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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903859

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to provide information on the taxonomic classification and analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Spirometra theileri. One strobila of S. theileri was collected from the intestine of an African leopard (Panthera pardus) in the Maswa Game Reserve, Tanzania. The complete mtDNA sequence of S. theileri was 13,685 bp encoding 36 genes including 12 protein genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs with absence of atp8. Divergences of 12 protein-coding genes were as follow: 14.9% between S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei, 14.7% between S. theileri and S. decipiens, and 14.5% between S. theileri with S. ranarum. Divergences of 12 proteins of S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 2.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad5, while S. theileri varied from S. decipiens and S. ranarum by 1.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad3. Phylogenetic relationship of S. theileri with eucestodes inferred using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences exhibited identical tree topologies. A clade composed of S. decipiens and S. ranarum formed a sister species to S. erinaceieuropaei, and S. theileri formed a sister species to all species in this clade. Within the diphyllobothridean clade, Dibothriocephalus, Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra formed a monophyletic group, and sister genera were well supported.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896155

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to provide information on the taxonomic classification and analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Spirometra theileri. One strobila of S. theileri was collected from the intestine of an African leopard (Panthera pardus) in the Maswa Game Reserve, Tanzania. The complete mtDNA sequence of S. theileri was 13,685 bp encoding 36 genes including 12 protein genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs with absence of atp8. Divergences of 12 protein-coding genes were as follow: 14.9% between S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei, 14.7% between S. theileri and S. decipiens, and 14.5% between S. theileri with S. ranarum. Divergences of 12 proteins of S. theileri and S. erinaceieuropaei ranged from 2.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad5, while S. theileri varied from S. decipiens and S. ranarum by 1.3% in cox1 to 15.7% in nad3. Phylogenetic relationship of S. theileri with eucestodes inferred using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences exhibited identical tree topologies. A clade composed of S. decipiens and S. ranarum formed a sister species to S. erinaceieuropaei, and S. theileri formed a sister species to all species in this clade. Within the diphyllobothridean clade, Dibothriocephalus, Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra formed a monophyletic group, and sister genera were well supported.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919320

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus species. Tanzania is one of the endemic countries with cystic echinococcosis. This study focussed on identifying genotypes of Echinococcus spp. in Tanzania. We collected 7 cysts from cattle in Mwanza municipal (n=4) and Loliondo district (n=3). The cysts from Mwanza were all E. ortleppi and fertile. In contrast, the cysts from Loliondo were all E. granulosus sensu stricto and sterile. Two from the 4 cysts were a new haplotype of E. ortleppi (G5). These results can improve the preventive and control programs for humans and livestock in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this study is considered the first to identify the genotype and haplotype of Echinococcus spp. in Tanzania.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833800

ABSTRACT

In November 2019 a 5-month-old mixed-breed rabbit presented to Chungbuk National University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea (Korea) with symptoms comprising pruritus, crusts on skin, poor appetite and reduced defecation. The rabbit was purchased 2 months prior from a pet shop located in a big market, and that the symptoms were first observed about 2 weeks prior to the hospital visit. Physical examination revealed that the patient had crust formation and alopecia on the nose together with lesions on the digits. A skin scraping test was performed using mineral oil and a high density of mites was observed by microscopy. Each mite showed a round, tortoise-like body with 4 comparatively short pairs of legs. The anus was located at the terminal unlike with suspected pathogen, Notoedres cati. Based on morphological characteristics, we identified the mite as Sarcoptes sp. Ivermectin was administered weekly by subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg, and 4 weeks of follow-up study revealed the patient was fully recovered. And no more mites were detected from the case. This is the first case report of sarcoptic mange in a pet rabbit in Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903846

ABSTRACT

Spirometra tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) collected from carnivorous mammals in Tanzania were identified by the DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and by morphological characteristics. A total of 15 adult worms were collected from stool samples and carcasses of Panthera leo, Panthera pardus, and Crocuta crocuta in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania. Three Spirometra species: S. theileri, S. ranarum and S. erinaceieuropaei were identified based on morphological features. Partial cox1 sequences (400 bp) of 10 specimens were revealed. Eight specimens showed 99.5% similarity with Spirometra theileri (MK955901), 1 specimen showed 99.5% similarity with the Korean S. erinaceieuropaei and 1 specimen had 99.5% similarity with Myanmar S. ranarum. Sequence homology estimates for the ITS1 region of S. theileri were 89.8% with S. erinaceieuropaei, 82.5% with S. decipiens, and 78.3% with S. ranarum; and 94.4% homology was observed between S. decipiens and S. ranarum. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with 4 species of Spirometra and 2 species of Dibothriocephalus (=Diphyllobothrium). By both ML and BI methods, cox1 and ITS1 gave well supported, congruent trees topology of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. theileri with S. decipiens and S. ranarum forming a clade. The Dibothriocephalus species were sisters of each other and collectively forming successive outgroups. Our findings confirmed that 3 Spirometra species (S. theileri, S. ranarum, and S. erinaceieuropaei) are distributed in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896142

ABSTRACT

Spirometra tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) collected from carnivorous mammals in Tanzania were identified by the DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and by morphological characteristics. A total of 15 adult worms were collected from stool samples and carcasses of Panthera leo, Panthera pardus, and Crocuta crocuta in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania. Three Spirometra species: S. theileri, S. ranarum and S. erinaceieuropaei were identified based on morphological features. Partial cox1 sequences (400 bp) of 10 specimens were revealed. Eight specimens showed 99.5% similarity with Spirometra theileri (MK955901), 1 specimen showed 99.5% similarity with the Korean S. erinaceieuropaei and 1 specimen had 99.5% similarity with Myanmar S. ranarum. Sequence homology estimates for the ITS1 region of S. theileri were 89.8% with S. erinaceieuropaei, 82.5% with S. decipiens, and 78.3% with S. ranarum; and 94.4% homology was observed between S. decipiens and S. ranarum. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with 4 species of Spirometra and 2 species of Dibothriocephalus (=Diphyllobothrium). By both ML and BI methods, cox1 and ITS1 gave well supported, congruent trees topology of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. theileri with S. decipiens and S. ranarum forming a clade. The Dibothriocephalus species were sisters of each other and collectively forming successive outgroups. Our findings confirmed that 3 Spirometra species (S. theileri, S. ranarum, and S. erinaceieuropaei) are distributed in the Serengeti and Selous ecosystems of Tanzania.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786638

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a Spirometra species of Tanzania origin obtained from an African leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) was identified based on molecular analysis of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1) as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. One strobila and several segments of a Spirometra species were obtained from the intestine of an African male leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Maswa Game Reserve of Tanzania. The morphological characteristics of S. theileri observed comprised 3 uterine loops on one side and 4 on the other side of the mid-line, a uterine pore situated posterior to the vagina and alternating irregularly either to the right or left of the latter, and vesicular seminis that were much smaller than other Spirometra species. Sequence differences in the cox1 and nad1 genes between S. theileri (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei were 10.1% (cox1) and 12.0% (nad1), while those of S. decipiens and S. ranarum were 9.6%, 9.8% (cox1) and 13.0%, 12.6% (nad1), respectively. The morphological features of the Tanzania-origin Spirometra specimens coincided with those of S. theileri, and the molecular data was also consistent with that of S. theileri, thereby demonstrating the distribution of S. theileri in Tanzania. This places the leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) as new definitive hosts of this spirometrid tapeworm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cestoda , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Hyaenidae , Intestines , Male , NADH Dehydrogenase , Panthera , Spirometra , Tanzania , Vagina
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