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1.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 578-588, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890023

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proximal colorectal cancers (CRCs) account for up to half of CRCs. Sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) are precursors to CRC. Proximal location and presence of dysplasia in SSLs predict higher risks of progression to cancer. The prevalence of dysplasia in proximal SSLs (pSSLs) and clinical characteristics of dysplastic pSSLs are not well studied. @*Methods@#Endoscopically resected colonic polyps at our center between January 2016 and December 2017 were screened for pSSLs. Data of patients with at least one pSSL were retrieved and clinicopathological features of pSSLs were analysed. pSSLs with and without dysplasia were compared for associations. @*Results@#Ninety pSSLs were identified, 45 of which had dysplasia giving a prevalence of 50.0%. Older age (65.9 years vs. 60.1 years, p=0.034) was associated with the presence of dysplasia. Twelve pSSLs were 10 mm or larger. After adjusting for age, pSSLs ≥10 mm had an adjusted odds ratio of 5.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.21–29.6) of having dysplasia compared with smaller pSSLs. @*Conclusions@#In our cohort of pSSLs, the prevalence of dysplasia is high at 50.0% and is associated with lesion size ≥10 mm. Endoscopic resection for all proximal serrated lesions should be en-bloc to facilitate accurate histopathological examination for dysplasia as its presence warrants shorter surveillance intervals.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889972

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite the disproportionally high prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst the incarcerated population, eradication remains challenging due to logistic and financial barriers. Although treatment prioritization based on disease severity is commonly practiced, the efficacy of such approach remained uncertain. We aimed to compare the impact of unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) among incarcerated HCV-infected patients in Singapore. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we reviewed all incarcerated HCV-infected patients treated in our hospital during the restricted DAA era (2013–2018) and unrestricted DAA access era (2019). Study outcomes included the rate of sustained virological response (SVR), treatment completion and treatment default. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the presence of liver cirrhosis, HCV genotype and HCV treatment types. @*Results@#A total of 1,001 HCV patients was followed-up for 1,489 person-year. They were predominantly male (93%) with genotype-3 HCV infection (71%), and 38% were cirrhotic. The overall SVR during the restricted DAA access era and unrestricted DAA access era were 92.1% and 99.1%, respectively. Unrestricted access to DAA exponentially improved the treatment access among HCV-infected patients by 460%, resulting in a higher SVR rate (99% vs. 92%, P=0.003), higher treatment completion rate (99% vs. 93%, P<0.001) and lower treatment default rate (1% vs. 9%, P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#In this large cohort of incarcerated HCV-infected patients, we demonstrated that unrestricted access to DAA is an impactful strategy to allow rapid treatment up-scale in HCV micro-elimination.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 578-588, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897727

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proximal colorectal cancers (CRCs) account for up to half of CRCs. Sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) are precursors to CRC. Proximal location and presence of dysplasia in SSLs predict higher risks of progression to cancer. The prevalence of dysplasia in proximal SSLs (pSSLs) and clinical characteristics of dysplastic pSSLs are not well studied. @*Methods@#Endoscopically resected colonic polyps at our center between January 2016 and December 2017 were screened for pSSLs. Data of patients with at least one pSSL were retrieved and clinicopathological features of pSSLs were analysed. pSSLs with and without dysplasia were compared for associations. @*Results@#Ninety pSSLs were identified, 45 of which had dysplasia giving a prevalence of 50.0%. Older age (65.9 years vs. 60.1 years, p=0.034) was associated with the presence of dysplasia. Twelve pSSLs were 10 mm or larger. After adjusting for age, pSSLs ≥10 mm had an adjusted odds ratio of 5.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.21–29.6) of having dysplasia compared with smaller pSSLs. @*Conclusions@#In our cohort of pSSLs, the prevalence of dysplasia is high at 50.0% and is associated with lesion size ≥10 mm. Endoscopic resection for all proximal serrated lesions should be en-bloc to facilitate accurate histopathological examination for dysplasia as its presence warrants shorter surveillance intervals.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897676

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite the disproportionally high prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst the incarcerated population, eradication remains challenging due to logistic and financial barriers. Although treatment prioritization based on disease severity is commonly practiced, the efficacy of such approach remained uncertain. We aimed to compare the impact of unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) among incarcerated HCV-infected patients in Singapore. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we reviewed all incarcerated HCV-infected patients treated in our hospital during the restricted DAA era (2013–2018) and unrestricted DAA access era (2019). Study outcomes included the rate of sustained virological response (SVR), treatment completion and treatment default. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the presence of liver cirrhosis, HCV genotype and HCV treatment types. @*Results@#A total of 1,001 HCV patients was followed-up for 1,489 person-year. They were predominantly male (93%) with genotype-3 HCV infection (71%), and 38% were cirrhotic. The overall SVR during the restricted DAA access era and unrestricted DAA access era were 92.1% and 99.1%, respectively. Unrestricted access to DAA exponentially improved the treatment access among HCV-infected patients by 460%, resulting in a higher SVR rate (99% vs. 92%, P=0.003), higher treatment completion rate (99% vs. 93%, P<0.001) and lower treatment default rate (1% vs. 9%, P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#In this large cohort of incarcerated HCV-infected patients, we demonstrated that unrestricted access to DAA is an impactful strategy to allow rapid treatment up-scale in HCV micro-elimination.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 13-18, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874581

ABSTRACT

The management of Helicobacter pylori infection in Singapore remains a clinical challenge. Similar to other regions, there has been an increase in antibiotic resistance rates through the years. Nonetheless, over the past two decades, clarithromycin-based triple therapy has continued to be used as the first line treatment option, with an eradication rate exceeding 90%, although the accepted treatment duration must now be lengthened from 1 to 2 weeks to maintain efficacy. Concomitant and sequential therapies did not demonstrate superiority over standard triple therapy. Current empiric second line treatment utilizes either bismuth-based quadruple therapy or levofloxacin-based triple therapy, but outcomes remain less than ideal. Identifying options to further improve treatment success rates is challenging. Strategies being considered include the use of potent acid suppressants, such as vonoprazan, and H. pylori culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing-guided therapy.

6.
Singapore medical journal ; : 619-623, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877439

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we aim to provide professional guidance to clinicians who are managing patients with chronic liver disease during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Singapore. We reviewed and summarised the available relevant published data on liver disease in COVID-19 and the advisory statements that were issued by major professional bodies, such as the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver, contextualising the recommendations to our local situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Chronic Disease , Hepatitis B, Chronic/therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , Singapore/epidemiology
7.
Singapore medical journal ; : 419-425, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827310

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the commonest complication of liver cirrhosis. Timely and appropriate treatment of SBP is crucial, particularly with the rising worldwide prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of SBP in Singapore.@*METHODS@#All cirrhotic patients with SBP diagnosed between January 2014 and December 2017 were included. Nosocomial SBP (N-SBP) was defined as SBP diagnosed more than 48 hours after hospitalisation. Clinical outcomes were analysed as categorical outcomes using univariate and multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#There were 33 patients with 39 episodes of SBP. Their mean age was 64.5 years and 69.7% were male. The commonest aetiology of cirrhosis was hepatitis B (27.3%). The Median Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 17; 33.3% had acute-on-chronic liver failure and 60.6% had septic shock at presentation. N-SBP occurred in 25.6% of SBP cases. N-SBP was more commonly associated with MDROs, previous antibiotic use in the past three months (p = 0.014) and longer length of stay (p = 0.011). The 30-day and 90-day mortality among SBP patients was 30.8% and 51.3%, respectively. MELD score > 20 was a predictor for 30-day mortality. N-SBP and MELD score > 20 were predictors for 90-day mortality.@*CONCLUSION@#N-SBP was significantly associated with recent antibiotic use, longer hospitalisation, more resistant organisms and poorer survival among patients with SBP. N-SBP and MELD score predict higher mortality in SBP. Judicious use of antibiotics may reduce N-SBP and improve survival among cirrhotic patients.

8.
Singapore medical journal ; : 345-349, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827293

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we aimed to provide professional guidance to practising gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopists for the safe conduct of GI endoscopy procedures during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and future outbreaks of similar severe respiratory tract infections in Singapore. It draws on the lessons learnt during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic and available published data concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. It addresses measures before, during and after endoscopy that must be considered for both non-infected and infected patients, and provides recommendations for practical implementation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Reference Standards , Gastroenterologists , Reference Standards , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Singapore , Epidemiology
9.
Singapore medical journal ; : 512-521, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776994

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of ethnicity, gender and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), omeprazole, on the human gut microbiome. PPIs are commonly used for the treatment of acid-related disorders. We hypothesised that PPI therapy might perturb microbial communities and alter the gut microbiome.@*METHODS@#Healthy subjects of Chinese (n = 12), Malay (n = 12) and Indian (n = 10) ancestry, aged 21-37 years, were enrolled. They provided a baseline stool sample (Day 1) and were then given a course of omeprazole at therapeutic dose (20 mg daily) for seven days. Stool samples were collected again on Day 7 and 14 (one week after stopping omeprazole). Microbial DNA was extracted from the stool samples, followed by polymerase chain reaction, library construction, 16S rRNA sequencing using Illumina MiSeq, and statistical and bioinformatics analyses.@*RESULTS@#The findings showed an increase in species richness (p = 0.018) after omeprazole consumption on Day 7, which reverted to baseline on Day 14. There were significant increases in the relative abundance of Streptococcus vestibularis (p = 0.0001) and Veillonella dispar (p = 0.0001) on Day 7, which diminished on Day 14. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella stercoricanis and Bacteroides denticanum were characteristic of Chinese, Malays and Indians, respectively. Lactobacillaceae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens were the signature taxa of male and female subjects, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The study demonstrated alterations in the gut microbiome following omeprazole treatment. This may explain the underlying pathology of increased risk of Clostridium difficile infections associated with omeprazole therapy.

10.
Singapore medical journal ; : 538-544, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776984

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#This study examined the efficacy and safety of cholangiopancreatoscopy via the SpyGlass™ system in routine clinical practice.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed in a regional hospital from January 2013 to November 2016 was retrieved from an electronic database and reviewed. All patients who had undergone SpyGlass cholangiopancreatoscopy were enrolled. Patient demographics, procedure indication, technical success rates, clinical success rates and complication rates were analysed. A subanalysis of clinical outcomes was performed comparing the SpyGlass legacy (fibreoptic) and digital systems.@*RESULTS@#Out of 2,050 ERCP procedures performed, 47 patients underwent 50 cholangiopancreatoscopy procedures. Clinical indications were difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones (59.6%, n = 28), indeterminate CBD stricture (36.2%, n = 17), indeterminate pancreatic duct stricture (2.1%, n = 1) and proximally migrated CBD stent (2.1%, n = 1). Complete stone extraction was achieved in 26 (92.9%) out of 28 patients. Among patients with strictures, a correct diagnosis of malignancy based on image visualisation was achieved in all 11 cases. The sensitivity and specificity for SpyBite™ biopsies were 81.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.2%-97.7%) and 100.0% (95% CI 15.8%-100.0%), respectively. The proximally migrated CBD stent was successfully extracted. Complications included pancreatitis (2.1%, n = 1), suspected sealed perforation after laser lithotripsy treated conservatively (2.1%, n = 1) and cholangitis (10.6%, n = 5). There was no difference in clinical outcomes between the SpyGlass legacy (n = 20) and digital (n = 30) systems.@*CONCLUSION@#SpyGlass cholangiopancreatoscopy is a safe and effective tool in routine clinical practice.

11.
Singapore medical journal ; : 526-531, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) provides a higher en bloc and R0 resection rate than endoscopic mucosal resection. Colorectal ESD is not widely used because of its technical difficulty and risk of complications, especially for right-sided colonic lesions. We audited the clinical outcomes of our initial experience with colorectal ESD.@*METHODS@#We reviewed data collected from a prospective registry of patients who underwent colorectal ESD from December 2014 to March 2018. Therapeutic outcomes and procedure-related complications were analysed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 41 patients (mean age 67.4 years, 21 male) underwent colorectal ESD. The distribution of the lesions was as follows: rectum (n = 9), sigmoid colon (n = 8), descending colon (n = 6), splenic flexure (n = 1), transverse colon (n = 5), ascending colon (n = 8) and caecum (n = 4). The mean size was 23 (range 12-50) mm. En bloc resection was achieved in 35 (85.4%) out of 41 patients, and R0 resection or clear resection margins was achieved in 33 (94.3%) of the en bloc resection patients. The lesion was upstaged in 14 (34.1%) patients after ESD. Colonic perforation occurred in 3 (7.3%) patients during ESD and was successfully treated with endoscopic clips. There was no procedure-related bleeding. No patient required surgery for management of complications. The median duration of hospitalisation was 1 (range 0-7) day. Four patients with lesions that were upstaged after ESD, from high-grade dysplasia to intramucosal carcinoma with deep submucosal invasion, were referred for colectomy.@*CONCLUSION@#Our early outcome data was comparable to that from large published series. ESD is an effective and feasible treatment for colorectal lesions.

12.
Singapore medical journal ; : 628-633, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776975

ABSTRACT

Liver fibrosis is a slow, insidious process involving accumulation of extracellular matrix protein in the liver. The stage of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease (CLD) determines overall morbidity and mortality; the higher the stage, the worse the prognosis. Noninvasive composite scores can be used to determine whether patients with CLD have significant or advanced fibrosis. Patients with low composite scores can be safely followed up in primary care with periodic reassessment. Those with higher scores should be referred to a specialist. As the epidemic of diabetes mellitus, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases is rising, CLD is becoming more prevalent. Easy-to-use fibrosis assessment composite scores can identify patients with minimal or advanced fibrosis, and should be an integral part of decision-making. Patients with cirrhosis, high composite scores, chronic hepatitis B with elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, or deranged liver panel of uncertain aetiology should be referred to a specialist.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Decision Making , End Stage Liver Disease , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Hepatitis B , Humans , Liver , Pathology , Liver Cirrhosis , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Prognosis , Referral and Consultation , Treatment Outcome
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 483-496, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717037

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is now well established as an important tool in clinical practice. From purely diagnostic imaging, it has progressed to include tissue acquisition, which provided the basis for therapeutic procedures. Even as interventional EUS developed, there has been ongoing progress in EUS diagnostic capabilities due to improved imaging systems, better needles for tissue acquisition and development of enhanced imaging functions such as contrast harmonic EUS (CHEUS) and EUS elastography. EUS is well established for differentiation of subepithelial lesions, for T-staging of luminal gastrointestinal and pancreaticobiliary malignancies, for differentiation of benign pancreaticobiliary disorders and for diagnostic tissue acquisition, which can be achieved by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or by EUS-guided fine needle biopsy using dedicated biopsy needles. This review briefly describes the technique of performing EUS and then discusses its clinical utility in terms of gastrointestinal cancer staging, the evaluation of pancreaticobiliary disorders and tissue acquisition. Enhanced imaging techniques such as CHEUS and EUS elastography are briefly reviewed.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnostic Imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Endosonography , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Needles , Neoplasm Staging , Phenobarbital , Ultrasonography
14.
Singapore medical journal ; : 234-240, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262412

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an infection that has a role in causing dyspepsia and complications such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. In the primary care setting, one can adopt a stepwise approach with the 'test-and-treat' strategy to manage H. pylori-associated dyspepsia in young patients without alarm symptoms. Empiric first-line therapies should be for a two-week duration; options include clarithromycin-containing triple therapy alone or with the addition of bismuth, concomitant therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy. Post-treatment carbon urea breath test must be performed at least four weeks after the end of treatment to confirm the cure. Options for empiric second-line treatment include bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy. Patients with persistent or alarm symptoms should be referred for further evaluation. Patients with persistent infection should be referred for gastroscopy so that gastric biopsies can be obtained for H. pylori culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

15.
Singapore medical journal ; : 546-551, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304114

ABSTRACT

About one-third of patients with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not respond symptomatically to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Many of these patients do not suffer from GERD, but may have underlying functional heartburn or atypical chest pain. Other causes of failure to respond to PPIs include inadequate acid suppression, non-acid reflux, oesophageal hypersensitivity, oesophageal dysmotility and psychological comorbidities. Functional oesophageal tests can exclude cardiac and structural causes, as well as help to confi rm or exclude GERD. The use of PPIs should only be continued in the presence of acid reflux or oesophageal hypersensitivity for acid reflux-related events that is proven on functional oesophageal tests.


Subject(s)
Chest Pain , Esophagus , Gastroenterology , Methods , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Heartburn , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Life Style , Primary Health Care , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184916

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic necrosis with the formation of walled-off collections is a known complication of severe acute pancreatitis. Infected necrotic pancreatic collections are associated with a high mortality rate. Open necrosectomy and debridement with closed drainage has traditionally been the gold standard for treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis, but carries a high risk of perioperative complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy has emerged as a safe and effective modality of treatment for this condition. Careful patient selection and gentle meticulous debridement is important to optimize clinical success. Bleeding is the commonest associated complication with the procedure but most cases can be managed conservatively. Air embolism, although rare, is potentially fatal. The use of fully covered large diameter lumen apposing self-expandable metal stents has further simplified the procedure. These stents optimize drainage, and facilitate endoscopic necrosectomy because repeat insertion of the endoscope into the necrotic cavity can be easily achieved.


Subject(s)
Debridement , Drainage , Embolism, Air , Endoscopes , Endosonography , Hemorrhage , Mortality , Necrosis , Pancreatitis , Patient Selection , Stents
17.
Singapore medical journal ; : 69-quiz 80, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337187

ABSTRACT

Neurogastroenterology and motility disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract encompass a broad spectrum of diseases involving the GI tract and central nervous system. They have varied pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management, and make up a substantial proportion of outpatient clinic visits. Typically, patients experience persistent symptoms referable to the GI tract despite normal endoscopic and radiologic findings. An appropriate evaluation is thus important in the patient's care. Advances in technology and understanding of the disease pathophysiology have provided better insight into the physiological basis of disease and a more rational approach to patient management. While technological advances serve to explain patients' persistent symptoms, they should be balanced against the costs of diagnostic tests. This review highlights the GI investigative modalities employed to evaluate patients with persistent GI symptoms in the absence of a structural lesion, with particular emphasis on investigative modalities available locally and the clinical impact of such tools.


Subject(s)
Electrophysiology , Endoscopy , Esophagus , Gastric Emptying , Gastroenterology , Methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intestine, Small , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
18.
Singapore medical journal ; : 613-620, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244775

ABSTRACT

Chronic pancreatitis is associated with varied morphological complications, including intraductal stones, main pancreatic ductal strictures, distal biliary strictures and pseudocysts. Endoscopic therapy provides a less invasive alternative to surgery. In addition, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy improves the success rate of endoscopic clearance of intraductal stones. However, recent data from randomised trials have shown better long-term outcomes with surgical drainage for obstructive pancreatic ductal disease. In patients with distal biliary strictures, stent insertion leads to good immediate drainage, but after stent removal, recurrent narrowing is common. Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has excellent outcome and should be accompanied by pancreatic ductal stenting when a ductal communication is evident. In those who remain symptomatic, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided coeliac plexus block may provide effective but short-term pain relief. In this review, we present the current evidence for the role of endotherapy in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy, Digestive System , Methods , Humans , Lithotripsy , Pain Management , Pancreatic Pseudocyst , Therapeutics , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Therapeutics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stents
19.
Singapore medical journal ; : 621-628, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244766

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Global Health , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Incidence , Male , Obesity , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Genetics , Microbiology
20.
Singapore medical journal ; : 206-211, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359131

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Endoscopic transenteric stenting is the standard treatment for pseudocysts, but it may be inadequate for treating infected collections with solid debris. Surgical necrosectomy results in significant morbidity. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN), a minimally invasive treatment, may be a viable option. This study examined the efficacy and safety of DEN for the treatment of infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis and infected pseudocysts with solid debris.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This study was a retrospective analysis of data collected from a prospective database of patients who underwent DEN in the presence of infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis or infected pseudocysts with solid debris from April 2007 to October 2011. DEN was performed as a staged procedure. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transgastric stenting was performed during the first session for initial drainage and to establish endoscopic access to the infected collection. In the second session, the drainage tract was dilated endoscopically to allow transgastric passage of an endoscope for endoscopic necrosectomy. Outcome data included technical success, clinical success and complication rates.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eight patients with infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis or infected pseudocysts with solid debris (mean size 12.5 cm; range 7.8-17.2 cm) underwent DEN. Underlying aetiologies included severe acute pancreatitis (n = 6) and post-pancreatic surgery (n = 2). DEN was technically successful in all patients. Clinical resolution was achieved in seven patients. One patient with recurrent collection opted for surgery instead of repeat endotherapy. No procedural complications were encountered.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>DEN is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis and infected pseudocysts.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cysts , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Methods , Necrosis , Pancreas , Pathology , Pancreatic Diseases , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , General Surgery , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Diagnostic Imaging , General Surgery , Therapeutics , Singapore , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
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