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An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 203-212, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886624


ABSTRACT Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.

Animals , Catfishes , Aeromonas hydrophila/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Ocimum/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Acyclic Monoterpenes
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 633-640, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723128


Post-mortem bacterial culture and specific biochemical tests are currently performed to characterize the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis. Cultures take up to 90 days to develop. A diagnosis by molecular tests such as PCR can provide fast and reliable results while significantly decreasing the time of confirmation. In the present study, a nested-PCR system, targeting rv2807, with conventional PCR followed by real-time PCR, was developed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) organisms directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. The sensitivity and specificity of the reactions were assessed with DNA samples extracted from tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other Actinomycetales species and DNA samples extracted directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. Regarding the analytical sensitivity, DNA of the M. bovis AN5 strain was detected up to 1.5 pg by nested-PCR, whereas DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain was detected up to 6.1 pg. The nested-PCR system showed 100% analytical specificity for MTC when tested with DNA of reference strains of non-tuberculous mycobacteria and closely-related Actinomycetales. A clinical sensitivity level of 76.7% was detected with tissues samples positive for MTC by means of the culture and conventional PCR. A clinical specificity of 100% was detected with DNA from tissue samples of cattle with negative results in the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. These cattle exhibited no visible lesions and were negative in the culture for MTC. The use of the nested-PCR assay to detect M. tuberculosis complex in tissue homogenates provided a rapid diagnosis of bovine and bubaline tuberculosis.

Animals , Cattle , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tuberculosis, Bovine/diagnosis , Veterinary Medicine/methods , Buffaloes , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Bovine/microbiology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 31(3): 231-238, Mar. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-582685


As características fenotípicas [morfológicas, bioquímicas, susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, índice de resistência múltipla aos antimicrobianos (IRMA), concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) da benzilpenicilina] de 38 isolados de Streptococcus equi oriundos de amostras clínicas de animais com adenite equina foram alvo deste estudo. A fenotipia demonstrou três padrões de colônias, três biotipos de fermentação de carboidratos e variação de 0 a 0,4 no IRMA. Todos os isolados de S. equi demonstraram sensibilidade à penicilina, tanto pelo método de disco difusão quanto pelo método de microdiluição. A CIM e CBM média de benzilpenicilina foi de 0,0095μg/mL e 0,0267μg/mL para S. equi subesp. equi e de 0,0128μg/mL e 0,0380μg/mL para S. equi subesp. zooepidemicus. Os valores de CIM e CBM diferiram entre as subespécies (p<0,05). O diâmetro do halo de inibição de penicilina demonstrou relação com a CIM (ì=0,03638 - 0,00072x) para S. equi subesp. equi. Também foi demonstrada relação entre o diâmetro do halo de inibição de penicilina com a CBM para S. equi subesp. equi (ì=0,10931- 0,00223x). Entretanto para as amostras de S. equi subesp. zooepidemicus esta relação somente foi verificada para a CBM (ì=0,1322 - 0,00271x). A CIM de benzilpenicilina frente às amostras isoladas da região Central, Planalto e Sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul foram estatisticamente semelhantes, mas diferiram do isolado do estado do Paraná, sugerindo o caráter atípico desta cepa. Todos os isolados de S. equi são sensíveis à penicilina e sulfazotrim, confirmando a eleição destes antimicrobianos para o tratamento das infecções por este agente na clínica veterinária. Os resultados obtidos não dispensam a utilização prudente dos antimicrobianos.

Phenotypic characteristics [morphology, biochemical fermentation, antimicrobial susceptibility, index of multiple resistances to antimicrobials (IMRA), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of benzilpenicillin] of 38 Streptococcus equi isolates from clinical samples of horses with strangles were the aim of this study. The phenotypic analyses demonstrated three colony patterns, three carbohydrate fermentation biotypes and IMRA variation from 0 to 0.4. All the isolates of S. equi demonstrated sensitivity to penicillin, both by the disc diffusion method and microdilution method. The average MIC and MBC for benzilpenincillin were of 0.0095μg/mL and 0.0267μg/mL for S. equi subsp. equi and of 0.0128μg/mL and 0.0380μg/mL for S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. The values of MIC and MBC differed between the subspecies (p<0.05). The diameter of penicillin inhibition halo demonstrated a relation with the MIC (ì=0.03638 - 0.00072x) for Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. A relation between the diameter of the inhibition halo of penincillin was also observed with the MBC for S. equi subsp. equi (ì=0.10931 - 0.00223x). However for the samples of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus this relation was only verified with the MBC (ì=0.1322 - 0.00271x). The MIC of benzilpenicillin of the samples isolated from the Central, Planalto and South regions of Rio Grande do Sul were statistically similar, although different from the Paraná state sample, suggesting the atypical character of this strain. All the S. equi isolates are sensitive to penicillin and sulfazotrim, confirming these as antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by this agent in the clinical veterinary practice. The results obtained do not discard the prudent use of antimicrobials.

Animals , Horses/classification , Streptococcus equi/pathogenicity , Phenotype
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(12): 1031-1035, dez. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-573770


Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a common venereal disease of cattle; the prevalence of this disease can be underestimated mostly because of the nature of the etiological agent, the microaerobic Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the utilization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of genital campylobacteriosis in samples obtained from bull prepuce aspirate, cow cervical mucus, and abomasum contents of aborted fetuses, collected into enrichment medium. Five different DNA extraction protocols were tested: thermal extraction, lysis with proteinase K, lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate, lysis with DNAzol, and lysis with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The specificity, sensitivity, and technical application of the PCR assay were also evaluated with clinical samples and compared to bacterial isolation by standard culture. DNA extraction by the CTAB protocol provided better results in PCR, and it was able to detect 63 colony-forming units per ml of C. fetus. Out of 277 clinical samples tested, 68 (24 percent) were positive for Campylobacter fetus using PCR, while only 8 (2.8 percent) of the samples were positive by bacterial isolation in solid medium, proving the superiority of the PCR technique when compared to the standard isolation method, and providing evidence for its usefulness as a better screening test in cattle for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis.

Campilobacteriose genital bovina é uma doença venérea comum em bovinos. A prevalência desta doença pode ser subestimada na maioria das vezes pela natureza microaeróbica do agente etiológico, Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização da reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR) no diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital em amostras obtidas de aspirado prepucial de touros, muco cervical de vacas e conteúdo abomasal de fetos abortados, coletados em meio enriquecido. Cinco protocolos diferentes de extração de DNA foram testados: termo extração, lise com proteinase K, lise com guanidine isothiocyanate, lise com DNAzol e lise com hexadeciltrimetilamônio brometo (CTAB). A especificidade, sensibilidade e a aplicação da técnica da PCR foram também avaliadas com amostras clínicas e comparadas com bactérias isoladas por cultura padrão. DNA extraído pelo protocolo de CTAB demonstrou os melhores resultados na PCR, e foi capaz de detectar 63 unidades formadoras de colônias de C. fetus por ml de meio. Das 277 amostras clínicas testadas, 68 (24 por cento) foram positivas para Campylobacter fetus pela PCR, enquanto 8 (2,8 por cento) das amostras foram positivas por isolamento bacteriológico, provando a superioridade da técnica de PCR quando comparada com métodos padrão de isolamento, e fornecendo evidências de sua utilização como um teste de melhor projeção para diagnóstico em campilobacteriose genital bovina.

Animals , Cattle , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary