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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905908

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous determination of six hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Verbenae Herba, and to carry out preliminary risk assessment according to the research results. Method:An ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used for analysis with 0.05% formic acid and 2.5 mmol·L<sup>-1</sup> ammonium formate in water (A)-0.05% formic acid and 2.5 mmol·L<sup>-1</sup> ammonium formate in acetonitrile (B) as mobile phase for gradient elution (0-12 min, 3%-8%B; 12-25 min, 8%-15%B; 25-26 min, 15%-3%B; 26-30 min, 3%B), the flow rate was 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the column temperature was 40 ℃, and the injection volume was 1 μL. MS system was operated by electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring mode. MS parameters of triple quadrupole and six analytes were optimized for qualitative and quantitative analysis. According to the determination results, the risk assessment was carried out by using margin of exposure (MOE) combined with transfer rate of hot water extraction. Result:Based on the instrument precision, linear range, repeatability, stability, recovery and other methodological validations, the results were in conformity with relevant standards of quantitative analysis. The linear ranges of intermedine, lycopsamine, intermedine <italic>N</italic>-oxide, lycopsamine<italic> N</italic>-oxide, echimidine<italic> N</italic>-oxide and echimidine were good (<italic>r</italic>≥0.999 0) between peak area and mass concentration in the ranges of 0.984-49.20, 0.994-49.70, 1.012-50.60, 1.032-51.60, 1.004-50.20, 1.016-50.80 µg·L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The average recoveries of these six analytes were 87.2%-94.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD)<4.0%. Their MOE values were >10 000. Conclusion:The UPLC-MS/MS established in this study is stable and feasible, which can provide scientific basis for the quality control and safety evaluation of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Verbenae Herba.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888146

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop a UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of six pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)--intermedine N-oxide(ImNO), lycopsamine N-oxide(LyNO), seneciphylline(Sp), seneciphylline N-oxide(SpNO), senecionine N-oxide(SnNO), and senkirkine(Sk) in different parts of Emilia sonchifolia. UPLC conditions are as follows: ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm), mobile phase consisting of 0.05% formic acid and 2.5 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate in water(A)-0.05% formic acid and 2.5 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium formate in acetonitrile(B) for gradient elution. MS conditions are as below: electrospray ionization(ESI) in the positive ion mode, multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), and the content of the six PAs was calculated with the external standard method. The results suggested the differences in the six PAs among different parts of E. sonchifolia. Sk was detected in all the four parts, with similar content. SnNO also existed in all the four parts, but the content in roots was significantly higher than that in other parts. Sp and SpNO were found in both roots and flowers, with the content higher in the former than in the later. ImNO and LyNO were only found in leaves, and the content was low. Among the six components detected, ImNO, LyNO, and SpNO were found and determined for the first time, which enriched the toxic components and laid a scientific basis for the quality and safety evaluation of E. sonchifolia.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1243-1247, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and apply the bioaccessibility of Cd in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) to human health risk assessment, and provide reference for the formulation of limit standards. METHODS: The contents of Cd in Coptis chinensis Franch., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm., and Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bioaccessibility of Cd in TCMs was investigated by in vitro physiologically based extraction test(PBET) digestion method. And the target hazard quotient (THQ) was applied to assess the health risks of Cd contents. RESULTS: The bioaccessibility of Cd for Coptis chinensis Franch., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm., and Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang was 49.0%, 40.0%, 44.9% and 65.7%, respectively. The results of risk assessment showed that before extraction, THQ values of Cd for Coptis chinensis Franch., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm., and Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang were 1.895, 1.045, 1.446 and 1.653, respectively; after extraction, THQ values of Cd for the four types of TCMs were 0.929, 0.418, 0.649 and 1.077, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cd in the four types of TCMs cannot be completely absorbed in the artificial gastrointestinal phase, and the risks of Cd are reduced after extraction. Except THQ for Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang, the THQ values are below the value of 1, indicating very low health risks for the other three types of TCMs after extraction. In this study, the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in TCMs is applied to the health risk assessment model in order to provide a scientific basis for objectively evaluating the health risks of heavy metals in TCMs and formulating a scientific and reasonable heavy metal limit standards.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846287

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Panaxginseng. Methods Mild cold-soaked extraction by 70% aqueous ethanol, successive solvent extraction by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, column chromatography by D101 macroporous absorption resin and reversed-phase silica gel, and semi-preparative HPLC, were used for compounds isolation and purification, while high-resolution mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR data were analyzed for compounds identification. Results A new oleanolic acid tetraglycoside (1) and 19 known ginsenosides (2-20) were isolated and identified. Compound 1 was identified as oleanolic acid 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, named ginsenoside Ro1 (1). The 19 known ginsenosides were notoginsenoside FP1 (2), ginsenoside Re3 (3), notoginsenoside Rt (4), 20-O-glucosyl ginsenoside Rf (5), ginsenoside Re2 (6), ginsenoside Rg2 (7), ginsenoside Ra2 (8), ginsenoside Rb1 (9), ginsenoside Rc (10), ginsenoside Ra1 (11), malonylginsenoside Rb1 (12), malonylfloralginsenoside Rd5 (13), malonylginsenoside Rc (14), ginsenoside Ro (15), ginsenoside Rd (16), ginsenoside F2 (17), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 (18), ginsenoside F3 (19) and ginsenoside F1 (20). Conclusion Compound1is a new compound. Compound 2, notoginsenoside FP1, is isolated from this plant for the first time.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2695-2701, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837522

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals and other harmful elements in traditional Chinese medicines inflict serious damage on public health. Therefore, risk assessment of Chinese raw materials has gained increasing attention. To date, few reports have been published on the health risk assessment of heavy metals and harmful elements in Chinese patent medicines. To gain a comprehensive understanding of heavy metals and other harmful elements in Chinese patent medicines and to establish proper limits, residual Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu and Cr in 15 054 samples of 295 drugs was analyzed with regard to distribution and variation between elements and dosage forms. In addition, in accord with procedures including hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization, basic procedures and specific parameters for risk assessment of heavy metals and harmful elements in Chinese patent medicines were clarified based on the health risk assessment of 14 787 samples and 276 drugs. A method and equation for establishing residual limits is proposed. The results show that content and target hazard quotients (THQs) of the investigated elements in all samples showed a skewed distribution approaching 0. Content of Pb, As, Cu, Hg, Cd or Cr in the samples exceeded 100 mg·kg-1 and the content of Pb, As, or Cu in individual samples exceeded 1 000 mg·kg-1. THQs of 586 samples and four drugs were above 1. We believe that the health risk of Hg, Pb and As in Chinese patent medicines with dosage forms of pill, capsule, tablet and powder, especially those in raw powder preparations, warrant concern.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1004-1009, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821686

ABSTRACT

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the content of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in earthworms. A physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) digestion in vitro /MDCK cell model was established to investigate the bioaccessibility of Cd and As in earthworms. The hazard index (HI) method and the margin of exposure (MOE) method were used to assess the risks of the total content and the bioaccessible content of Cd and As. The results showed that the total content of Cd and As in six batches of earthworms ranged from 8.319 to 33.606 mg·kg-1 and from 0.532 to 16.412 mg·kg-1, respectively. After uptake by MDCK cells, the bioaccessibility of Cd in earthworms ranged from 10.13% to 64.16%, and the bioaccessibility of As was from 2.72% to 46.57%. The results of risk assessment showed that before uptake by MDCK cells, the MOE values of As and HI values of Cd for all batches of earthworms were greater than 1, which suggests that the risks of As are acceptable but the risks of Cd are unacceptable. After transportation by MDCK cells, except for one batch of earthworms, the HI values of Cd in the other five batches were less than 1, which suggests that the risks are at a safe level. This study provides important technical support for a more objective and scientific assessment of the health risks of heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicines, and for a more scientific and reasonable standard limit of heavy metals.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771514

ABSTRACT

To achieve a comprehensive understanding of heavy metals and harmful elements residues in Niuhuang Qingwei Pills,49 samples from 18 manufactures were collected from 31 provinces in China.Risk assessment and control preparations were applied innovatively in evaluation of exogenous pollution in traditional Chinese Medicine.Determination methods for Pb,Cd,As,Hg and Cu were established by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS).Based on the procedures including hazard identification,hazard characterization,exposure assessment and risk characterization,risk assessment was performed and residual limits for Pb,Cd,As,Hg and Cu in the drug were formulated.The results showed that the hazardous quotients(HQ) of the elements were decreased in the following order:Pb>As>Cu>Hg>Cd,and the total hazardous index(HI) of heavy metals and harmful elements in Niuhuang Qingwei Pills was above 1,implying health risk of the drug.Under the proposed limits,5 elements in the control preparation as well as Cd and Cu in the samples were within the limits range,but the excess rates of Pb,As and Hg in the samples were 12%,12% and 14%,respectively.For the first time,basic steps for risk assessment of Chinese patent medicine were established,which provided model and reference for risk assessment and limit formulation of other drugs.


Subject(s)
China , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798492

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare daidzein nanosuspension capsules,and to investigate intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability by comparing with commercial daidzein capsules. Method:Daidzein nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation method combined with high pressure homogenization,orthogonal design method was utilized to optimize its formulation.Daidzein nanosuspensions was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction(XRPD),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),transmission electron microscope(TEM),and indexes including mean particle size,polydispersity index(PDI),and Zeta potential.Intestinal absorption study was carried out to compare the accumulative permeated amount of daidzein from daidzein nanosuspensions and commercial daidzein capsules.Biodistribution of daidzein in gastrointestinal tract was investigated,and oral bioavailability was examined through pharmacokinetic study by HPLC. Result:The in vitro small intestinal absorption enhancement ratio of daidzein nanosuspension capsules was approximately 2.49-fold higher than that of commercial capsules(PConclusion:Daidzein nanosuspensions prepared by combined method can be applied to the production of capsules,which is beneficial to increase the absorption of drug in small intestine and improve its bioavailability after oral administration.

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