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Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2005 Jan; 36(1): 54-63
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35853


Six mark-release-recapture experiments with Anopheles saperoi Bohart and Ingram were performed in the Yona Forest, northern Okinawa, Japan from June 1998 - November 1999, in order to estimate the gonotrophic cycle, survival, spatial distribution, flight range, and population size of An. saperoi. Adults and immature An. saperoi were collected from the Yona Forest area, taken to the laboratory and maintained under a controlled temperature and humidity in order to get a lager number of mosquitos for the mark-release-recapture experiments. Cohorts of An. saperoi females and males, numbering 3,016, 4,728, 327, and 2,603 for experiments I, II, III, and IV, respectively, were released. Cohorts of An. saperoi females only, numbering 709 and 586 for experiments V and VI, respectively, were also released. At the release site, the An. saperoi were marked with 0.5% fluorescent dye Rhodamine B and released. The recapture rates were 14 (0.93%), 33 (1.40%), 3 (1.83%), 32 (2.46%), 14 (1.97%), and 22 (3.75%) for experiments 1, II, III, IV, V, and VI, respectively. The length of the gonotrophic cycle of the recaptured An. saperoi females was estimated to be about 4 days, through the dissection method. The daily survival rate was estimated to be 0.73 by regression coefficient. The spatial distribution of marked, recaptured An. saperoi was similar to that of unmarked captured An. saperoi. The spatial distribution of the marked, recaptured An. saperoi among the collection site categories was significantly different. The observed differences in the frequency distribution of marked recaptured An. saperoi were considered to be due to the spatial variation of the habitats between the collection sites. The maximum flight range of the recaptured An. saperoi recorded in this study was 0.93 km. The population size of An. saperoi females in the study area was estimated by the Seber method to be 23,841, 1,182, 3,514, 5,679, and 9,238 for experiments I, II, IV, V, and VI, respectively. The estimated population size has a low standard of error using the Seber method, therefore we estimated our population size reasonably well. The population attributes and ecology of An. saperoi in the Yona Forest, in northern Okinawa are discussed.

Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Female , Geography , Insect Vectors , Japan , Male , Mosquito Control , Population Surveillance
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2002 Sep; 33(3): 532-46
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33944


Anopheline mosquitos and their relation to malaria transmission were studied 3 times: in July and August, 1999; in December, 1999; and in August and September, 2000. The studies took place in the malaria endemic villages of Khammouane Province, southeast of Lao PDR. A total of 28 species were collected using human and animal bait. Human bait attracted predominantly Anopheles dirus and An. minimus, which were identified as vectors by the detection of sporozoites by dissection, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The vectorial capacity of An. dirus was 0.009-0.428, while that of An. minimus was 0.048-0.186. The inoculation rate of An. dirus was 0.052-0.137 (Boualapha; August, 2000). An. nivipes and its sister species, An. philippinensis, were principally zoophilic, although a considerable number of the females were also attracted to human bait in the villages of the paddy field areas. An. philippinensis infected with oocysts of P. vivax was detected in a specimen collected by animal bait. These two species were considered as vectors in Khammouane Province. Four species, An. notanandai, An. sawadwongporni, An. willmori, and An. hodgkini, had not been recored before in Lao PDR. Information is provided on host preference and the nocturnal biting activities of common species and the incidence of malaria in the study areas.

Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Humans , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Laos/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Population Density , Prevalence , Seasons , Spores, Protozoan/physiology
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2002 Jun; 33(2): 246-54
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32503


In order to provide basic data for evaluation of malaria control measures, a study on the knowledge and behavior of people regarding prevention of malaria was carried out in 8 malaria endemic villages in Khammouane Province of Lao PDR from 1999 to 2000. The total valid questionnaire respondents were 932, with a mean age of 32.3 +/- 14.9. 43.7% of the respondents were illiterate. About 44% of the respondents suffered from malaria in the past. About 55% of the illiterate group slept in mosquito nets, compared to 75.4% for the educated group. About 29% of the illiterate respondents had knowledge of malaria transmission by mosquito bites, compared to 48.8% for the educated groups. Out of 167 non-impregnated mosquito nets examined in two villages, 13 were in bad condition having holes or leaks and 39 female mosquitos including Anopheles spp were collected in these nets by early morning catches. Knowledge of malaria and behavior in relation to the prevention of malaria were significantly related to educational level. Health education as well as general education must be taken into account for communities in malaria endemic areas to become more involved in malaria control strategies.

Adult , Endemic Diseases , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Laos/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2002 Mar; 33(1): 63-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35396


An ecological survey of dengue vector mosquitos was carried out in June 2000 in central Lao PDR. Two areas in Khammouane Province, Nongbok and Thakhek, were selected for the survey. Of the 7 mosquito species identified, Aedes aegypti was dominant in both study areas. The container index for Ae. aegypti in Nongbok was 51.8% and was significantly higher than that of Thakhek (40.2%); moreover, significant differences between the study areas were found with records to containers and to the conditions surrounding the houses. The key containers in Nongbok were water jars, whereas drums or small or discarded containers had the highest occurrence rate of Ae. aegypti in Thakhek. Mesocyclops aspericornis was found in large water jars and cement water tanks; no Aedes larvae were found at these sites. Strategy to control dengue vectors in the study areas was discussed.

Animals , Data Collection , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Insect Vectors , Laos/epidemiology