk behaviors for STI among sugarcane cutters. Screening for these infections in groups of rural workers is essential for early diagnosis and breaking the chain of transmission.

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST) e fatores associados em cortadores de cana-de-açúcar. Método: estudo transversal, analítico, com 937 cortadores de cana-de-açúcar dos estados da Paraíba e de Goiás, no Brasil. Considerou-se como variável de desfecho a positividade em algum teste rápido para HIV, sífilis, hepatite B e C. Análises bivariada e múltipla foram realizadas para identificar associação entre essas infecções e variáveis sociodemográficas e comportamentais. Resultados: todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, a maioria eram adultos jovens e possuíam baixa escolaridade. Estimou-se uma prevalência para IST de 4,1%(IC 95%: 3,0-5,5). De acordo com a análise de regressão múltipla, variáveis como idade acima de 40 anos (OR 5,0; IC 95%: 1,8-14), consumo de álcool (OR 3,9; IC 95%: 1,3-11,9) e de drogas ilícitas (OR 2,9; IC 95%: 1,3-6,3) foram fatores associados às IST investigadas. Por outro lado, ter alguma religião (OR 0,4; IC 95%: 0,2-0,8) e trabalhar na Região Centro-Oeste (OR 0,4; IC 95%: 0,2-0,9) foram fatores associados negativamente a essas infecções. Conclusão: presença de comportamentos de risco para as IST entre os cortadores de cana-de-açúcar. O rastreio destas infecções em grupos de trabalhadores rurais é fundamental para diagnóstico precoce e quebra da cadeia de transmissão.

Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y factores asociados en cortadores de caña de azúcar. Método: estudio analítico transversal con 937 cortadores de caña de azúcar de los estados de Paraíba y Goiás, en Brasil. Se consideró como variable el resultado positivo en algunas pruebas rápidas para VIH, sífilis, hepatitis B y C. Se realizaron análisis bivariados y múltiples para identificar una asociación entre estas infecciones y las variables sociodemográficas y de comportamiento. Resultados: todos los participantes eran hombres, la mayoría eran adultos jóvenes con bajo índice de escolaridad. Se estimó una prevalencia de ITS de 4.1% (IC 95%: 3.0-5.5). Según el análisis de regresión múltiple, variables como edad superior a 40 años (OR 5.0; IC 95%: 1.8-14), consumo de alcohol (OR 3.9; IC 95%: 1.3- 11.9) y drogas ilícitas (OR 2.9; IC 95%: 1.3-6.3) fueron factores asociados a las ITS investigadas. Por otro lado, factores como tener alguna religión (OR 0.4; IC 95%: 0.2-0.8) y trabajar en la región Centro-Oeste (OR 0.4; IC 95%: 0.2-0.9) tuvieron una asociación negativa en relación a estas infecciones. Conclusión: se advirtió la presencia de comportamientos de riesgo para ITS entre cortadores de caña de azúcar. La detección de estas infecciones en grupos de trabajadores rurales es esencial para la detección temprana de diagnóstico y para romper la cadena de transmisión.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Saccharum , Farmers/statistics & numerical data
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 22: 1-9, 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145228


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a motivação para primeira experiência no uso de drogas e recaídas após abstinência por pessoas com dependência química induzida pelo crack. Estudo descritivo, de abordagem mista. Foram realizadas 600 entrevistas com a utilização de questionário estruturado, na etapa quantitativa, e oito grupos focais, na etapa qualitativa, com total de 39 participantes. Para análise de dados utilizou-se o software SPSS e o método de interpretação de sentidos. A curiosidade motivou a iniciação do uso de drogas, assim como a pressão dos amigos e problemas familiares. Já a dificuldade de ficar sem a droga, vontade de sentir o efeito novamente, pressão de amigos, problemas familiares, decepção pela desconfiança dos familiares e o uso de drogas na própria instituição de tratamento foram relatados como motivadores de recaída. Os dados em ambas as metodologias foram convergentes e ratificaram os resultados obtidos.

The aim of this study was to investigate the motivation for first-time drug use and relapses after abstinence of people with chemical dependency to crack cocaine. A descriptive study, with a mixed approach. In the quantitative phase, six hundred interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. In the qualitative phase, eight focus groups were created, with 39 total participants. SPSS software and the sense interpretation method were used to analyze the data. Curiosity, as well as peer pressure and family problems, motivated the initiation of drug use. Difficulty to live without the drug, desire to feel its effect again, peer pressure, family problems, disappointment in lack of trust of family members, and drug use at the rehabilitation institution were reported as relapse motivators. The data in both methodologies were convergent and confirmed the obtained results.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Crack Cocaine , Cocaine-Related Disorders/etiology
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 199-204, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039918


ABSTRACT Introduction: Carriers of oncohematological diseases are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Objective and method: To investigate the epidemiology of HBV infection in Goiânia, Central Brazil, 322 individuals with oncohematological diseases (leukemias, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were interviewed and blood samples were collected for the detection of serological markers of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Medical records of participants were also reviewed. Results: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (n = 99) and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 108) were the most frequent oncohematological diseases. The overall prevalence of HBV was 13.97% (45/322). Of the total participants, 8.69% (28/322) presented isolated positivity for anti-HBs, suggesting low vaccine coverage. HBV-DNA was detected in 25% (1/4) of HBsAg positive samples and in 25% (3/12) of anti-HBc isolated, suggesting HBV occult infection. All samples were identified as subgenotype A1. Entries in patient records and the findings of this investigation suggest anti-HBc seroconversion during oncologic treatment. Age 50 years or over and use of a central catheter during therapy were associated with HBV exposure. Conclusion: The low frequency of hepatitis B immunized individuals, detection of HBV DNA in HBsAg negative samples, and the suggestion of HBV exposure during treatment evidenced the potential for health-related viral dissemination in people with oncohematological diseases in our region, reinforcing the importance of serological monitoring, vaccination against hepatitis B, and adoption of strict infection control measures in these individuals.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Leukemia , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Lymphoma , Medical Oncology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 271-273, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039232


Abstract To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Central Brazil, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). All serum samples were tested for anti-HCV and also for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Anti-HCV positive samples and/or those with elevated ALT were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped. Of the 522 participants, four were found to be anti-HCV positive, and one was also HCV RNA positive (active HCV infection). Elevated ALT was found in 14 individuals. Of these, one showed evidence of acute HCV infection (HCV RNA positive and anti-HCV negative). Therefore, five MSM were positive for either anti-HCV and/or HCV RNA, giving a crude overall HCV prevalence of 1.0%; 1.3% (95% CI: 0.3-5.5) after being weighted by RDSAT. All five individuals reported high-risk sexual behaviors, including two who showed evidence of active HCV infection (genotype 1, subtypes 1a and 1b). Although the study population reported high-risk sexual practices, HCV infection was not more frequent in MSM than in the general Brazilian population.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 198-202, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041449


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and risk behaviors among 402 female sex workers in Central Brazil were investigated by respondent-driven sampling. METHODS: Blood samples were tested for hepatitis B and C markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hepatitis B vaccination schedules were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections were 9.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection was observed in 61.5% of subjects. There was no significant difference in adherence index (p=0.52) between vaccination schedules and all participants had protective antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: This hard-to-reach population requires hepatitis B and C surveillance.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(2): 114-118, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896437


Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the total participants (n=105), 27.6% (95CI 20.0-36.9%) had used illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, LSD and inhalants. The consumption of these substances was associated with male gender, use of body piercing and/or tattoos, licit drug use and self-report of signs and/or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion: High prevalence of illicit drug use was found in the individuals investigated, ratifying the presence of risk factors to the vulnerability of the settlers to use these substances in the urban settlement population.

Resumo Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência e fatores associados ao consumo de drogas ilícitas por adolescentes e adultos jovens de um assentamento urbano formal. Método: Estudo de corte transversal conduzido em adolescentes e adultos jovens de 12 a 24 anos de um assentamento urbano da região Centro-oeste do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário estruturado e analisados no programa Stata, versão 12.0. Utilizou-se modelo de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta para estimar os fatores associados ao uso de drogas ilícitas. Resultados: Do total de participantes (n = 105), 27,6% (IC95% 20,0-36,9%) reportaram uso de drogas ilícitas, como maconha, cocaína, crack, LSD e inalantes nos últimos 30 dias. O consumo dessas substâncias foi associado a sexo masculino, uso de body piercing e/ou tatuagem, consumo de drogas lícitas (álcool e/ou tabaco) e autorrelato de sinais e/ou sintomas de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. Conclusão: Verificou-se alta prevalência de consumo de drogas ilícitas nos indivíduos investigados, ratificando a presença de fatores de risco para uso dessas substâncias na população de assentamento urbano.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 675-679, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041425


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and associated factors were investigated in rural settlements in Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 464 settlers were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG/IgM. Positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (3.4%; 95% CI 2.0-5.7) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. None was positive for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was not detected. Dwelling in a rural settlement for >5 years was associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed the absence of acute infection and a low prevalence of previous exposure to HEV.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/surgery , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. enferm ; 70(3): 489-494, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-843674


ABSTRACT Objective: to assess predictive factors for noncompletion of the hepatitis B vaccination schedule in female sex workers in the city of Teresina, Northeastern Brazil. Method: 402 women were interviewed and, for those who did not wish to visit specialized sites, or did not know their hepatitis B vaccination status, the vaccine was offered at their workplaces. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. Results: of the 284 women eligible for vaccination, 258 (90.8%) received the second dose, 157/258 (60.8%) and 68/258 (26.3%) received the second and third doses, respectively. Working at clubs and consuming illicit drugs were predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. Conclusion: the high acceptability of the vaccine's first dose, associated with low completion rates of the vaccination schedule in sex workers, shows the need for more persuasive strategies that go beyond offering the vaccine at their workplaces.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar factores predictores del no completamiento del esquema de vacunación contra la hepatitis B en mujeres que se prostituyen en Teresina, noreste de Brasil. Método: Fueron entrevistadas 402 mujeres. Para las que se negaron a ir a lugares especializados o desconocían su situación de vacunación contra la hepatitis B, la vacuna fue ofrecida en lugar de trabajo. Fueron efectuados análisis multivariados para identificar potenciales predictores del no completamiento del esquema de vacunación. Resultados: de las 284 mujeres elegibles para vacunación, 258 (90,8%) recibieron primera dosis, 157/258 (60,8%) y 68/258 (26,3%) recibieron segunda y tercera dosis. Trabajar en burdeles y consumir drogas fueron factores predictores de no completamiento del esquema (p<0,05). Conclusión: La elevada aceptación de la primera dosis, asociada al bajo completamiento del esquema de vacunación en profesionales del sexo, evidencia necesidad de una estrategia más persuasiva, más allá de la oferta de vacunación en el lugar de trabajo.

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar fatores preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal contra hepatite B em mulheres que se prostituem em Teresina, Nordeste do Brasil. Método: Um total de 402 mulheres foi entrevistado e, para as que se negaram a irem a lugares especializados, ou desconheciam sua situação vacinal contra hepatite B, a vacina foi oferecida no local do trabalho. Análises bi e multivariadas foram realizadas para identificar potenciais preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal. Resultados: Das 284 mulheres elegíveis para vacinação, 258 (90,8%) receberam a primeira dose, 157/258 (60,8%) e 68/258 (26,3%) receberam a segunda e terceira doses. Trabalhar em boates e consumir drogas ilícitas foram preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal (p<0,05). Conclusão: A elevada aceitabilidade da primeira dose da vacina, associada à baixa completude do esquema vacinal em profissionais do sexo, evidencia a necessidade de estratégia mais persuasiva que vá além da oferta da vacina no local de trabalho.

Humans , Female , Adult , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence/psychology , Sex Workers/psychology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/psychology
Acta paul. enferm ; 30(1): 66-72, jan.-fev. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-837824


Resumo Objetivo Estimar a prevalência do marcador HBsAg em internos de sistema prisional brasileiro, correlacionando-a a fatores associados. Métodos Pesquisa epidemiológica, transversal, realizada nas unidades prisionais com regime fechado ou semiaberto (n=12), totalizando 2.131 internos participantes. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da realização de entrevista, seguida de testagem rápida para Hepatite B (HBsAg). Foram realizadas análises descritivas simples, bivariadas e multivariadas, utilizando-se a Regressão Logística com o valor de p fixado em 0,05. Resultados A prevalência de HBsAg positivo foi de 0,5%, com associação estatisticamente significativa com as variáveis “não gostar de utilizar preservativo” (ORa=3,63) e “não saber como prevenir infecções sexualmente transmissíveis” (ORa=5,02). Conclusão A prevalência estimada esteve igual ou menor que a encontrada na população geral do país e comprovou-se que existem fatores estatisticamente associados à prevalência de positividade do HBsAg na população estudada.

Abstract Objective To estimate the prevalence of HBsAg marker in prisoners of the Brazilian prison system, correlating it to associated factors. Methods An epidemiological, cross-sectional study was conducted in prison units with closed or semi-open regime (n=12), totaling 2,131 participant prisoners. Data were collected in an interview, followed by rapid testing for Hepatitis B (HBsAg). Simple, bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses were carried out, with the use of logistic regression with the p value settled at 0.05. Results The prevalence of positive HBsAg was 0.5%, with a statistically significant association with the variables “does not like to wear condoms” (ORa=3.63) and “does not know how to prevent sexually transmissible diseases” (ORa=5.02). Conclusion The estimated prevalence was equal to or lower than that found in the general population of the country and the results proved that there are factors statistically associated with the prevalence of HBsAg positivity in the studied population.

Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 51: e03274, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-956674


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência do vírus da imunodeficiência humana e fatores associados em internos de presídios de um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. Método: Estudo epidemiológico, transversal desenvolvido com presidiários. Realizou-se entrevista com uso de formulário e testes rápidos para o diagnóstico. Utilizou-se de testes de hipóteses bivariados e multivariados, com regressão logística simples (Odds ratio não ajustado) e múltipla (Odds ratio ajustado). O nível de significância foi fixado em p≤0,05. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 2.131 internos. A prevalência do vírus da imunodeficiência humana foi 1,0%. Os soropositivos são maioritariamente negros, em situação conjugal de solteiros/separados/viúvos, com média de idade de 31,3 anos e de escolaridade de 6,29 anos. Houve associação entre o vírus da imunodeficiência humana e as variáveis: selecionar parceiros por atributos físicos e praticar sexo por via vaginal. Conclusão: O enfrentamento da infecção pelo HIV representa desafio significativo para as autoridades penitenciárias e sanitárias, considerando-se que questões relacionadas ao contexto do vírus da imunodeficiência humana dentro e fora de ambientes prisionais estão interligadas e, portanto, demandam ação coordenada.

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze HIV prevalence and associated factors in inmates in a prison in a state in the Northeast region of Brazil. Method: Epidemiological, cross-sectional study carried out with prisoners. Interviews were conducted using a form and a rapid test for the diagnosis. Bivariate and multivariate hypothesis testing, with a simple logistic ratio (unadjusted odds ratio) and multiple ratio (adjusted odds ratio) were applied. Significance level was set at p≤0.05. Results: A total of 2,131 inmates participated in the study. The HIV prevalence was 1.0%. Seropositive individuals were mostly Afro-American; their marital status was predominantly single/separated/widower. The mean age was of 31.3 years, and the mean educational level was 6.29 years. There was a link between the HIV virus and the variables: selection of partners based on physical attributes and vaginal sexual intercourse. Conclusion: Tackling the HIV infection represents a major challenge for prison and sanitary authorities, considering that the issues related to the HIV context inside and outside the prison environment are interconnected and, therefore, demands coordinated action.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y factores asociados en internos de presidios de un Estado del Nordeste brasileño. Método: Estudio epidemiológico, transversal, desarrollado con presidiarios. Se realizó entrevista con empleo de formulario y pruebas rápidas para el diagnóstico. Se utilizaron pruebas de hipótesis bivariadas y multivariadas, con regresión logística simple (Odds ratio no ajustado) y múltiple (Odds ratio ajustado). Se fijó el nivel de significación en p≤0,05. Resultados: Participaron en el estudio 2.131 internos. La prevalencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana fue del 1,0%. Los seropositivos son mayoritariamente negros, en situación conyugal de solteros/separados/viudos, con promedio de edad de 31,3 años y de escolaridad de 6,29 años. Hubo asociación entre el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y las variables: seleccionar parejas por atributos físicos y practicar sexo por vía vaginal. Conclusión: El enfrentamiento de la infección por el VIH representa un reto significativo para las autoridades penitenciarias y sanitarias, considerándose que los temas relacionados con el marco del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana dentro y fuera de ambientes carcelarios están interconectados, por lo que demandan acción coordinada.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Prisoners , HIV , HIV Seropositivity , Health Services Accessibility , Prisons , Public Health Nursing
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 51: e03248, 2017. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-956626


Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing the factors related to perceived stigmatization of people living with HIV. METHOD A cross-sectional study conducted from September of 2014 to December 2015 with users from a specialized service in Minas Gerais. Data were collected through individual instrument application, organized in Microsoft Office Excel(r) 2010 spreadsheets and processed on IBM(r) SPSS 23.0. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression method were used for data analysis, adopting statistical significance set at 5.0% (p≤0.05). The study development met research ethics standards. RESULTS 258 users participated in the study. Most were males between 40 and 49 years of age, single, with low educational level and income. Being between 40 and 49 years of age and having been hospitalized for complications related to HIV were positively associated predictors to increased stigmatization; while not having comorbidities and not being aware of exposure to HIV were predictors associated to reduced stigmatization. CONCLUSION Given these results, we highlight that stigmatization can have an impact on the lives of people living with HIV, strengthening their feelings of guilt and shame, which can lead to depression, social isolation and abandoning treatment and clinical follow-up.

Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar os fatores relacionados com a estigmatização percebida de pessoas vivendo com HIV. MÉTODO Estudo transversal realizado de setembro de 2014 a dezembro de 2015 com usuários de um Serviço de Assistência Especializado em Minas Gerais. Os dados foram coletados por meio da aplicação individual do instrumento, organizados em planilhas do Microsoft Office Excel(r) 2010 e processados no IBM(r) SPSS 23.0. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se de estatística descritiva e método de regressão linear múltipla, adotando significância estatística fixada em 5,0% (p≤0,05). O desenvolvimento do estudo atendeu às normas de ética em pesquisa. RESULTADOS Participaram do estudo 258 usuários. Predominaram os homens, a faixa etária de 40 a 49 anos, solteiros, de baixa escolaridade e renda. Ter idade de 40 a 49 anos e ter sido internado por complicações do HIV foram preditores associados positivamente ao aumento da estigmatização, e não apresentar comorbidades e desconhecer a exposição ao HIV foram preditores associados à diminuição da estigmatização. CONCLUSÃO Diante destes resultados, evidencia-se que a estigmatização pode impactar a vida de pessoas vivendo com HIV reforçando sentimentos de culpa e vergonha, o quais poderão acarretar depressão, isolamento social e interrupção do tratamento e seguimento clínico.

Resumen OBJETIVO Analizar los factores relacionados con la estigmatización percibida de personas que viven con el VIH. MÉTODO Estudio transversal realizado de septiembre de 2014 a diciembre de 2015 con usuarios de un Servicio de Asistencia Especializada en Minas Gerais. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de la aplicación individual del instrumento, organizados en hojas de cálculo de Microsoft Office Excel(r) 2010 y procesados en IBM(r) SPSS 23.0. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva y método de regresión lineal múltiple, adoptando significancia estadística fijada en 5,0% (p≤0,05). El desarrollo del estudio atendió a las normas de ética en investigación. RESULTADOS Participaron del estudio 258 usuarios. Predominaron los hombres, el grupo de edad de 40 a 49 años, solteros, de baja escolaridad y renta. La edad de 40 a 49 años y haber sido internado por complicaciones del VIH fueron predictores asociados positivamente al aumento de la estigmatización, y no presentar comorbilidades y desconocer la exposición al VIH fueron predictores asociados a la disminución de la estigmatización. CONCLUSIÓN Ante estos resultados, se evidencia que la estigmatización puede impactar la vida de personas que viven con el VIH reforzando sentimientos de culpa y vergüenza, que pueden acarrear depresión, aislamiento social e interrupción del tratamiento y seguimiento clínico.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Social Stigma , Public Health Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 19:, 20170000. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-910063


Objetivou investigar e comparar o conhecimento sobre saúde sexual e reprodutiva, e fontes de informação, entre adolescentes de escolas públicas de Goiânia-Goiás. Estudo de corte transversal realizado com 2449 escolares. Os dados do questionário auto aplicável foram analisados pelo Statistical Package Social Science, versão 13.0. As diferenças entre as proporções foram analisadas pelos testes de c2 e nível de significância (p<0,05). Observou-se diferença estatística entre os sexos considerando o conhecimento sobre Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis e métodos de prevenção às IST e contracepção (p<0,000), também, adolescentes do sexo masculino apresentaram maior risco de exposição a relações sexuais sem preservativo (p<0,000). Em relação à aquisição de métodos preventivos para IST e contracepção, mulheres demonstraram mais conhecimento de locais de acesso aos dispositivos, bem como buscavam em variadas fontes, informações acerca de conteúdos relacianados à saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Conclui-se que adolescentes do sexo masculino apresentaram maior perfil de vulnerabilidade social e individual.

The objective was to investigate and compare sexual and reproductive knowledge and sources of information, between public school adolescents from Goiânia-Goiás. A cross-sectional study conducted with 2,449 students. We analyzed data from the self-reported questionnaire using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 13.0. We investigated the differences between proportions using c2 tests and a significance level (p<0.05). We observed a statistical difference between sex considering the knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Infections and, STI and contraception prevention (p<0.000). Additionally, male adolescents presented higher exposure risk to sexual relations without preservative (p<0.000). About the acquisition of preventive methods for STIs and contraception, women were more knowledgeable about access to devices, as well as; they searched different sources and content information about sexual and reproductive health. We concluded that male adolescents presented higher social and individual vulnerability profiles.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent Health , Sexual and Reproductive Health , Health Vulnerability
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 19: 1-10, 20170000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-834016


Estudo com objetivo de estimar a prevalência e fatores associados ao uso de preservativo masculino em adolescentes e jovens de áreas de assentamento urbano de uma capital do centro-oeste brasileiro. Investigação de corte transversal, realizada em 105 adolescentes e jovens escolares de 12 a 24 anos, utilizando-se questionário estruturado. Do total de entrevistados, 61 (58,1%) haviam iniciado a vida sexual e destes, apenas 38,3% relataram uso regular do preservativo. Escolaridade acima de seis anos (p=0,02), acesso a informação sobre sexualidade com os pais (p=0,05) e na escola (p=0,04) foram fatores associados ao uso do preservativo. Os resultados deste estudo ratificam a importância de investimento em políticas de saúde que invistam no trabalho conjunto entre profissionais de saúde, família e instituições de ensino, visando minimizar a vulnerabilidade às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis.

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the use of male condoms in adolescents and young adults from urban settlement areas in a city of central-western Brazil. This is a cross-sectional investigation with 105 adolescents and young students aged 12 to 24 years, which used a structured questionnaire. Of the total number of interviewees, 61 (58.1%) had started their sexual life; of these, only 38.3% reported regular condom use. Education over six years (p=0.02), access to sexuality information with parents (p=0.05) and at school (p=0.04) were factors associated with condom use. The results confirm the importance of investing in health policies that invest in working together among healthcare professionals, families and educational institutions, in order to minimize the vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adolescent Medicine , Community Health Nursing , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , Student Health
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(7): e00109216, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889724


Data are limited in Brazil on hepatitis B infection among homeless individuals, a marginalized population with high risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI), including hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis B epidemiology in homeless persons lodged in a public shelter in Goiânia, Central Brazil. From August 2014 to June 2015, 353 individuals were interviewed and tested for markers of HBV infection. Overall HBV prevalence was 21.8% (95%CI: 17,82-26,41), and 19,5% (95%CI: 15,75-24,0) showed a serological profile of previous HBV vaccination. Older individuals (> 50 years), blacks, and homosexuals or bisexuals showed increased exposure to HBV. The low frequency of individuals immunized against HBV, high social vulnerability, and risk behaviors emphasize the need for health services administrators to provide more opportunities for HBV vaccination in this target population.

No Brasil, existem poucos dados sobre a infecção por hepatite B entre pessoas em situação de rua, uma população marginalizada com alto risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST), incluindo a hepatite B. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a epidemiologia da hepatite B em pessoas alojadas em um abrigo público da cidade de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junho de 2015, 353 indivíduos foram entrevistados e testados para os marcadores da infecção pelo HBV. Uma prevalência global de 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV foi estimado, e 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) apresentaram perfil sorológico de vacinação prévia contra o HBV. Ser mais velho (acima de 50 anos de idade), preto e homossexual ou bissexual foram preditores de exposição ao HBV. A baixa frequência de indivíduos imunizados contra o HBV, bem como de alta vulnerabilidade social e ocorrência de comportamentos de risco reforçam a necessidade dos gestores de saúde proporcionar mais oportunidades de vacinação para esta população-alvo.

En Brasil, existen pocos datos sobre la infección por hepatitis B entre personas sin techo, una población marginalizada con un alto riesgo de infecciones sexualmente transmisibles (IST), incluyendo la hepatitis B. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la epidemiología de la hepatitis B en personas alojadas en un albergue público de la ciudad de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junio de 2015, se entrevistó a 353 individuos y se probaron los marcadores de la infección por HBV. Se estimó una prevalencia global de un 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV, y 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) presentaron un perfil serológico de vacunación previa contra el HBV. Ser más viejo (por encima de 50 años de edad), negro y homosexual o bisexual fueron predictores de exposición al HBV. La baja frecuencia de individuos inmunizados contra el HBV, así como la alta vulnerabilidad social y ocurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo refuerzan la necesidad de los gestores de salud de proporcionar más oportunidades de vacunación para esta población-objetivo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/etiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Middle Aged
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903235


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and C virus infections and their genotypes and analyze the risk factors for the markers of exposure to hepatitis B virus in female sex workers in a region of intense sex trade. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study performed with four hundred and two female sex workers in Goiânia, Brazil. Data have been collected using the Respondent-Driven Sampling. The women have been interviewed and tested for markers of hepatitis B and C viruses. Positive samples have been genotyped. The data have been analyzed using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool, version 5.3, and Stata 11.0. RESULTS The adjusted prevalence for hepatitis B virus and C virus were 17.1% (95%CI 11.6-23.4) and 0.7% (95%CI 0.1-1.5), respectively. Only 28% (95%CI 21.1-36.4) of the participants had serological evidence of vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Being older (> 40 years), being single, having a history of blood transfusion and use of cocaine, and ignoring the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were associated with positivity for hepatitis B virus (p < 0.05). We have detected the subgenotype A1 of hepatitis B virus (n = 3) and the subtypes of hepatitis C virus 1a (n = 3) and 1b (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS We can observe a low prevalence of infection of hepatitis B and C viruses in the studied population. However, the findings of the analysis of the risk factors show the need for more investment in prevention programs for sexual and drug-related behavior, as well as more efforts to vaccinate this population against hepatitis B. The genotypes of the hepatitis B virus and C virus identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/blood , Genotype , Hepatitis B/blood
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(11): 692-696, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829249


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG) by ELISA. Positive samples were confirmed using immunoblot test. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. Of the 379 serum samples, one (0.3%) and 20 (5.3%) were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgG, respectively. HEV RNA was not found in any sample positive for IgM and/or IgG anti-HEV. After multivariate analysis, low education level was independently associated with HEV seropositivity (p = 0.005), as well as living in rural area, with a borderline p-value (p = 0.056). In conclusion, HEV may be responsible for sporadic self-limited cases of acute hepatitis in Central Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E/immunology , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies