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Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2004 Jun; 35(2): 316-24
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31297


Mae Hong Son Province in northwestern Thailand has a long history of malaria. During the last two decades the province has had one of the highest malaria incidences of all provinces in Thailand. Data were analyzed to determine whether the vector populations were stable or increasing during the last two decades and to determine the seasonal prevalence of the main vectors, and whether or not they were related to the malaria transmission peak, in the wet season. We compiled and analyzed accumulated entomological records from 1977 to 1999. The aim was to investigate long-term changes in mean densities of malaria vectors between two periods (1977-1989 and 1990-1999), and the differences in vector densities between two seasons (wet and dry). A total of 141,144 adult anophelines of 29 species were collected on indoor and outdoor human baits and animal baits during the study period. Of the main malaria vectors, the densities of Anopheles minimus s.l. and Anopheles maculatus complex increased significantly. Anopheles dirus s.l., however, was stable between the two periods. These vector populations were associated with consistently high malaria incidence in the province during the last two decades. An. minimus s.l. density was not significantly different between seasons. However, in the second period, both An. dirus s.l. and An. maculatus complex showed a tendency for higher wet season densities. This can explain the high malaria incidence in the rainy season in Mae Hong Son. Environmental and climatic factors seem to have been favorable for supporting a consistently high vector population in the province, and consequently a high malaria transmission rate during the period of study.

Animals , Anopheles/classification , Humans , Incidence , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Population Density , Seasons , Species Specificity , Thailand/epidemiology , Time Factors
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2003 Dec; 34(4): 771-80
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35451


Anopheles minimus (Theobald) is one of the most important vectors of human malaria in Southeast Asia. Morphological studies now have revealed five sibling species as its complex, designated as species A to E. The present study investigated the genetic divergence among An. minimus populations from four countries (Japan, China, Thailand and Indonesia), based on the DNA sequences data of the D3 (the third domain of the 28S ribosomal gene) and ITS2 (the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal gene) is reported. The D3 and ITS2 phylogenetic trees, and the electrophoretic profile of ITS1 (the first internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal gene) indicated that our An. minimus populations are comprised of three groups: the Japanese population as group I, the population from Guangxi Province of China (GX population) as group II, and others, as group III. The results showed the morphological similarity of group III and GX with the species complex A and B, respectively. It is interesting that both two species A (YN population) and species B (GX) occur in China, and that both species, An. minimus species A (LB-95 population) and the closer population An. flavirostris (Ludlow) (LB-00 population) appeared to be present on the Lombok Island of Indonesia, although in far separated localities. Moreover, this molecular evidence confirms the previous suggestion that the population from the Ishigaki Island of Japan should be classified as a new genetic status species E.

Animals , Anopheles/genetics , Asia, Southeastern , Base Sequence , China , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Genetic Variation , Japan , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 28S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods