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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888009

ABSTRACT

Eucommiae Cortex is an authentic medicinal material with broad growing areas( such as Hunan and Sichuan provinces in China. It is well-known for its efficacy in tonifying liver and kidney,strengthening muscles and bones,and stabilizing fetus. It has also been proven in pharmacology to possess the functions such as lowering blood pressure and lipids. Hence,Eucommiae Cortex has attracted increasing attention. The current quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex vary in different countries or regions. The quality of Eucommiae Cortex products on the market is affected by mix-ups of non-medicinal parts and insufficient growth years. In view of these problems,this paper summarizes the current quality standards and research progress of Eucommiae Cortex in China and overseas,aiming to provide a reference for the establishment of the quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eucommiaceae , Humans , Reference Standards
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837999

ABSTRACT

[Abstract] Objective To explore the relationship between the changes of platelet parameters after renal transplantation and delayed graft function (DGF). Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted with 109 patients who underwent allograft renal transplantation from Jul. 2016 to May 2018 in the Department of Organ Transplantation of Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University). The patients were divided into DGF group (n=41) and non-DGF group (n=68). Peripheral blood samples were collected from the two groups before and at 1, 3, 7 and 14 d after operation. The platelet parameters, including platelet count (PLT), platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet volume distribution width (PDW) and platelet hematocrit (PCT), were dynamically monitored. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the value of the platelet parameters for predicting DGF after renal transplantation. Results There was no significant difference in platelet parameters between the DGF group and the non-DGF group before operation. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d after renal transplantation, PLT values in the DGF group were lower than those in the non-DGF group, MPV values were higher than those in the non-DGF group, with statistical significance found at 7 d after renal transplantation (both P0.05). PCT in the DGF group was decreased first and then increased after renal transplantation. At 7 d after operation, PCT in the DGF group was markedly lower than that in the non-DGF group (P0.05). PDW and P-LCR in the DGF group and the non-DGF group increased first and then decreased after renal transplantation. At 7 d after operation, PDW in the DGF group was markedly higher than that in the non-DGF group (P0.05). There was no significant difference in P-LCR between the two groups at 7 d after operation (P=0.184). At 7 d after operation, the area under ROC curve for PDW and PCT were 0.781 and 0.758, with the optimal cut-off values being 16.75 fL and 0.155%, specificity being 92.6% and 63.2%, and sensitivity being 61.0% and 75.6%, respectively. Conclusion Dynamic monitoring of platelet parameters early after renal transplantation is helpful for the early diagnosis of DGF. There is an increased risk of DGF in patients with PDW16.75 fL and PCT0.155% at 7 d after operation.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850677

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clone and characterize a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) gene which involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Sanghuangporus baumii. Methods: The HMGS gene cDNA full-length sequence was cloned by RACE technology. Characteristics including the physicochemical properties and conserved domain of the deduced HMGS protein were determined by a series of bioinformatics tools. The entire protein-coding cDNA of HMGS was cloned into the expression vector pET-32a (+). Then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. With IPTG induction, SDS-PAGE was used to investigate the situation of expression. Additionally, qRT-PCR technology was performed to measure the transcript levels of HMGS gene in the triterpenoid pathway during different developmental stages of S. baumii. Results: The full-length nucleotide sequence of HMGS was 1 930 bp, containing a complete open reading frame of 1 458 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 485 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence showed that the molecular weight of encoded protein was 52 750, and theoretical isoelectric point was 5.60. This protein was a hydrophilic protein, without transmembrane and signal peptide sequence. The constructed phylogenetic tree showed that HMGS from S. baumii had the highest similarity with HMGS from Fomitiporia mediterranea. The prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a-HMGS was sucessfully obtained. SDS-PAGE results showed that a significant protein band was in consistent with molecular weight of the predicted protein. Moreover, the results showed that the transcript levels of HMGS gene were in dynamic change. The transcript levels in the mycelium stage were higher than that in the fruiting body stage. For instance, the highest transcript level of HMGS was at 14 d and was 2.33-fold higher than the 5 d. Conclusion: Molecular characterization of HMGS will be useful for further functional elucidation of the gene involving in triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in S. baumii.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851942

ABSTRACT

Objective To obtain prokaryotic expression and over-expression vectors of squalene epoxidase (SE) gene from Sanghuangporus baumii. Methods The entire protein-coding cDNA of SE was cloned into the expression vector pET-32a (+). Then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. SDS-PAGE was used to investigate the situation of expression after IPTG induction for 2-10 h. Additionally, primers were designed according to the gpd promoter sequence of Lentinula edodes in GenBank, and the gpd promoter fragment was obtained by PCR. Subsequently, the plant binary expression vector pCAMBIA1301 was selected as the basic vector, and then the 35 S promoter replaced with L. edodes gpd promoter through enzyme digestion and connection. Finally, the coding region of SE was cloned to the downstream of the gpd promoter to construct over-expression vectors. Results The prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a-SE was successfully obtained. SDS-PAGE results showed a significant protein band was found in the vicinity of the relative molecular weight of approximately 55 000, consistent with molecular weight of the predicted protein. Moreover, the over-expression vector pCAMBIA1301-gpd-gpd-SE was constructed successfully through different detection ways. Conclusion These results lay the foundation for the further study of SE in triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway of S. baumii.

5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1308-1313, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688126

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>When considering the issue of recurrence, perimenopausal women may have more dilemma during management comparing with young women, for example, whether to retain the uterus and ovary during surgery, whether it is necessary to add adjuvant medicine treatment after operation, and there is no evidence for reference about using of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. This study aimed to study the risk factors for the recurrence of ovarian endometriosis (EM) in patients aged 45 and over.</p><p><b>Methods</b>This is a retrospective nested case-control study. We reviewed the medical records of patients aged over 45 years who underwent surgical treatments for ovarian EM from 1994 to 2014, in Peking Union Medical College Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. By following up to January 2016, 45 patients were found to have relapses and regarded as the recurrence group. The patients with no recurrence during the same follow-up period were randomly selected by the ratio of 1:4 as the nonrecurrence group (180 patients in total). Stratified Cox regression was used to analyze the risk factors of the recurrence.</p><p><b>Results</b>Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the postoperative treatment (the percentage of patients who received postoperative treatment in non-recurrence group and recurrence group, 23.9% vs. 40.0%, χ = 4.729, P = 0.030) and ovarian preservation (the percentage of patients who received surgery of ovarian preservation in non-recurrence group and recurrence group, 25.0 % vs. 44.4%, χ = 19.462, P < 0.001) between the nonrecurrence group and the recurrence group. There was no correlation between recurrence and the following factors including patient's age, menarche age, gravidity, parity, CA125 level, ovarian lesions, menopausal status, combined benign gynecological conditions (such as myoma and adenomyoma) and endometrial abnormalities, and surgical approach or surgical staging (all P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that whether to retain the ovary was the only independent risk factor of recurrence for patients aged 45 years and over with ovarian EM (odds ratio: 5.594, 95% confidence interval: 1.919-16.310, P = 0.002).</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>Ovarian preservation might be the only independent risk factor of recurrence for patients aged 45 years and over with ovarian EM.</p>


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Endometriosis , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Odds Ratio , Ovarian Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Ovary , Pathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852827

ABSTRACT

The quality control of Chinese materia medica (CMM) has been the focus of CMM modernization, and how to demonstrate the consistency of product quality and clinical efficacy has become an important research aspect of development and innovation of CMM. Due to the heterogeneity of CMM, it is necessary to combine biopotency with other detection methods to guarantee the quality of medicines. This article reviewed the research status of CMM biopotency, analyzed the global local government regulations about biopotency and the difficulties of development in CMM, and discussed development ideas of biopotency based on PK-PD for CMM. Its main aim is to provide reference for the construction of the follow-up quality evaluation system, and to promote recognition from the international drug administration management on CMM quality standard.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-853977

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clone the full-length cDNA encoding squalene epoxidase (SE), which is the key enzyme involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Inonotus baumii, and analyze its bioinformates. Methods: Taking total RNA as template, the full length cDNA and DNA of SE in I. baumii was cloned through RT-PCR and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The bioinformatics of SE gene were analyzed by ExPASy on line. Results: Sequence analysis showed that it consisted of 2145 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 452 bp, encoding 483 amino acid polypeptides. SE gene contained six exons and five introns. The relative molecular mass of SE calculated was 5.3 × 104, the isoelectric point (pI) was 8.41, and there was no signal peptide in SE. Conclusion: It is the first report that the cDNA encoding SE from I. baumii is cloned. This work provides a scientific basis for exploring the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway of the medicinal ingredient and improving its quality in I. baumii.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318017

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study cellular and humoral immune status on prophase of severe hepatitis B (PSHB).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>56 cases of PSHB patients, 40 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 20 cases of healthy volunteers were enrolled for detection of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD3-/CD19+ (B cells) lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. Serum IgG and complement C3 was detected by immunoturbidimetry and analyzed statistically.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with CHB group and healthy control group, percentage of lymphocyte subsets CD8+ were significantly lower in PSHB group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). While the percentage of lymphocyte subsets CD4+ and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in PSHB group was obviously higher than those in CHB group (P < 0.+01 or P < 0.05). In addition, There was no significant difference on the percentage of B cell and level of serum IgG between PSHB group and CHB group (P > 0.05, while the level of serum complement C3 in PSHB group were significantly lower than those in CHB group and healthy control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PSHB has a certain degree of cellular immune dysfunction, which characterized by cellular immune function hyperfunction and humoral immune suppression.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Complement C3 , Allergy and Immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Young Adult
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165477

ABSTRACT

The microRNA (miRNA) regulation mechanisms associated with atherosclerosis are largely undocumented. Specific selection and efficient validation of miRNA regulation pathways involved in atherosclerosis development may be better assessed by contemporary microarray platforms applying cross-verification methodology. A screening platform was established using both miRNA and genomic microarrays. Microarray analysis was then simultaneously performed on pooled atherosclerotic aortic tissues from 10 Apolipoprotein E (apoE) knockout mice (apoE-/-) and 10 healthy C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Differentiated miRNAs were screened and cross-verified against an mRNA screen database to explore integrative mRNA-miRNA regulation. Gene set enrichment analysis was conducted to describe the potential pathways regulated by these mRNA-miRNA interactions. High-throughput data analysis of miRNA and genomic microarrays of knockout and healthy control mice revealed 75 differentially expressed miRNAs in apoE-/- mice at a threshold value of 2. The six miRNAs with the greatest differentiation expression were confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in atherosclerotic tissues. Significantly enriched pathways, such as the type 2 diabetes mellitus pathway, were observed by a gene-set enrichment analysis. The enriched molecular pathways were confirmed through qRT-PCR evaluation by observing the presence of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and SOCS3-related miRNAs, miR-30a, miR-30e and miR-19b. Cross-verified high-throughput microarrays are optimally accurate and effective screening methods for miRNA regulation profiles associated with atherosclerosis. The identified SOCS3 pathway is a potentially valuable target for future development of targeted miRNA therapies to control atherosclerosis development and progression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/deficiency , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Down-Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , MicroRNAs/genetics , Models, Biological , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274757

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To describe the incidence trends and to access the histological changing patterns of thyroid cancer in urban areas of Beijing.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Total of 4883 new cases diagnosed as thyroid cancer in 1995-2010 in urban areas of Beijing were extracted from the population-based data base of Beijing cancer registry, among which 1185 were males and 3698 were females with a coverage population of 56 143 454 person-years and 54 430 655 person-years, respectively. Incidence, age adjusted incidence, annual percentage change (APC) and gender specific incidence change of different histology patterns during last 16 years were calculate.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 4883 cases diagnosed as thyroid cancer during 1995 - 2010 with the sex ratio of 1:3 (1185 males and 3698 females). Incidence rate of thyroid cancer in urban areas of Beijing increased dramatically from 1.55/100 000 (97/6 245 016) in 1995 to 9.90/100 000 (768/7 758 759) in 2010 with an increase rate of 538.71%. After adjusted by world population, the standardized incidence rate increased from 1.27/100 000 in 1995 to 6.96/100 000 in 2010 with a 12.12% annual percentage change (APC = 12.12%, P < 0.05). Among males, incidence rate increased from 0.85/100 000 (27/3 185 669) to 4.58/100 000 (179/3 912 458) with an increase rate of 438.82%. After adjusted by world population, the standardized incidence rate of males increased from 0.68/100 000 in 1995 to 3.19/100 000 in 2010 with an 11.09% annual percentage change (APC = 11.09%, P < 0.05). Among females, the incidence rate increased from 2.29/100 000 (70/3 059 347) to 15.31/100 000 (589/3 846 301) with an increase rate of 568.56%. After adjusted by world population, the standardized incidence rate of females increased from 1.89/100 000 in 1995 to 10.82/100 000 in 2010 with a 12.48% annual percentage change (APC = 12.48%, P < 0.05). Incidence rate ranked 18th and 12th in 1995 among males and females, respectively; while it ranked 14th and 5th in 2010 respectively. Among 4883 cases, 4594 cases were confirmed histologically as primary tumor accounting for 94.08% of total cases. Papillary carcinoma was the most common subtype accounting for 77.31% (3775/4883) of total cases. Among all the pathological types of thyroid cancer, the proportion of papillary carcinoma has risen from 51.55% (50/97) in 1995 to 87.63% (673/768) in 2010. However, the proportion of the follicular carcinoma decreased from 5.15% (5/97) to 1.69% (13/768).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Incidence of thyroid cancer in urban areas of Beijing keeps increasing which is mainly due to the rising of papillary carcinoma. Risk factors of papillary thyroid cancer should be focused on when strategies for thyroid cancer prevention and control are conducted.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , Young Adult
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305066

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the characteristics of immunocompetent cells in peripheral blood on prophase of severe hepatitis B (PSHB).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>48 cases of PSHB patients, 35 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 20 cases of healthy volunteers were enrolled for detection of CD3+, CD3+/ CD4+, CD3+/CD8+ and CD4+/CD25+/CD45+ lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. The absolute numbers of each lymphocyte subset were calculated and analyzed statistically. Results Compared with CHB group and healthy control group, The absolute numbers of circulating CD3+, CD8+ T cells and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were significantly lower in PSHB group( P < 0. 01 or P < 0.05). There was no significant difference on the absolute numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells between PSHB group and CHB group (P > 9.05), while the percentage of lymphocyte subsets CD4+ in PSHB group was significantly higher than that in CHB group (P < 0.05). In addition, CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PSHB were significantly higher than those in the CHB group and healthy control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PSHB has a certain degree of cellular immune dysfunction, which characterized by CD4+ T cells dominated and the decline of absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells and CD4+ CD25+ Tregs.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Young Adult
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326260

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the results of the active follow-up among registered cancer patients in 2002 - 2005 in urban areas of Beijing.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A number of 63 997 cancer patients diagnosed during 2002 - 2005 were selected from the surveillance database of Beijing Office for Cancer Prevention and Control. By matching the identity information of the patients with the death surveillance database built by the vital statistic department in Beijing, 29 223 patients were confirmed to be alive.1149 cases were removed from the study due to lack of exact key variables, such as address and telephone numbers. 28 074 patients were, at last, included in the active follow-up study. The investigators and the inspectors, who accepted standard training program, investigated each patient's status of census register and survival condition by phone calling, household interview and visits at local police station or residential committee. The loss ratio of follow-up and the constituent ratio of the withdrawal reasons were calculated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the 28 074 patients selected in active follow-up, 21 696 patients were followed successfully; 1453 of whom didn't have the census register of Beijing, which accounted for 6.70%. Out of the other 20 243 Beijing residents, 4715 patients (23.29%) were already dead and 84.22% (3971/4715) of them replenished the failure to report by passive follow-up. Among all the 4715 dead cases, 4405 (93.43%) patients were died from cancer. The follow-up study helped to replenish the vital statistics in different districts, the ratio ranged from 4.87% and 8.85%. 6378 patients were withdrawn from the study. The loss ratio was 22.72% (6378/28 074), and the total loss ratio was 12.03% ((6378 + 1149)/(63 997 - 1453)). Of these withdrawal cases, 3041 (47.68%) were lost to follow-up in that the investigators can't find the patients or the relatives of the patients according to the registered phone number or address information. The other reasons included: the patients removed to other areas (1199 cases, 18.80%), the patients and their family members were temporarily not at home (127 cases, 1.99%), the patients and their family members rejected to answer the interview (292 cases, 4.58%), and other reasons (1719 cases, 26.95%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method of active follow-up towards registered cancer patients can replenish the missing information which could not be collected from passive follow-up procedure; and therefore effectively improve the quality of data in cancer registration.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Mortality , Vital Statistics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326191

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the incidence and mortality trends of female breast cancer in urban and rural areas of Beijing from 2004 to 2008.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The incidence and mortality data of female breast cancer from 2004 to 2008 were sorted from Beijing Cancer Registry Database, including 15 527 new diagnosed cases and 3219 deceased cases in total, covering population 29 351 258 person years; among which 11 065 new cases and 2378 deceased cases were from urban areas, covering 17 877 128 person years and 4462 new diagnosed cases and 841 deceased cases were from rural areas, covering 11 474 130 person years. The incidence cases aged 25 and above were divided into 13 age groups by 5 years. The cases under 49 years (≤ 49) and over 49 years (> 49) were separately defined as premenopausal group and postmenopausal group. Incidence and mortality rates in each year, age-specific incidence and mortality rates in urban and rural areas in Beijing were calculated. The annual standard incidence and mortality rates were adjusted by world population constitution; and the incidence rates ratio in different years related to the place of residence, urban or rural were calculated. JoinPoint software was applied to analyze the incidence trend and calculated the annual percentage of changing (APC).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The age of female breast cancer patients in urban Beijing in 2004 was (55.83 ± 13.01), while it changed to (56.10 ± 12.80) in 2008, increasing by 0.27 years old. The proportion of the patients who were under 49 years declined from 38.32% (732/1910) in 2004 to 34.02% (894/2628) in 2008. While the average age of the patients in rural areas have improved 0.21 year old, from (52.15 ± 11.33) years old in 2004 to (52.36 ± 11.59) years old in 2008; and the proportion of the patients under 49 years also declined from 45.44% (314/691) in 2004 to 43.40% (454/1046) in 2008. From 2004 to 2008, the incidence and mortality rate of female breast cancer in urban areas of Beijing separately rose from 55.43/100 000 (1910/3 445 812) and 10.65/100 000 (367/3 445 812) to 70.70/100 000 (2628/3 717 436) and 15.01/100 000 (558/3 717 436). And in rural areas, those rates separately rose from 30.60/100 000 (691/2 257 953) and 5.54/100 000 (125/2 257 953) in 2004 to 44.78/100 000 (1046/2 336 040) and 7.49/100 000 (175/2 336 040) in 2008. After adjusting by world population constitution, the difference showed no statistical significance in mortality trend of female breast cancer in rural areas of Beijing (P > 0.05). In year 2004, the female breast cancer incidence rate ratio of urban to rural areas in Beijing fluctuated between 1.34 and 4.47, with the average ratio value at 1.81. In year 2008, the ratio value fluctuated between 1.15 and 2.37, with the average ratio value at 1.57. During 2004 and 2008, the peak age group of the female breast cancer incidence in urban areas was in 60 - 64 years old group, with the rate of 126.92/100 000 (998/786 300) whereas the mortality rate was increasing within aging. In rural areas the peak age groups of the incidence and mortality were separately in 50 - 54 and 80 - 84 years old groups, with the rate of 80.63/100 000 (793/983 516) and 29.17/100 000 (40/137 132) respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The incidence and mortality of breast cancer in urban areas in Beijing, as well as the incidence of breast cancer in rural areas in Beijing showed increasing trend annually. The gap in breast cancer incidence between rural and urban areas in Beijing was narrowing, while the incidence rate among different aging groups and the peak mortality rate showed significant difference between urban and rural areas in Beijing.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Mortality , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Survival Rate
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319808

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine the association of activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) with apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under simulated ischemia/reperfusion.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ventricular cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats were incubated in ischemia-mimetic solution for 2 h, then re-incubated in normal culture medium for 24 h to establish a model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay). The expression of CaSR mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of Caspase -3 and Bcl-2 was detected by Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The simulated I/R enhanced the expression of CaSR and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. GdCl(3), a specific activator of CaSR, further increased the expression of CaSR and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, along with upregulation of Caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CaSR is associated with I/R injury and apoptosis in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes via suppressing Bcl-2 and promoting Caspase -3 expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Physiology , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Metabolism , Pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Rats , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
15.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 92-98, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757116

ABSTRACT

Fertilization is a process involving multiple steps that lead to the final fusion of one sperm and the oocyte to form the zygote. One of the steps, acrosome reaction (AR), is an exocytosis process, during which the outer acrosome membrane fuses with the inner sperm membrane, leading to the release of acrosome enzymes that facilitate sperm penetration of the egg investments. Though AR has been investigated for decades, the initial steps of AR in vivo, however, remain largely unknown. A well elucidated model holds the view that AR occurs on the surface of the zona pellucida (ZP), which is triggered by binding of sperm with one of the ZP glycosylated protein, ZP3. However, this model fails to explain the large number of 'falsely' acrosome-reacted sperms found within the cumulus layer in many species examined. With the emerging evidence of cross-talk between sperm and cumulus cells, the potential significance of AR in the cumulus oophorus, the outer layer of the egg, has been gradually revealed. Here we review the acrosome status within the cumulus layer, the cross-talk between sperm and cumulus cells with the involvement of a novel sperm-released factor, NYD-SP8, and re-evaluate the importance and physiological significance of the AR in the cumulus in fertilization.


Subject(s)
Acrosome Reaction , Physiology , Cell Communication , Cumulus Cells , Metabolism , Female , Fertilization , Physiology , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Oocytes , Metabolism , Progesterone , Physiology , Spermatozoa , Metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349878

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To measure lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene level in foods commonly consumed in Beijing, and compare the content difference between raw and cooked food.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-six commonly consumed foods of 8 classes were collected in Haidian district of Beijing from September to October in 2009. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine the content of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene in both raw and cooked samples.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Lutein was abundant in cucurbitaceous and solanaceous, allium and nuts, especially in Chinese chive (18 226.9 µg/100 g) and pumpkin (13 265.2 µg/100 g). Major sources of zeaxanthin included round pumpkin, green garlic shoot, corn and eggs, whose level of zeaxanthin were 444.6, 283.5, 279.7, 118.6 - 377.9 µg/100 g, respectively. Zeaxanthin level of those cooked foods changed to 483.9, 239.3, 279.1, 149.5 - 594.7 µg/100 g, respectively. The zeaxanthin level of cooked Chinese chive reached 1081.2 µg/100 g, while we did not detect any zeaxanthin in raw Chinese chive. β-carotene was present in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Carrot (17 234.3 µg/100 g) was a good source of β-carotene, while its level in cooked carrot was 17 013.5 µg/100 g.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Consuming the proper kinds of foods and changing the method of food processing were beneficial to increase the intake of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Cooking , Food , Food Analysis , Lutein , Xanthophylls , Zeaxanthins , beta Carotene
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295430

ABSTRACT

Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.


Subject(s)
Dosage Forms , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Osmosis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tablets
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264870

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the conditions and parameters of roller compaction of Banlangen effervsce tablet.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The experimentation adopts L9 (3(4)) orthogonal experiment to study the conditions and parameters of roller compaction of Banlangen effervsce tablet; studied factors that included roller pressure, roller speed and moisture content of power, which influence the result of granule yield and granule friability.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The optimal technique is: roller pressure at 1.5 MPa; roller speed at 15 Hz; moisture content of power at 1.5%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The study of roller compaction technique of Banlangen effervsce tablets provides some technicial consults of its research and production.</p>


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pressure , Tablets , Time Factors , Water , Chemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348084

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical effects of the maxillary molar distalization with modified Distal-Jet appliance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>15 patients (average age 12.3 year-old) with maxillary molars shifting mesially were selected as the subjects. Maxillary molars of all patients were distalized with modified Distal-Jet appliance.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All patients achieved good occlusion, normal overjet and overbite with modified Distal-Jet appliance.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Modified Distal-Jet appliance can distalize maxillary molars effectively.</p>


Subject(s)
Cephalometry , Female , Humans , Male , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Maxilla , Molar , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Orthodontic Appliances , Tooth Movement Techniques
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-676515

ABSTRACT

Very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR)is a transmembrane lipoprotein receptor and plays an important role in the disorder of lipid metabolism in diabetes.The finding of changes in expression and distribution of two subtypes of VLDLR in diabetes as well as the effective VLDLR gene therapy in hyperlipidemia have drawn attention to the VLDLR as a potential target for prevention of abnormal lipid metabolism in diabetes.

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