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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830943

ABSTRACT

Fluoxetine is used widely as an antidepressant for the treatment of cancer-related depression, but has been reported to also have anti-cancer activity. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of fluoxetine to human gastric adenocarcinoma cells; as shown by the MTT assay, fluoxetine induced cell death. Subsequently, cells were treated with 10 or 20 μM fluoxetine for 24 h and analyzed. Apoptosis was confirmed by the increased number of early apoptotic cells, shown by Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. Nuclear condensation was visualized by DAPI staining. A significant increase in the expression of cleaved PARP was observed by western blotting. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was used to detect the extent of caspase-dependent cell death. The induction of autophagy was determined by the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), which was visualized by acridine orange staining, and the increased expression of autophagy markers, such as LC3B, Beclin 1, and p62/SQSTM 1, observed by western blotting. The expression of upstream proteins, such as p-Akt and p-mTOR, were decreased. Autophagic degradation was evaluated by using bafilomycin, an inhibitor of late-stage autophagy. Bafilomycin did not significantly enhance LC3B expression induced by fluoxetine, which suggested autophagic degradation was impaired. In addition, the co-administration of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and fluoxetine significantly increased fluoxetine-induced apoptosis, with decreased p-Akt and markedly increased death receptor 4 and 5 expression. Our results suggested that fluoxetine simultaneously induced both protective autophagy and apoptosis and that the inhibition of autophagy enhanced fluoxetine-induced apoptosis through increased death receptor expression.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830929

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus affects the colonic motility developing gastrointestinal symptoms, such as constipation. The aim of the study was to examine the role of intracellular signaling pathways contributing to colonic dysmotility in diabetes mellitus. To generate diabetes mellitus, the rats were injected by a single high dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The proximal colons from both normal and diabetic rats were contracted by applying an electrical field stimulation with pulse voltage of 40 V in amplitude and pulse duration of 1 ms at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 6 Hz. The muscle strips from both normal rats and rats with diabetes mellitus were pretreated with different antagonists and inhibitors. Rats with diabetes mellitus had lower motility than the control group. There were significant differences in the percentage of inhibition of contraction between normal rats and rats with diabetes mellitus after the incubation of tetrodotoxin (neuronal blocker), atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), prazosin (α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist), DPCPX (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), verapamil (L-type Ca2+ channel blocker), U73122 (PLC inhibitor), ML-9 (MLCK inhibitor), udenafil (PDE5 inhibitor), and methylene blue (guanylate cyclase inhibitor). The protein expression of p-MLC and PDE5 were decreased in the diabetic group compared to the normal group. These results showed that the reduced colonic contractility resulted from the impaired neuronal conduction and decreased muscarinic receptor sensitivity, which resulted in decreased phosphorylation of MLC via MLCK, and cGMP activity through PDE5.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761790

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen sulfide is well-known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities, and also has protective effects in the liver. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide in rats with hepatic encephalopathy, which was induced by mild bile duct ligation. In this rat model, bile ducts were mildly ligated for 26 days. Rats were treated for the final 5 days with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS (25 µmol/kg), 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, or silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 5 consecutive days. Mild bile duct ligation caused hepatotoxicity and inflammation in rats. Intraperitoneal NaHS administration reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, which are indicators of liver disease, compared to levels in the control mild bile duct ligation group. Levels of ammonia, a major causative factor of hepatic encephalopathy, were also significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, catalase, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured to confirm antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors with neurotoxic activity were assessed for subunit NMDA receptor subtype 2B. Based on these data, NaHS is suggested to exhibit hepatoprotective effects and guard against neurotoxicity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Ammonia , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bile Ducts , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Catalase , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hydrogen Sulfide , Inflammation , Ligation , Liver , Liver Diseases , Malondialdehyde , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Necrosis , Peroxidase , Rats , Silymarin , Sodium
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713582

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of hypothermia on endothelium-independent vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism underlying the relaxation. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Hypothermia significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A2-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting that another pathway had a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle. Hypothermia significantly inhibited the fluoride-induced increase in pMYPT1 level and phorbol ester-induced increase in pERK1/2 level, suggesting inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activity and subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and ERK1/2. These results suggest that the relaxing effect of moderate hypothermia on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function involves inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fluorides , Humans , Hypothermia , Isometric Contraction , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Nitric Oxide , Phosphorylation , Rats , Relaxation , rho-Associated Kinases
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715617

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the effects of pelargonidin, an anthocyanidin found in many fruits and vegetables, on endothelium-independent vascular contractility to determine the underlying mechanism of relaxation. Isometric contractions of denuded aortic muscles from male rats were recorded, and the data were combined with those obtained in western blot analysis. Pelargonidin significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A2-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions, regardless of the presence or absence of endothelium, suggesting a direct effect of the compound on vascular smooth muscles via a different pathway. Pelargonidin significantly inhibited the fluoride-dependent increase in the level of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation at Thr-855 and the phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-dependent increase in the level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation at Thr202/Tyr204, suggesting the inhibition of Rho-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activities and subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and ERK1/2. These results suggest that the relaxation effect of pelargonidin on agonist-dependent vascular contractions includes inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activities, independent of the endothelial function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthocyanins , Aorta , Blotting, Western , Endothelium , Fluorides , Fruit , Humans , Isometric Contraction , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Muscles , Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Rats , Relaxation , rho-Associated Kinases , Vasoconstriction , Vegetables
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714739

ABSTRACT

A previous study in humans demonstrated the sustained inhibitory effects of donepezil on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity; however, the effective concentration of donepezil in humans and animals is unclear. This study aimed to characterize the effective concentration of donepezil on AChE inhibition and impaired learning and memory in rodents. A pharmacokinetic study of donepezil showed a mean peak plasma concentration of donepezil after oral treatment (3 and 10 mg/kg) of approximately 1.2 ± 0.4 h and 1.4 ± 0.5 h, respectively; absolute bioavailability was calculated as 3.6%. Further, AChE activity was inhibited by increasing plasma concentrations of donepezil, and a maximum inhibition of 31.5 ± 5.7% was observed after donepezil treatment in hairless rats. Plasma AChE activity was negatively correlated with plasma donepezil concentration. The pharmacological effects of donepezil are dependent upon its concentration and AChE activity; therefore, we assessed the effects of donepezil on learning and memory using a Y-maze in mice. Donepezil treatment (3 mg/kg) significantly prevented the progression of scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. As the concentration of donepezil in the brain increased, the recovery of spontaneous alternations also improved; maximal improvement was observed at 46.5 ± 3.5 ng/g in the brain. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the AChE inhibitory activity and pharmacological effects of donepezil can be predicted by the concentration of donepezil. Further, 46.5 ± 3.5 ng/g donepezil is an efficacious target concentration in the brain for treating learning and memory impairment in rodents.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Biological Availability , Brain , Humans , Learning , Memory , Mice , Plasma , Rats, Hairless , Rodentia
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717999

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive collection of proteins senses local changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i) and transduces these signals into responses to agonists. In the present study, we examined the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on modulation of intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells. To measure [Ca²⁺](i) levels in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells, we used a fluorescence microscopy with the Fura-2 loading method. S1P produced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in the cells. Pretreatment with EGTA, an extracellular Ca²⁺ chelator, decreased the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i), and an L-type Ca²⁺-channel blocker, nimodipine, decreased the effect of S1P. This indicates that Ca²⁺ influx may be required for muscle contraction by S1P. When stimulated with thapsigargin, an intracellular calcium chelator, or 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an InsP₃ receptor blocker, the S1P-evoked increase in [Ca²⁺](i) was significantly decreased. Treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of G(i)-protein, suppressed the increase in [Ca²⁺](i) evoked by S1P. These results suggest that the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells occurs upon the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent release of Ca²⁺ from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that S1P utilized extracellular Ca²⁺ via the L type Ca²⁺ channel, which was dependent on activation of the S1P₄ receptor coupled to PTX-sensitive G(i) protein, via phospholipase C-mediated Ca²⁺ release from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Cats , Egtazic Acid , Fura-2 , Methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nimodipine , Pertussis Toxin , Phospholipases , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Thapsigargin , Type C Phospholipases
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728614

ABSTRACT

The exponential increase in the use of mobile communication has triggered public concerns about the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phones on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we explored the relationship between calcium channels and apoptosis or autophagy in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice after RF-EMF exposure with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 4 weeks. Firstly, the expression level of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), a key regulator of the entry of calcium ions into the cell, was confirmed by immunoblots. We investigated and confirmed that pan-calcium channel expression in hippocampal neurons were significantly decreased after exposure to RF-EMF. With the observed accumulation of autolysosomes in hippocampal neurons via TEM, the expressions of autophagy-related genes and proteins (e.g., LC3B-II) had significantly increased. However, down-regulation of the apoptotic pathway may contribute to the decrease in calcium channel expression, and thus lower levels of calcium in hippocampal neurons. These results suggested that exposure of RF-EMF could alter intracellular calcium homeostasis by decreasing calcium channel expression in the hippocampus; presumably by activating the autophagy pathway, while inhibiting apoptotic regulation as an adaptation process for 835 MHz RF-EMF exposure.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Calcium Channels , Calcium , Cell Phone , Central Nervous System , Down-Regulation , Electromagnetic Fields , Hippocampus , Homeostasis , Ions , Mice , Neurons
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727866

ABSTRACT

Bladder dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there have been a few studies evaluating bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we compared the contractility of bladder smooth muscle from normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we utilized pharmacological inhibitors to delineate the mechanisms underlying bladder muscle differences between normal and DM rats. DM was established in 14 days after using a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced electrically using electrical field stimulation consisting of pulse trains at an amplitude of 40 V and pulse duration of 1 ms at frequencies of 2–10 Hz. In this study, the pharmacological inhibitors atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (adenosine A₁ receptor antagonist), udenafil (PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (α₁-receptor antagonist), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) were used to pretreat bladder smooth muscles. It was found that the contractility of bladder smooth muscles from DM rats was lower than that of normal rats. In addition, there were significant differences in percent change of contractility between normal and DM rats following pretreatment with prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122. In conclusion, we suggest that the decreased bladder muscle contractility in DM rats was a result of perturbations in PLC/IP₃-mediated intracellular Ca²⁺ release and PDE5 activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atropine , Diabetes Mellitus , Muscle, Smooth , Phosphotransferases , Prazosin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727983

ABSTRACT

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition accompanied by symptoms such as edema and hemorrhage. Kimchi is a traditional fermented Korean dish consisting of various probiotics. In this study, the therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55 isolated from Kimchi was studied in AD-induced mice. Orally administered Lactobacillus strain, CJLP55, suppressed AD symptoms and high serum IgE levels. CJLP55 administration reduced the thickness of the epidermis, infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils into the skin lesion, enlargement of axillary lymph nodes, and increase in cell population in axillary lymph nodes. CJLP55 treatment decreased the production of type 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IL-6,which were stimulated by house dust mite extracts, in the axillary lymph node cells. Orally administered CJLP55 exhibited a therapeutic effect on house dust mite-induced AD in NC/Nga mice after onset of the disease by altering immune cell activation. The Lactobacillus strain, CJLP55, isolated from Kimchi, suppressed AD. Our results suggest its possible use as a potential candidate for management of AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dust , Edema , Eosinophils , Epidermis , Hemorrhage , Immunoglobulin E , Interferons , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Lactobacillus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lymph Nodes , Mast Cells , Mice , Probiotics , Pyroglyphidae , Skin , Th2 Cells , Therapeutic Uses
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Online pharmacies were introduced in some countries such as United States of America or Canada. They can provide benefits to consumer because they can buy and take conveniently drugs without limitation of location or time. In Korea, online pharmacies are illegal and only pharmacists can sell drugs to consumers or patients. Therefore, we investigated the knowledge of online pharmacy and the possible problem in Korea to survey pharmacists. METHODS: We developed questionnaire based on previous articles about online pharmacy and surveyed nation-wide pharmacists by mail or e-mail. The data was analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft Excel. P-values less than 0.05 were statistically significant. RESULTS: 175 pharmacists involved in this study. About introduction of online pharmacies, 53.1% were opposition while 10.3% were approval and 36.6% were conditional. Although online pharmacies were introduced, 46.3% pharmacists do not have a plan to start online pharmacy. However, the approval and tends about starting online pharmacies were higher in younger pharmacists (20s, 30s) (p < 0.05). The criteria of permission about opening online pharmacies were 100% pharmacist license regardless of holding off-line pharmacy. 53.7% pharmacists responded education about taking medication is impossible. When online pharmacies are introduced, 65.1% pharmacists responded traditional pharmacies are affected negatively. Pharmacists concerned that the competition with large-sized distribution corporations, reduced reliance between pharmacists and patients, illegal transaction of counterfeit drugs, increased misuse of drugs. CONCLUSION: These results showed that Korea pharmacists have negative standard on online pharmacies. Therefore it is required to be more cautious before introducing online pharmacy and it need strict watching system and continuous education and study for safety after introducing online pharmacy.


Subject(s)
Americas , Canada , Counterfeit Drugs , Education , Electronic Mail , Humans , Internet , Korea , Licensure , Pharmaceutical Services, Online , Pharmacies , Pharmacists , Pharmacy , Postal Service , Public Health , United States
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728271

ABSTRACT

Ribosomal S6 kinase is a family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in the regulation of cell viability. There are two subfamilies of ribosomal s6 kinase, (p90rsk, p70rsk). Especially, p90rsk is known to be an important downstream kinase of p44/42 MAPK. We investigated the role of p90rsk on ethanol-induced cell proliferation of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with 10~50 mM of ethanol with or without ERK and p90rsk inhibitors. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The expression of pERK1, NHE1 was measured by Western blots. The phosphorylation of p90rsk was measured by ELISA kits. The expression of Bcl-2 was measured by qRT-PCR. When the cells were treated with 10~30 mM of ethanol for 24 hour, it showed significant increase in cell viability versus control group. Besides, 10~30 mM of ethanol induced increased expression of pERK1, p-p90rsk, NHE1 and Bcl-2. Moreover treatment of p90rsk inhibitor attenuated the ethanol-induced increase in cell viability and NHE1 and Bcl-2 expression. In summary, these results suggest that p90rsk, a downstream kinase of ERK, plays a stimulatory role on ethanol-induced hepatocellular carcinoma progression by activating anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and NHE1 known to regulate cell survival.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Ethanol , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20738

ABSTRACT

Fisetin, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of vegetables and fruits, has been shown to possess many biological functions. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of fisetin on vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism involved. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Fisetin significantly relaxed fluoride-, thromboxane A2- or phorbol ester-induced vascular contraction suggesting as a possible anti-hypertensive on the agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. Furthermore, fisetin significantly inhibited fluoride-induced increases in pMYPT1 levels and phorbol ester-induced increases in pERK1/2 levels suggesting the mechanism involving the inhibition of Rho-kinase activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MEK activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. This study provides evidence regarding the mechanism underlying the relaxation effect of fisetin on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fluorides , Fruit , Humans , Isometric Contraction , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Nitric Oxide , Phosphorylation , Rats , Relaxation , rho-Associated Kinases , Vegetables
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is thought that drug use of parents is related to that of young children. The status of drug among young children's parents and a correlation of with parents and their children on drug use was surveyed by questionnaire. METHOD: The questionnaire is composed of 34 items, and the data was collected by 108 parents of young children from March to April of 2012. RESULTS: On the basis of the analysis results, the following conclusions were drawn. About half of parents thought the minimum use of drug was better for health, and 44% parents thought drug is essential for cure. When parents had queries on prescription, they mostly consult with doctors and pharmacists. Most parents had a household medicine. A fever reducer was the most common household medicine (92.5%). They pick the household medicine by consulting with pharmacist. Parents usually checked the expiration date of drug before they use and they dumped the drugs when the expiration date was due (82.4%). Over half of young children and their parents took a dietary supplements. They got an information about a dietary supplement by associates (30.5%) and internet (19.4%). Most parents tried to follow the directions as prescribed. However, more than half of the parents stopped taking the drug when the symptoms disappeared. CONCLUSION: Drug use of parents and that of young children had a very strong positive correlation, suggesting that correct drug use of parents have an impact on their young children's drug use.


Subject(s)
Child , Dietary Supplements , Family Characteristics , Fever , Humans , Internet , Parents , Pharmacists , Prescriptions
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728011

ABSTRACT

To see the inhibitory mechanism of gentamicin in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) using the rat bladder smooth muscle, atropine or guanethidine was treated but had no effect. Methylsergide, a non-selective 5-HT1, 5-HT2 receptor antagonist was also treated but had on effect. Kinase inhibitors, such as chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor), ML-9 (MLCK inhibitor), or Y27632 (rho kinase inhibitor) were pretreated before gentamicin treatment, but did not have effect. For U73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor however, the inhibitory effect to gentamicin was significantly attenuated in all frequencies given by the EFS. Therefore gentamicin induced inhibitory effect on EFS response in rat bladder smooth muscle was not mediated by the activation of adrenergic, cholinergic, or serotonergic receptor. The inhibition of gentamicin might be mediated through the PLC dependent pathway, but not through the PKC, MLCK or rho kinase dependent pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atropine , Gentamicins , Guanethidine , Muscle, Smooth , Phosphotransferases , Rats , rho-Associated Kinases , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728002

ABSTRACT

We investigated the combined moisturizing effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural moisturizing factors and keratin, and the hydroxyl group of serine can actively interact with water molecules. Therefore, we hypothesized that serine efficiently delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin would enhance the moisturizing capability of the skin. We prepared four different cosmeceutical bases (hydrogel, oil-in-water (O/W) essence, O/W cream, and water-in-oil (W/O) cream); their moisturizing abilities were then assessed using a Corneometer(R). The hydrogel was selected as the optimum base for skin moisturization based on the area under the moisture content change-time curves (AUMCC) values used as a parameter for the water hold capacity of the skin. Liposomal serine prepared by a reverse-phase evaporation method was then incorporated in the hydrogel. The liposomal serine-incorporated hydrogel (serine level=1%) showed an approximately 1.62~1.77 times greater moisturizing effect on the skin than those of hydrogel, hydrogel with serine (1%), and hydrogel with blank liposome. However, the AUMCC values were not dependent on the level of serine in liposomal serine-loaded hydrogels. Together, the delivery of serine to the SC of the skin is a promising strategy for moisturizing the skin. This study is expected to be an important step in developing highly effective moisturizing cosmeceutical products.


Subject(s)
Hyaluronic Acid , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , Liposomes , Serine , Skin , Water
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728530

ABSTRACT

Recently, Cynanchi wilfordii Radix has gained wide use in Asian countries as a functional food effective for relieving fatigue, osteoporosis, and constipation, particularly in menopausal disorders. However, its anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities have not been explored in detail to date. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties of the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix extracts obtained with water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone were compared. All 4 polyphenol-containing extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The ethanol extract was found to elicit the most potent reduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokine (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha) levels, as well as inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The evaluation of antioxidant activity also revealed the ethanol extract to have the highest free radical scavenging activity, measured as 85.3+/-0.4%, which is equivalent to 99.9% of the activity of alpha -tocopherol. In the assessment of anti-bacterial activity, only ethanol extract was found to inhibit the growth of the Bacillus species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. These results show that polyphenols of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-bacterial properties that can be exploited and further improved for use as a supplementary functional food, in cosmetics, and for pharmaceutical purposes.


Subject(s)
Acetone , Antioxidants , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bacillus , Bacillus anthracis , Bacillus cereus , Constipation , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dinoprostone , Ethanol , Fatigue , Functional Food , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Methanol , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Osteoporosis , Polyphenols , Water
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727831

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to observe that extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may be relevant to changes of major neurotransmitters in rat brain. After the exposure to ELF-MF (60 Hz, 2.0 mT) for 2 or 5 days, we measured the levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites, amino acid neurotransmitters and nitric oxide (NO) in the cortex, striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. The exposure of ELF-MF for 2 or 5 days produced significant differences in norepinephrine and vanillyl mandelic acid in the striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. Significant increases in the levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were also observed in the striatum, thalamus or hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased the concentration of dopamine in the thalamus. ELF-MF tended to increase the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamine, glycine and gamma -aminobutyric acid in the striatum and thalamus, whereas it decreased the levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased NO concentration in the striatum, thalamus and hippocampus. The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biogenic Amines , Brain , Cerebellum , Dopamine , Glutamine , Glycine , Hippocampus , Magnetic Fields , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nitric Oxide , Norepinephrine , Rats , Serotonin , Thalamus
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727830

ABSTRACT

The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0+/-3.2%), similar to alpha-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases.


Subject(s)
Acetone , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , alpha-Tocopherol , Artemisia annua , Dinoprostone , Ethanol , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Interleukin-6 , Methanol , Nitric Oxide , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Prevotella intermedia , Stomatognathic Diseases , Water
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