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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874868

ABSTRACT

Of all microorganisms in the human body, the largest and most complex population resides in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The gut microbiota continuously adapts to the host environment and serves multiple critical functions for their hosts, including regulating host immunity, procuring energy from food, and preventing the colonization of pathogens. Mounting evidence has suggested gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) as a core pathophysiology in the development of GI motility and metabolic disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and diabetes. Current research has focused on discovering associations between these disorders and gut microbial dysbiosis; however, whether these associations are a consequence or cause is still mostly unexplored. State-of-the-art studies have investigated how gut microbes communicate with our body systems through microbiota-derived metabolites and how they are able to modulate host physiology. There is now mounting evidence that alterations in the composition of small intestinal microbes have an association with GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders. Although treatment options for gut microbial dysbiosis are currently limited, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, and dietary interventions are currently the best options. However, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics has been viewed with skepticism due to the risk of developing antibiotic resistant bacteria. Studies are warranted to elucidate the cellular and molecular pathways underlying gut microbiota-host crosstalk and for the development of a powerful platform for future therapeutic approaches. Here, we review recent literature on gut microbial alterations and/or interactions involved in the pathophysiology of GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833871

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There has been major progress in our understanding of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and novel treatment classes have emerged. The Rome IV guidelines were published in 2016 and together with the growing body of Asian data on IBS, we felt it is timely to update the Asian IBS Consensus. METHODS: Key opinion leaders from Asian countries were organized into 4 teams to review 4 themes: symptoms and epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and investigations, and lifestyle modifications and treatments. The consensus development process was carried out by using a modified Delphi method. RESULTS: Thirty-seven statements were developed. Asian data substantiate the current global viewpoint that IBS is a disorder of gut-brain interaction. Socio-cultural and environmental factors in Asia appear to influence the greater overlap between IBS and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. New classes of treatments comprising low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosacharides, and polyols diet, probiotics, non-absorbable antibiotics, and secretagogues have good evidence base for their efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our consensus is that all patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders should be evaluated comprehensively with a view to holistic management. Physicians should be encouraged to take a positive attitude to the treatment outcomes for IBS patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Diet , Epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Intestines , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Methods , Probiotics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A Subset of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may have mild inflammation due to immune activation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines may cause intestinal inflammation. We studied their expression in relation to gut microbiota. METHODS: Expression of TLRs and cytokines was assessed in 47 IBS patients (Rome III) and 25 controls using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was further performed to confirm the expression of TLR-4 and TLR-5. RESULTS: Of 47 patients with IBS, 20 had constipation (IBS-C), 20 diarrhea (IBS-D), and 7 unclassified (IBS-U). The mRNA levels of TLR-4 and TLR-5 were up-regulated in IBS patients than controls (P = 0.013 and P < 0.001, respectively). Expression of TLR-4 and TLR-5 at protein level was 4.2-folds and 6.6-folds higher in IBS-D than controls. The mRNA levels of IL-6 (P = 0.003), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 (CXCL-11) (P < 0.001) and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR-3) (P < 0.001) were higher among IBS patients than controls. Expression of IL-6 (P = 0.002), CXCL-11 (P < 0.001), and CXCR-3 (P < 0.001) were up-regulated and IL-10 (P = 0.012) was down-regulated in IBS-D patients than controls. Positive correlation was seen between TLR-4 and IL-6 (P = 0.043), CXCR-3, and CXCL-11 (P = 0.047), and IL-6 and CXCR-3 (P = 0.003). Stool frequency per week showed positive correlation with mRNA levels of TLR-4 (P = 0.016) and CXCR-3 (P = 0.005), but inversely correlated with IL-10 (P = 0.002). Copy number of Lactobacillus (P = 0.045) and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.011) showed correlation with IL-10 in IBS-C, while Gram-positive (P = 0.031) and Gram-negative bacteria (P = 0.010) showed correlation with CXCL-11 in IBS-D patients. CONCLUSIONS: Altered immune activation in response to dysbiotic microbiota may promote intestinal inflammation in a subset of patients with IBS.


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium , Constipation , Cytokines , Diarrhea , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Peptidoglycan , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Though nocturnal acid-breakthrough (NAB) is common in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients, its clinical importance results from esophageal acidification, which has been shown to be uncommon. Ilaprazole, a long-acting proton pump inhibitor, may cause NAB infrequently. Accordingly, we studied prospectively, (1) frequency and degree of esophageal acidification during NAB, and (2) frequency and severity of NAB while on ilaprazole versus omeprazole. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with GERD on once daily ilaprazole, 10 mg (n = 28) or omeprazole, 20 mg (n = 30) for > one month underwent 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring prospectively. NAB was defined as intra-gastric pH one hour during night, and esophageal acidification as pH < 4 for any duration. Nocturnal symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, and chest pain) were also recorded. RESULTS: Of the 58 patients (age 35.5 [inter-quartile range 26.5–46.0] years, 38 [65.5%], 42 (72.4%) had NAB. Though patients with NAB had lower nocturnal intra-gastric pH than without (2.8 [1.9–4.1] vs 5.7 [4.6–6.8], P < 0.001), frequency and duration of nocturnal esophageal acidification (17/42 vs 4/16, P = 0.360 and 0.0 [0.0–1.0] vs 0.0 [0.0–0.3] minutes, P = 0.260, respectively) and symptoms were comparable (13/42 vs 6/16, P = 0.750). Though ilaprazole was associated with less NABs (1 [range 1–2, n = 19] vs 1 [range 1–3, n = 23], P = 0.010) than omeprazole, the frequency, duration, and mean intra-gastric pH during NAB were comparable (19/28 vs 23/30, P = 0.560; 117 [0–315] vs 159 [69–287] minutes, P = 0.500; 1.02 [0.7–1.4] vs 1.04 [0.44–1.3], P = 0.620, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Though NAB was common while patients were on a proton pump inhibitor, esophageal acidification was uncommon. Frequency and severity of NAB were comparable among patients on ilaprazole and omeprazole, except for the lesser number of NABs with ilaprazole.


Subject(s)
Chest Pain , Electric Impedance , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Omeprazole , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Thorax
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with exaggerated cerebral response including emotional processing following visceral stimulation; though data on this issue is available in female IBS patients, it is scanty among males. Hence, we aimed to study brain response of male IBS patients following rectal balloon distension as compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Data between diarrhea and constipation predominant IBS (IBS-D and IBS-C) were also compared. METHODS: Rectal balloon distension threshold was assessed in 20 male IBS patients (10 IBS-C and 10 IBS-D) and 10 age-matched male healthy controls. Subsequently, fMRI on all the participants was performed at their respective rectal pain threshold. The fMRI data were analysed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping software. RESULTS: IBS patients showed greater cerebral activations in insula, middle temporal gyrus, and cerebellum in the left hemisphere compared to healthy controls. Neural activation was found in bilateral precuneus/superior parietal lobules in controls but not in patients with IBS. The brain activation differed among IBS-C and IBS-D patients; while the right mid-cingulate cortex was activated in IBS-C, the left inferior orbito-frontal cortex, left calcarine, and bilateral fusiform gyri were activated among patients with IBS-D following rectal balloon distension. CONCLUSIONS: Brain response to rectal balloon distension differed among male patients with IBS and controls and among patients with IBS-C and IBS-D. Differential activation among patients with IBS-C and IBS-D was seen in the brain regions controlling affective motivation, homeostatic emotions, and autonomic responses to pain.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebellum , Constipation , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Motivation , Pain Threshold , Parietal Lobe , Temporal Lobe
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184087

ABSTRACT

A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain (“disorders of gut-brain interaction” not “brain-gut interaction”). The word “functional” is underplayed. Multi-dimensional clinical profile attempts to recognize micro-organic nature, like slow colon transit and fecal evacuation disorders in constipation and dietary intolerance including that of lactose and fructose, bile acid malabsorption, non-celiac wheat sensitivity, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and gastrointestinal infection in diarrhea. Overlap between different FGIDs has been recognized as Rome IV suggests these to be a spectrum rather than discrete disorders. Bloating, common in Asia, received attention, though less. Sub-typing of IBS may be more clinician-friendly now as the patient-reported stool form may be used than a diary. However, a few issues, peculiar to Asia, need consideration; Rome IV, like Rome III, suggests that Bristol type I–II stool to denote constipation though Asian experts include type III as well. Work-up for physiological factors should be given greater importance. Language issue is important. Bloating, common in IBS, should be listed in the criteria. Threshold values for symptoms in Rome IV criteria are based on Western data. Post-infectious malabsorption (tropical sprue) should be excluded to diagnose post-infectious IBS, particularly in Asia.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bile , Brain , Colon , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Dyspepsia , Fructose , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactose , Triticum
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 196-208, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194969

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), once thought to be largely psychogenic in origin, is now understood to be multifactorial. One of the reasons for this paradigm shift is the realization that gut dysbiosis, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), causes IBS symptoms. Between 4% and 78% of patients with IBS and 1% and 40% of controls have SIBO; such wide variations in prevalence might result from population differences, IBS diagnostic criteria, and, most importantly, methods to diagnose SIBO. Although quantitative jejunal aspirate culture is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, noninvasive hydrogen breath tests have been popular. Although the glucose hydrogen breath test is highly specific, its sensitivity is low; in contrast, the early-peak criteria in the lactulose hydrogen breath test are highly nonspecific. Female gender, older age, diarrhea-predominant IBS, bloating and flatulence, proton pump inhibitor and narcotic intake, and low hemoglobin are associated with SIBO among IBS patients. Several therapeutic trials targeting gut microbes using antibiotics and probiotics have further demonstrated that not all symptoms in patients with IBS originate in the brain but rather in the gut, providing support for the micro-organic basis of IBS. A recent proof-of-concept study showing the high frequency of symptom improvement in patients with IBS with SIBO further supports this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Brain , Breath Tests , Diagnosis , Dysbiosis , Female , Flatulence , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucose , Humans , Hydrogen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactulose , Prevalence , Probiotics , Proton Pumps
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), diagnosed by symptom-based criteria due to lack of biomarkers, need translated-validated questionnaires in different languages. As Bengali, the mother tongue of Bangladesh and eastern India, is the seventh most spoken language in the world, we translated and validated the Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q) in this language. METHODS: The EAR3Q was translated in Bengali as per guideline from the Rome Foundation. The translated questionnaire was validated prospectively on Bengali-speaking healthy subjects (HS, n = 30), and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, n = 35), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 40) and functional constipation (FC, n = 12) diagnosed by clinicians using the Rome III criteria. The subjects were asked to fill-in the questionnaire again after 2 weeks, to check for its reproducibility. RESULTS: During translation, the original and the backward translated English versions of the questionnaire demonstrated high concordance. Sensitivity of the Bengali questionnaire to diagnose patients with FD, IBS, FC, and HS was 100%, 100%, 75%, and 100%, respectively, considering diagnosis by the clinicians as the gold standard. On test-retest reliability analysis, Kappa values for FD, IBS, FC, and HS were 1.0, 1.0, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The Bengali questionnaire detected considerable overlap of FD symptoms among patients with IBS, IBS among patients with FD, and FD among patients with FC, which were not detected by the clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully translated and validated the EAR3Q in Bengali. We believe that this translated questionnaire will be useful for clinical evaluation and research on FGIDs in the Bengali-speaking population.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bangladesh , Biomarkers , Constipation , Diagnosis , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , India , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Mothers , Prospective Studies , Tongue
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 932-938, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because Methanobrevibacter smithii produces methane, delaying gut transit, we evaluated M. smithii loads in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for M. smithii was performed on the feces of 47 IBS patients (Rome III) and 30 HC. On the lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT, done for 25 IBS patients), a fasting methane result ≥10 ppm using 10 g of lactulose defined methane-producers. RESULTS: Of 47, 20 had constipation (IBS-C), 20 had diarrhea (IBS-D) and seven were not sub-typed. The M. smithii copy number was higher among IBS patients than HC (Log₁₀5.4, interquartile range [IQR; 3.2 to 6.3] vs 1.9 [0.0 to 3.4], p<0.001), particularly among IBS-C compared to IBS-D patients (Log₁₀6.1 [5.5 to 6.6] vs 3.4 [0.6 to 5.7], p=0.001); the copy number negatively correlated with the stool frequency (R=−0.420, p=0.003). The M. smithii copy number was higher among methane-producers than nonproducers (Log₁₀6.4, IQR [5.7 to 7.4] vs 4.1 [1.8 to 5.8], p=0.001). Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the best cutoff for M. smithii among methane producers was Log₁₀6.0 (sensitivity, 64%; specificity, 86%; area under curve [AUC], 0.896). The AUC for breath methane correlated with the M. smithii copy number among methane producers (r=0.74, p=0.008). Abdominal bloating was more common among methane producers (n=9/11 [82%] vs 5/14 [36%], p=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBS, particularly IBS-C, had higher copy numbers of M. smithii than HC. On LHBT, breath methane levels correlated with M. smithii loads.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Breath Tests , Constipation , Diarrhea , Fasting , Feces , Humans , Hydrogen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactulose , Methane , Methanobrevibacter , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 932-938, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because Methanobrevibacter smithii produces methane, delaying gut transit, we evaluated M. smithii loads in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for M. smithii was performed on the feces of 47 IBS patients (Rome III) and 30 HC. On the lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT, done for 25 IBS patients), a fasting methane result ≥10 ppm using 10 g of lactulose defined methane-producers. RESULTS: Of 47, 20 had constipation (IBS-C), 20 had diarrhea (IBS-D) and seven were not sub-typed. The M. smithii copy number was higher among IBS patients than HC (Log₁₀5.4, interquartile range [IQR; 3.2 to 6.3] vs 1.9 [0.0 to 3.4], p<0.001), particularly among IBS-C compared to IBS-D patients (Log₁₀6.1 [5.5 to 6.6] vs 3.4 [0.6 to 5.7], p=0.001); the copy number negatively correlated with the stool frequency (R=−0.420, p=0.003). The M. smithii copy number was higher among methane-producers than nonproducers (Log₁₀6.4, IQR [5.7 to 7.4] vs 4.1 [1.8 to 5.8], p=0.001). Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the best cutoff for M. smithii among methane producers was Log₁₀6.0 (sensitivity, 64%; specificity, 86%; area under curve [AUC], 0.896). The AUC for breath methane correlated with the M. smithii copy number among methane producers (r=0.74, p=0.008). Abdominal bloating was more common among methane producers (n=9/11 [82%] vs 5/14 [36%], p=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBS, particularly IBS-C, had higher copy numbers of M. smithii than HC. On LHBT, breath methane levels correlated with M. smithii loads.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Breath Tests , Constipation , Diarrhea , Fasting , Feces , Humans , Hydrogen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactulose , Methane , Methanobrevibacter , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14532

ABSTRACT

BAome III criteria. METHODS: After EAR3Q was developed by Asian experts by cCKGROUND/AIMS: The development-processes by regional socio-cultural adaptation of an Enhanced Asian Rome III questionnaire (EAR3Q), a cultural adaptation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire (R3DQ), and its translation-validation in Asian languages are presented. As English is not the first language for most Asians, translation-validation of EAR3Q is essential. Hence, we aimed to culturally adapt the R3DQ to develop EAR3Q and linguistically validate it to show that the EAR3Q is able to allocate diagnosis according to Ronsensus, it was translated into Chinese, Hindi-Telugu, Indonesian, Korean, and Thai, following Rome Foundation guidelines; these were then validated on native subjects (healthy [n = 60], and patients with irritable bowel syndrome [n = 59], functional dyspepsia [n = 53] and functional constipation [n = 61]) diagnosed by clinicians using Rome III criteria, negative alarm features and investigations. RESULTS: Experts noted words for constipation, bloating, fullness and heartburn, posed difficulty. The English back-translated questionnaires demonstrated concordance with the original EAR3Q. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaires were high enough to diagnose respective functional gastrointestinal disorders (gold standard: clinical diagnoses) in most except Korean and Indonesian languages. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping functional gastrointestinal disorders. Test-retest agreement (kappa) values of the translated questionnaires were high (0.700-1.000) except in Korean (0.300-0.500) and Indonesian (0.100-0.400) languages at the initial and 2-week follow-up visit. CONCLUSIONS: Though Chinese, Hindi and Telugu translations were performed well, Korean and Indonesian versions were not. Questionnaires often uncovered overlapping FGIDs, which were quite common.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Constipation , Diagnosis , Dyspepsia , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Heartburn , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity , Translations
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Achalasia is known to result from degeneration of inhibitory neurons, which are mostly nitrinergic. Characteristic features of achalasia include incomplete lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and esophageal aperistalsis. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO synthase (NOS), plays an important role in peristalsis and LES relaxation. Therefore, we evaluated genetic polymorphisms of NOS gene isoforms (endothelial NOS [eNOS], inducible NOS [iNOS], and neuronal NOS [nNOS]) in patients with achalasia and healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: Consecutive patients with achalasia (diagnosed using esophageal manometry) and HS were genotyped for 27-base pair (bp) eNOS variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), iNOS22G/A (rs1060826), nNOS C/T (rs2682826) polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), respectively. RESULTS: Among 183 patients (118 [64.5%] male, age 39.5 +/- 13.0 years) with achalasia and 366 HS (254 [69.4%] male, age 40.8 +/- 11.0 years), eNOS4a4a genotype of 27-bp VNTR was more common among achalasia than HS (20 [10.9%] vs 13 [3.6%]; P < 0.001; OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.8-7.7). Patients with achalasia had iNOS22GA genotypes more often than HS (95 [51.9%] vs 93 [25.4%]; P < 0.001; OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.1-4.4). Frequency of genotypes GA + AA was higher in patients than HS (97 [53%] vs 107 [29.2%]; P < 0.001; OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.8-3.9). Also, nNOS29TT variant genotype in rs2682826 was more common among patients compared to HS (14 [7.7%] vs 6 [1.6%]; P < 0.001; OR, 5.91; 95% CI, 2.2-15.8). CONCLUSIONS: Achalasia is associated with eNOS4a4a, iNOS22GA, and nNOS29TT genotypes. This may suggest that polymorphisms of eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS genes are risk factors for achalasia.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Genotype , Humans , Male , Minisatellite Repeats , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Peristalsis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Isoforms , Relaxation , Risk Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data on frequency of fecal evacuation disorder (FED) among patients with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS), hitherto an enigmatic condition, are scanty. Moreover, most such studies had limitations due to small sample size and lack of inclusion of healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Forty patients with SRUS underwent symptom assessments, sigmoidoscopy, anorectal manometry, defecography, balloon expulsion test (BET); endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) of anal sphincter complex was performed in a subgroup. Physiological tests (anorectal manometry and BET) were also performed in 19 HC. RESULTS: Patients with SRUS (26/40 male, age 37 [18-80] years) more often had FED than HC (10/19 male, age 43 [25-72] years) as shown by weight needed to expel the balloon (300 [0-700] g vs. 100 [0-400] g; P = 0.006), a trend towards abnormal BET (need of > 200 g weight for expulsion) (21/40 [53%] vs. 5/19 [26%], P = 0.058) and impaired anal relaxation (14/40 [35%] vs 2/19 [10.5%]; P = 0.048). Using Rome III criteria, most patients with SRUS reported having chronic constipation (36/40 [90%]) in spite of having normal (Bristol stool type IV, 21/40 [53%]) and diarrheal (types V, VI, VII, 6/40 [20%]) stool forms (Asian classification). SRUS patients more often (17/40 [43%]) had functional defecation disorder (Rome III criteria). Patients with SRUS with abnormal BET had thicker internal anal sphincter than those without (3.9 [3.4-7.0] mm vs 2.8 [2.0-4.0] mm; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: FED was commoner among patients with SRUS as evidenced by abnormal BET and sphincter relaxation. Those with abnormal BET had thicker internal sphincter on EUS than those without.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Case-Control Studies , Constipation , Defecation , Defecography , Humans , Male , Manometry , Relaxation , Sample Size , Sigmoidoscopy , Symptom Assessment , Ulcer , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101971

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46115

ABSTRACT

Chronic constipation (CC) may impact on quality of life. There is substantial patient dissatisfaction; possible reasons are failure to recognize underlying constipation, inappropriate dietary advice and inadequate treatment. The aim of these practical guidelines intended for primary care physicians, and which are based on Asian perspectives, is to provide an approach to CC that is relevant to the existing health-care infrastructure. Physicians should not rely on infrequent bowel movements to diagnose CC as many patients have one or more bowel movement a day. More commonly, patients present with hard stool, straining, incomplete feeling, bloating and other dyspeptic symptoms. Physicians should consider CC in these situations and when patients are found to use laxative containing supplements. In the absence of alarm features physicians may start with a 2-4 week therapeutic trial of available pharmacological agents including osmotic, stimulant and enterokinetic agents. Where safe to do so, physicians should consider regular (as opposed to on demand dosing), combination treatment and continuous treatment for at least 4 weeks. If patients do not achieve satisfactory response, they should be referred to tertiary centers for physiological evaluation of colonic transit and pelvic floor function. Surgical referral is a last resort, which should be considered only after a thorough physiological and psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Colon , Constipation , Health Resorts , Humans , Pelvic Floor , Physicians, Primary Care , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Referral and Consultation , Sprains and Strains
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