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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1578-1588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970630

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of n-butanol alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice based on the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome via PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis. In the experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into the following six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups(80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and a fluconazole group(20 mg·kg~(-1)). The VVC model was induced in mice except for those in the blank control group by the estrogen dependence method. After modeling, no treatment was carried out in the blank control group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups were treated with BAEB at 80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1), respectively, and those in the fluconazole group were treated with fluconazole at 20 mg·kg~(-1). The mice in the VVC model group received the same volume of normal saline. The general state and body weight of mice in each group were observed every day, and the morphological changes of Candida albicans in the vaginal lavage of mice were examined by Gram staining. The fungal load in the vaginal lavage of mice was detected by microdilution assay. After the mice were killed, the degree of neutrophil infiltration in the vaginal lavage was detected by Papanicolaou staining. The content of inflammatory cytokines interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in the vaginal lavage was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and vaginal histopathology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression and distribution of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry(IHC), and the expression and distribution of pNLRC4 and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were detected by immunofluorescence(IF). The protein expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by Western blot(WB), and the mRNA expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed redness, edema, and white secretions in the vagina. Compared with the VVC model group, the BAEB groups showed improved general state of VVC mice. As revealed by Gram staining, Papanicolaou staining, microdilution assay, and HE staining, compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed a large number of hyphae, neutrophils infiltration, and increased fungal load in the vaginal lavage, destroyed vaginal mucosa, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. BAEB could reduce the transformation of C. albicans from yeast to hyphae. High-dose BAEB could significantly reduce neutrophil infiltration and fungal load. Low-and medium-dose BAEB could reduce the da-mage to the vaginal tissue, while high-dose BAEB could restore the damaged vaginal tissues to normal levels. ELISA results showed that the content of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and LDH in the VVC model group significantly increased compared with that in the blank control group, and the content of IL-1β, IL-18 and LDH in the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the VVC model group. WB and qRT-PCR results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed reduced protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues of mice and increased protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3. Compared with the VVC model group, the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups showed up-regulated protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues and inhibited protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3 in vaginal tissues. This study indicated that the therapeutic effect of BAEB on VVC mice was presumably related to the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by promoting PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Humans , Mice , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Inflammasomes/genetics , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , 1-Butanol/pharmacology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Candida albicans , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ethanol , RNA, Messenger , Calcium-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3366-3378, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999088

ABSTRACT

Yinchenzhufu decoction (YCZFD) is a classic formula for treating Yin Huang syndrome, which can improve liver injury caused by cholestasis. However, the mechanism of action of YCZFD still remains unclear. This article used network pharmacology, molecular docking, animal experiments, and molecular biology methods to explore the mechanism of YCZFD in treating liver injury caused by cholestasis. A mouse model of acute cholestasis induced by lithocholic acid was used to investigate the effects of YCZFD on liver injury. The experimental procedures described in this paper were reviewed and approved by the Ethical Committee at the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval NO. PZSHUTCM190823002). The results showed that YCZFD could reduce the levels of blood biochemical indicators and improve hepatocyte damage of cholestatic mice. Then, multiple databases were used to predict the corresponding targets of YCZFD active components on cholestatic liver injury. An intersection target protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks based on String database and Cytoscape software was used to demonstrate the possible core targets of YCZFD against cholestatic liver injury. The results indicated that core targets of YCZFD include tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1β, non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src, interleukin-6, etc. GO (gene ontology) and KEGG (kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) enrichment analysis indicated that YCZFD may regulate the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway, bile secretion, and other related factors to ameliorate the cholestatic liver injury. AutoDockTools software was used to perform molecular docking verification on the core targets and components of YCZFD. To verify the results of network pharmacology, UPLC-MS/MS method was used to determine the effect of YCZFD on levels of bile acid profiles in mouse liver tissues. It was found that treatment with YCZFD significantly reduced the content of free bile acids, taurine bound bile acids, and total bile acids in the liver tissues of cholestatic mice. Then, results from real time PCR and Western blot also found that YCZFD can upregulate the expression of hepatic nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor, metabolizing enzyme (UDP glucuronidase transferase 1a1), and efflux transporters (bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, etc) in cholestasis mice, promote bile acid metabolism and excretion, and improve bile acid homeostasis. Moreover, YCZFD can also inhibit pyroptosis and inflammation by regulating NOD-like receptors 3 pathway, thereby inhibiting cholestatic liver injury.

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2516-2524, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , 1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5372-5381, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921684

ABSTRACT

Due to the limited resource of bear bile powder, the major raw material of Tanreqing Capsules(TRQ), cultured bear bile powder is used as a replacement to develop the Tanreqing Capsules Substitute(TRQS). An LC-MS/MS method was established in this study for simultaneous quantitation of 8 compounds from TRQS in rat plasma: tauroursodeoxycholic acid(TUDCA), taurocheno-deoxycholic acid(TCDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), ferulic acid, wogonoside, baicalin, and forsythoside A. Thereby, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of TRQ and TRQS were evaluated. Concentration of endogenous compounds TUDCA, TCDCA, UDCA, and CDCA was determined with the stable isotope surrogate analytes: D4-TUDCA, D4-TCDCA, D4-UDCA, and D4-CDCA. Plasma samples were extracted by acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation. The LC conditions are as follows: Waters BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase of 10 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate aqueous solution(containing 0.01% formic acid) and acetonitrile-methanol mixture(1∶5). MS conditions are as below: multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), ESI~(+/-). Concentration of UDCA, CDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA was corrected with a response factor, which is the ratio between the responses recorded for the surrogate and the authentic analyte at the equal concentration. Each of the plasma components showed good linearity(r > 0.995 1). Accuracy and precision met the criteria(inter-day RSD<7.0%, RE 89.98%-112.0%; intra-day RSD<12%, RE 90.41%-111.2%). The recovery was 64.83%-119.9% and matrix effect was 87.15%-113.8%. The validated method was applied for pharmacokinetic study of TRQS and TRQ(po, 0.94 g·kg~(-1)). There was no significant difference in C_(max) and AUC_(0-24 h) of baicalin, UDCA, TUDCA, and TCDCA between the two groups, indicating similar pharmacokinetic behaviors between TRQS and TRQ in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Capsules , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3915-3925, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888117

ABSTRACT

This study explored the mechanism of Sanhuang Decoction(SHD) in treating dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC) in mice with Candida albicans(Ca) colonization via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Specifically, the animal model was established by oral administration of 3.0% DSS for 7 days followed by intragastrical administration of Ca suspension at 1.0 × 10~8 cells for 4 days and then the mice were treated with SHD enema for 7 days. Afterwards, the general signs were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) was recorded every day. After mice were sacrificed, colon length and colon mucosa damage index(CMDI) were determined and the histomorphology was observed with the HE staining method. The fungal loads of feces were detected with the plate method. Anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody(ASCA) and β-1,3-glucan in serum, and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and colon were detected by ELISA. High-throughput RNA sequencing method was adopted to identify transcriptome of colon tissues from the control, model and SHD(15.0 g·kg~(-1)) groups. Differentially expressed genes(DEGs) among groups were screened and the GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed. The expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1β genes related to the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway which involved 9 DEGs, were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The results demonstrated that SHD improved the general signs, decreased DAI and Ca loads of feaces, alleviated colon edema, erosion, and shortening, and lowered the content of β-1,3-glucan in serum and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and colon tissues of mice. Transcriptome sequencing revealed 383 DEGs between SHD and model groups, which were mainly involved in the biological processes of immune system, response to bacterium, and innate immune response. They were mainly enriched in the NOD-like signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine interaction pathway, and retinol metabolism pathway. Moreover, SHD down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. In a word, SHD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in mice colonized with Ca, which probably relates to its regulation of NOD-like receptor signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Candida albicans/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Transcriptome
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4201-4207, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888081

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate the effects of the main components(aesculin, berberine hydrochloride, and anemoside B4) in the butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on the chemotaxis of neutrophils induced by dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO). HL60 cells were cultivated in RPMI-1640 complete medium, and transferred into a 6-well plate(2 × 10~5 per mL) with 4 mL in each well, followed by incubation with DMSO at 1.3% for five days. The morphologic changes of cells were observed under an inverted microscope. The CD11 b expression after DMSO induction was analyzed by flow cytometry. The effects of aesculin, berberine hydrochloride, and anemoside B4 on the cell proliferation and migration were detected by CCK8 assay and Transwell assay, respectively. The effects of the main components on the production and polarization of F-actin protein were also examined by flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy. PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway was checked by Western blot. As revealed by the results, neutrophil-like HL60 cells were observed after DMSO induction. The CD11 b expression in these cells increased significantly as indicated by the flow cytometry. Additionally, 100 μg·mL~(-1) aesculin, 8 μg·mL~(-1) berberine hydrochloride, and 80 μg·mL~(-1) anemoside B4 were potent in inhibiting the migration of neutrophils and reducing F-actin expression. Berberine hydrochloride was verified to be capable of diminishing phosphorylated PI3 K/Akt protein expression. The findings indicate that aesculin, anemoside B4, and especially berberine hydrochloride in the BAEB can inhibit the chemotaxis of neutrophils, which is possibly achieved by the inhibition of F-actin and PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Berberine/pharmacology , Chemotaxis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Neutrophils
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 155-161, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878924

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the cell wall integrity of Candida albicans hypha. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of berberine hydrochloride against clinical and standard C. albicans strains was detected by micro liquid-based dilution method; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the colony formation of C. albicans SC5314 was investigated by spot assay; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the metabolism of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was checked by XTT reduction assay, and the viability of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was tested by fluorescent staining assay. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on the morphology of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was examined by scanning electron microscope. The changes in the cell wall of C. albicans SC5314 hypha after berberine hydrochloride treatment were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on β-glucan from C. albicans SC5314 was detected by flow cytometry. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase genes FKS1 and FKS2 in C. albicans was examined by qRT-PCR. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride showed a strong inhibitory effect on both clinical and standard strains of C. albicans, and the MIC was 64-128 μg·mL~(-1). Spot assay, XTT redunction assay and fluorescent staining assay showed that with the increase of berberine hydrochloride concentration, the viability of C. albicans SC5314 gradually decreased. The transmission electron microscopy scanning assay showed that this compound could cause cell wall damage of C. albicans. The flow cytometry analysis showed the exposure degree of C. albicans β-glucan. The qRT-PCR further showed that berberine hydrochloride could significantly down-regulate hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase-related gene FKS1 and FKS2. In conclusion, this compound can down-regulate C. albicans and β-glucan synthase-related gene expressions, so as to destroy the cell wall structure of C. albicans, expose β-glucan and damage the integrity of the wall.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Berberine/pharmacology , Candida albicans/genetics , Cell Wall , Hyphae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 361-366, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008345

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on neutrophil chemotaxis in vaginal mucosa of mice with vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC). Seventy-two SPF female Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, fluconazole group, BAEB low-dose group, middle-dose group and high-dose group. Subcutaneous injection of estradiol benzoate was conducted to induce pseudo-estrus, and then 2×10~6 CFU·mL~(-1)of Candida albicans was inoculated into vaginal lumen, followed by drug treatment for 7 days. Gram staining was used to observe the morphological changes of C. albicans in vagina; vaginal fungal load was detected on agar plate. Histological changes of vaginal tissues in mice were observed by HE staining. Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α) levels in mouse lavage fluid were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Neutrophils in vaginal lavage fluid was observed and counted by using Pap smear. The levels of IL-8 and MIP-2 in vaginal mucosa were detected by ELISA. IL-8 and MIP-2 mRNA levels in vaginal mucosa of mice were detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that as compared with the normal group, VVC model group had a large number of hyphae and a high level of fungal loadinvagina. The vaginal mucosa was completely destroyed, the number of neutrophils increased, and the protein and mRNA levels of IL-8 and MIP-2 were up-regulated. After BAEB treatment, the hyphae of the treatment group was decreased, the fungal load was decreased, the impaired mucosa showed different degrees of improvement, the inflammatory factors were decreased to varying degrees, and the protein and mRNA levels of chemokine IL-8 and MIP-2 were down-regulated. In conclusion, BAEB may be used to treat VVC by inhibiting vulvovaginal candidiasis via blocking neutrophils recruitment into vagina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , 1-Butanol , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Chemotaxis/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Mucous Membrane/drug effects , Neutrophils/drug effects , Vagina/diagnostic imaging
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3211-3219, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827996

ABSTRACT

To observe the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde on dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC) with Can-dida albicans(Ca) colonization and its effect on dectin-1/TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway in mice. C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group, DSS group, DSS+Ca group, cinnamaldehyde group and mesalazine group. Mice in DSS+Ca group were given Ca(1×10~8 CFU per mouse) through intragastrical administration for 4 consecutive days and then distilled water with 3.0% DSS for 7 consecutive days. In cinnamaldehyde group and mesalazine group, in addition to the induction method of the DSS+Ca group, mice were given 75 mg·kg~(-1) cinnamaldehyde and 200 mg·kg~(-1) mesalazine accompanied with 3.0% DSS for 7 consecutive days, respectively. Mice in normal group and DSS group were correspondingly administered with distilled water. The general conditions of the mice were observed daily, the diseased activity index(DAI) score was calculated, and fungal loads of feces were detected by plate method. The mice were sacrificed on day 12, colon length was measured, colon mucosa damage index(CMDI) score was calculated, and histopathological analysis was carried out by HE staining. Anti-saccharomces cerevisiae antibody(ASCA) and β-1,3-glucan in serum, and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in serum and colon tissue were detected by ELISA. The contents of β-1,3-glucan and macrophage infiltration in colon tissues were examined by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of dectin-1, TLR2, TLR4 and NF-κB were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. The results showed that cinnamaldehyde could significantly improve the general conditions of UC mice with Ca colonization, decrease DAI and histopathological scores, reduce intestinal mucosal congestion, erosion and colon shortening, decrease Ca load in mouse feces and tissues, down-regulate the contents of ASCA and β-1,3-glucan in serum, reduce the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and increase IL-10 in serum and colon tissues, inhibit macrophages infiltration and down-regulate the protein expression of dectin-1, TLR2, TLR4 and NF-κB in colon tissue. These results suggested that cinnamaldehyde had a therapeutic effect on UC mice with Ca colonization, which might be related to the inhibition of Ca proliferation, the regulation of dectin-1/TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathways and the coordination of the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acrolein , Candida albicans , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Lectins, C-Type , NF-kappa B , Signal Transduction
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 350-356, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774597

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction( BAEB) on Candida albicans biofilms based on pH signal pathway. The morphology of biofilms of the pH mutants was observed by scanning electron microscope. The biofilm thickness of the pH mutants was measured by CLSM. The biofilm activity of the pH mutants was analyzed by microplate reader.The biofilm damage of the pH mutants was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of pH mutant biofilm-related genes was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the deletion of PHR1 gene resulted in the defect of biofilm,but there were more substrates for PHR1 complementation. BAEB had no significant effect on the two strains. RIM101 gene deletion or complementation did not cause significant structural damage,but after BAEB treatment,the biofilms of both strains were significantly inhibited. For the biofilm thickness,PHR1 deletion or complementation caused the thickness to decrease,after BAEB treatment,the thickness of the two strains did not change significantly. However,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation had little effect on the thickness,and the thickness of the two strains became thinner after adding BAEB. For biofilm activity,PHR1 deletion or complementation and RIM101 deletion resulted in decreased activity,RIM101 complementation did not change significantly; BAEB significantly inhibited biofilm activity of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complemetation,RIM101 deletion and RIM101 complemetation strains. For the biofilm damage,PHR1 gene deletion or complementation,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation all showed different degrees of damage; after adding BAEB,the damage rate of PHR1 deletion or complementation was not significantly different,but the damage rate of RIM101 deletion or complementation was significantly increased. Except to the up-regulation of HSP90 gene expression,ALS3,SUN41,HWP1,UME6 and PGA10 genes of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complementation,RIM101 deletion,and RIM101 complementation strains showed a downward expression trend. In a word,this study showed that mutations in PHR1 and RIM101 genes in the pH signaling pathway could enhance the sensitivity of the strains to the antifungal drug BAEB,thus inhibiting the biofilm formation and related genes expression in C. albicans.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Biofilms , Candida albicans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fungal Proteins , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 125-130, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771507

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of extract of Coptidis Rhizoma(ECR) on invasion of Candida albicans hyphae in vitro.XTT reduction method was used to evaluate the metabolic activity of C.albicans.The colony edge growth of C.albicans was observed by solid medium.The growth of C.albicans hyphae was determined on semi-solid medium.The morphology and viability changes of C.albicans hyphae were assessed by scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscope.qRT-PCR method was used to detect the ALS3 and SSA1 expression of C.albicans invasin genes.The results showed that the metabolic viability by XTT method detected that the activity of C.albicans was gradually decreased under the intervention of 64,128 and 256 mg·L-1 of ECR respectively.128,256 mg·L-1 of ECR significantly inhibited colony folds and wrinkles on solid medium and the hyphal invasion in semi-solid medium.Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed that 128,256 mg·L-1 of ECR could inhibit the formation of C.albicans hyphae.qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of invasin gene ALS3 and SSA1 was down-regulated,and especially 256 mg·L-1 of ECR could down-regulate the two genes expression by 4.8,1.68 times respectively.This study showed that ECR can affect the invasiveness of C.albicans by inhibiting the growth of hyphae and the expression of invasin.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases , Genetics , Candida albicans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Hyphae , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2979-2984, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687358

ABSTRACT

To investigate the mechanism of n-butanol extract of Pulsatilla decoction (BAEB) against murine ulcerative colitis (UC) model induced by DSS combined with Candida albicans (CA) colonization, mice were randomly divided into normal control group, DSS group, DSS+CA group, BAEB high, medium and low dose group, and positive drug Mesalazine group. The general condition of mice was observed, fungal loads of murine intestinal contents were detected by plate method, colonic pathological change of mice was examined by HE staining. ASCA in serum and IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, HBD-2, HBD-3 in colonic mucosa were detected by ELISA. The results showed that, compared with DSS group, the general condition and ASCA in serum had no obvious change for DSS+CA group, but the fungal loads in intestinal contents, the colonic pathological damage, and the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, HBD-2, HBD-3 in colonic mucosa were greater than that of DSS group. High dose of BAEB group and Mesalazine group could improve the colonic pathology, decrease IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, HBD-2, HBD-3 expression level. In conclusion, BAEB could effectively improve the UC symptoms in mice induced by DSS combined with CA colonization, and inhibit the inflammatory factors such as IL-6, imply that BAEB is of important value for the treatment of intestinal fungal-related colitis.

13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3182-3190, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335876

ABSTRACT

To study the inhibitory effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction(BAEB) on Candida albicans cell membrane. The effects of BAEB on the activity of C. albicans were observed by Spot assay. The changes of intracellular osmotic pressure of C. albicans after BAEB intervention were detected by microtiter plate reader. The effect of BAEB on cell membrane permeability of C. albicans were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The content of ergosterol in C. albicans cell membrane was detected by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression of ergosterol biosynthesis related genes in cell membrane was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the activity of C. albicans was significantly decreased in 256, 512 and 1 024 mg•L⁻¹ BAEB group. The intracellular glycerol content of C. albicans was significantly increased in 512 and 1 024 mg•L⁻¹ BAEB group(P<0.05). The gene HOG1 associated with intracellular osmotic pressure of C. albicans was down-regulated by 9.1, 9.3 and 5.5 times, respectively. C. albicans with red fluorescent were increased significantly in 512 and 1 024 mg•L⁻¹ BAEB group. The peak area of ergosterol in the 1 024 mg•L⁻¹ BAEB group was 35.884 95, with a significant difference(P<0.05); ERG1, ERG2, ERG3, ERG4, ERG5, ERG6, ERG10, ERG11, ERG13, ERG24, ERG25, ERG251, ERG26 and UPC2 were down-regulated by 6.58, 4.89, 4.15, 9.24,3.41, 9.84, 3.08, 7.50, 5.53, 5.90, 2.45, 3.25,1.98 and 10.07 times respectively in 1 024 mg•L⁻¹ BAEB group. The study indicated that BAEB could inhibit ergosterol and its biosynthesis related genes expression in the cell membrane and inhibit the activity of C. albicans.

14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3572-3577, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335817

ABSTRACT

To explore the activity of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi (AAEO) in inducing the apoptosis of Candida albicans SC5314. The effect of AAEO on reactive oxygen species(ROS) and mitochondria membrane potential(MMP) of C. albicans SC5314 was detected by flow cytometry. Phosphatidylserine externalization was observed under fluorescence microscopic with Annexin-V/PI staining at the early stage of apoptosis in C. albicans. Metacaspase activity was observed under fluorescence microscopic with FITC-VAD-FMK staining at the early stage of apoptosis in C. albicans. C. albicans morphology was observed by DAPI nuclear staining and fluorescence microscopy. After intervention with 0.5 mL•L⁻¹ AAEO, apoptosis of C. albicans significantly increased, metacaspase activity increased, nuclear pyknosis and fragmentation, and intracellular ROS were significantly increased, and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased significantly. The certain concentrations of AAEO could induce the apoptosis of C. albicans.

15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4201-4206, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335721

ABSTRACT

To investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of chloroform extracts from Longdan Xiegan decoction(CELX) against hydrolytic enzymes activity of Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) patients. Secreted aspartyl proteinase(Sap), phospholipase(PL) and lipase(Lip) positive strains were identified from 15 strains of C. albicans with milk culture medium, egg yolk culture medium and tween-80 medium, respectively. Then, the activities of Sap, PL, and Lip were detected in the above media. qRT-PCR was used to detect the changes in gene expressions of aspartic protease(SAP1-7,10), phospholipase B(PLB1-2) and lipase(LIP3-6). Secreted aspartyl proteinase and phospholipase of 15 VVC clinical strains were positive, and lipase of 11 strains were positive. Compared with the blank control group, the drug CELX-containing medium(milk medium, egg yolk culture medium, tween-80 medium) experiment showed that the sedimentation of colonies decreased gradually in each culture medium with the increase of CELX dose. When the concentration of CELX was 256 mg•L⁻¹, the colony almost disappeared, which indicated the enzyme activity was significantly weakened. The results of qRT-PCR showed that SAP1, SAP2, SAP3, SAP4, SAP7, SAP9 and SAP10 were down-regulated by 62%, 55%, 62%, 84%, 61%, 51%, 68%, respectively, except for SAP5 and SAP6; and PLB1, LIP3, LIP4, LIP6 were down-regulated by 67%, 51%, 54%, 55%, respectively. The findings suggested that CELX may inhibit the activities of Sap, PL, and Lip, which are important virulence factors of C. albicans.

16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 516-521, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330244

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate anti-attachment effect of ethyl acetate extract of Huanglian Jiedu decoction (EAHD) on Candida glabrata.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Serial 2-fold dilution assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations MICs of EAHD to C. glabrata. XTT assay was used to evaluate the effect of EAHD against adhesion of C. glabrata. Inverted microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining were applied to observe the morphological changes of C. glabrata in adhesion. PCR was adopted to inspect the expression of attachment-related genes such as EPA1, EPA6 and EPA7.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The MIC of EAHD and fluconazole to C. glabrata were 320 mg · L(-1) and 1 mg · L(-1) respectively. The total cells including budding cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner following EAHD treatment. The expressions of EPA1, EPA6 and EPA7 were downregulated dramatically after EAHD treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EAHD could effectively inhibit adherence of C. glabrata.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetates , Candida glabrata , Physiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Lectins , Genetics , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 710-715, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330173

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction ( BAEB) on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in alkaline pH.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Serial 2-fold dilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Baitouweng decoction extracts against C. albicans isolates from VVC, XTT assay was applied to determine the metabolic activity of C. albicans hypha treated by BAEB for 6 h. The morphological change of C. albicans treated by BAEB was inspected at different pH by inverted microscope, fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solid agar plate and semi-solid agar were utilized to evaluate colony morphology and invasive growth of C. albicans, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was adopted to observe the expressions of hyphae-specific genes including HWP1, ALS3, CSH1, SUN41 and CaPDE2.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The MIC of BAEB against C. albicans is less than that of other extracts; hyphae grow best at pH 8. 0; 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB could inhibit formation of hyphae and influence colony morphology. When treated by 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became smooth; while by 0 and 256 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became wrinkled. In semi-solid agar, the length of hyphae decreased steadily as the concentration of BAEB lowered. The expression of HWP1, ALS3, CSHl, SUN41 were downregulated by 5.12, 4.26, 3.2 and 2.74 folds, and CaPDE2 was upregulated by 2.38 fold.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BAEB could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Candida albicans , Genetics , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyphae
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 727-732, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330170

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Huanglian Jiedu decoction (EAHD) , alone and in combination with fluconazole (FLZ) on FLZ-resistant Candida albicans.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and sessile MIC80 (SMIC80) of EAHD and FLZ to FLZ-resistant C. albicans were determined by CLSI M27-A3 microdilution method, and the synergy of EAHD combined with FLZ were examined by the checkerboard microdilution assay. Agar plate-method was adopted to observe the rate of antifungal activity according to time-kill curve. HPLC and qRT-PCR were utilized to evaluate the changes of ergosterol content and expressions of related genes, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>MICs of EAHD ranged from 156 to 1,250 mg · L(-1), those of FLZ from 256 to above 2,048 mg · L(-1) with FICI approximate 0.066 in combination; SMIC80 of EAHD were higher than 1,250 mg · L(-1), SMIC80 of FLZ were higher than 512 mg · L(-1) and up to above 2,048 mg · L(-1). Combination group also showed synergy effect except one group showing addition effect. The results of T-K experiment also confirmed obviously fungicidal effect when treated for 12 h. When compared with control groups, the ergosterol was reduced 85% and 50% in the treatments of combination and EAHD alone by HPLC, respective- ly. The expressions of ERG1, ERG2, ERG6, ERG7 and ERG11 were upregulated, and ACS1, ACS2, MET6 were downregulated when exposed to FLZ. The expressions of the above genes were downregulated by treatment of EAHD. The expressions of ERG2, ERG6, ERG11 were upregulated, while ERG1, ERG7, ACS1, ACS2, MET6 were downregulated in combination group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The combination of EAHD and FLZ exhibited synergy against FLZ-resistant C. albicans through decreasing the synthesis of ergosterol, and resulting in the breakage of cell membrane.</p>


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Candida albicans , Metabolism , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Drug Synergism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ergosterol , Fluconazole , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2396-2402, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337922

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of butyl alcohol extract of baitouweng decoction (BAEB) on the fungal cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), filamentation and biofilm formation of Candida tropicalis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Gradual dilution method was used to determine the MIC. XTT assay was applied to determine the SMIC80. Time-Kill assay was employed to draw the Time-Kill curve. The water-hydrocarbon two-phase assay was used to measure the cell surface hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe the morphological changes of the biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied to determine the thickness of the biofilm. The quantification real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect expression changes of releated genes (UME6, ALST3 and NRG1). result: The MICs of BAEB against C. tropicalis strains are determined as 64-128 mg x L(-1). The SMIC80 s of BAEB against the biofilm of Candida tropicalis strains are determined as 256-512 mg x L(-1). Time-Kill curve results indicate that BAEB has a promise fungicidal effect at 256 and 512 mg x L(-1). SEM results shows that 512 mg x L(-1) BAEB can inhibit the formation of C. tropicalis biofilm on Silicone catheter, and the morphology of biofilm is also affected by BAEB. The thickness of C. tropicalis biofilm is reduced by BAEB according to CLSM results. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results indicate that expression of UME6 and ALST3 are significantly down-regulated by BAEB 256,512 mg x L(-1), and NRG1 is not affected by BAEB.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>BAEB inhibits effectively the CSH, filamentation and biofilm formation of VVC strains of C. tropicalis.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Biofilms , Candida tropicalis , Genetics , Physiology , Candidiasis , Microbiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Virulence Factors , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 292-297, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305306

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of andrographolide (AG) on quroum sensing (QS) and relevant virulence genes of Candida albicans.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to detect the changes in the content of farnesol and tyrosol in C. albicans intervened by AG. The real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was adopted to inspect the expressions of relevant virulence genes such as CHK1, PBS2 and HOG1 regulated by QS.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>At 2 h after the growth of C. albican, the farnesol and tyrosol secretions reduced, without notable change after intervention with AG. The secretions were highest at 12 h and decreased at 24 h. After the intervention with different concentrations of AG, the farnesol content reduces, whereas tyrosol increased, indicating a dose-dependence, particularly with 1 000 mg x L(-1) AG. qRT-PCR revealed that 1 000 mg x L(-1) AG could down-regulate CHK1 by 2.375, 3.330 and 4.043 times and PBS2 by 2.010, 4.210 and 4.760 times, with no significant change in HOG1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>AG could inhibit the farnesol secretion, promote the tyrosol secretion and down-regulate QS-related virulence genes CHK1 and PBS2 expressions.</p>


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Genetics , Physiology , Diterpenes , Pharmacology , Farnesol , Metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Genes, Fungal , Phenylethyl Alcohol , Metabolism , Quorum Sensing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence , Genetics
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