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J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056594


Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , Linear Models , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
Braz. dent. j ; 30(5): 511-518, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039148


Abstract This study evaluated the influence of zirconia surface finishes on the wear of an enamel analogue. 40 zirconia discs were divided into four groups: control (without finish); glazed; polished; polished and glazed. All samples were subjected to wear against steatite antagonists. The specimens underwent roughness, topographic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wettability analyses. Quantitative wear measurements were performed on both steatites and discs. To measure wear of steatites the weight before and after the test and the diameter after the test were used. Profilometer measurements were performed to determine the wear on discs. Roughness, volumetric wear and mass loss were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (5%), while contact angle values were analyzed with One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (5%). The polished group had the lowest roughness means, being statistically different from the other groups (p-value=0.0001). The glazed group presented the lowest steatite volumetric wear (p-value=0.0001), but not statistically different from the polished and glazed group, whereas these groups presented the highest zirconia volumetric wear, with statistically different (p-value=0.0002) compared to the others. SEM showed irregularities on the control groups surface, grooves on the polished group, and a homogeneous surface for the glazed group with a few pores. All groups presented contact angles lower than 90 degrees, characterizing hydrophilic surfaces. It can be concluded that just glazed zirconia caused less wear on the antagonist when compared to no finish and polished zirconia.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a influência dos acabamentos superficiais da zircônia no desgaste de um análogo de esmalte. 40 discos de zircônia foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (sem acabamento); glazeado; polido; polido e glazeado. Todas as amostras foram submetidas ao desgaste contra antagonistas de esteatita. Os espécimes foram submetidos à análise de rugosidade, topografia, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e análise de molhabilidade. Medidas quantitativas de desgaste foram realizadas nos antagonistas e nos discos de zircônia. Para medir o desgaste das esteatitas, foi mensurado o peso antes e depois do desgaste e o diâmetro após o teste. A análise de perfilometria mensurou o desgaste dos discos. Rugosidade, desgaste volumétrico e perda de massa foram analisados pelos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn (5%), enquanto os valores de ângulo de contato foram analisados com os testes One-way ANOVA e Tukey (5%). O grupo polido apresentou as menores médias de rugosidade, sendo estatisticamente diferente dos demais grupos (p-valor=0,0001). O grupo glazeado apresentou o menor desgaste volumétrico do antagonista (p-valor=0,0001), mas não foi estatisticamente diferente do grupo polido e glazeado, enquanto que esses grupos apresentaram o maior desgaste volumétrico da zircônia, com diferença estatisticamente diferente (p-valor=0,0002) em comparação com os outros. MEV mostrou irregularidades na superfície do grupo controle, sulcos no grupo polido e uma superfície homogênea para o grupo glazeado, com poucos poros. Todos os grupos apresentaram ângulos de contato menores que 90 graus, caracterizando superfícies hidrofílicas. Dentro das limitações deste estudo in vitro, é possível concluir que zircônia glazeada causou menos desgaste ao antagonista quando comparada a zircônia sem tratamento ou polida. Além disso, não foi encontrada diferença no desgaste do antagonista para os grupos de zirconia polida e controle.

Zirconium , Dental Porcelain , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Dental Polishing
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 356-362, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011557


Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the microbial profile and endotoxin levels of endodontic-periodontal lesions of periodontal origin. Periodontal and endodontic samples were taken from periodontal pockets and necrotic root canals of 10 teeth with endodontic-periodontal lesions. Evidencing of 40 different bacterial species were determined in each endodontic and periodontal sample using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method and Kinetic chromogenic LAL assay was used for quantification of endotoxins. Fisher's exact test correlated the bacterial species with the endodontic or periodontal microbiota. The endotoxin levels (EU/mL) found in samples of the root canal and periodontal pocket were compared by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Bacteria and LPS units were found in 100% of the endodontic and periodontal samples. The species E. faecium, P. acnes, G. morbillorum, C. sputigena and L. buccalis were strongly correlated with the endodontic microbiota and P. nigrescens with the periodontal microbiota. P. intermedia, P. endodontalis and V. parvula were more prevalent in both endodontic and periodontal microbiots. The endotoxin levels in the periodontal pocket (89600 EU/mL) were significantly higher than in the root canal (2310 EU/mL). It was concluded that the microbiota present in the periodontal and endodontic tissues is similar, with a higher prevalence of species of the orange complex and a higher level of endotoxin in the periodontal pockets.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para investigar o perfil microbiano e os níveis de endotoxina de lesões endoperiodontais de origem periodontal. Amostras periodontais e endodônticas foram obtidas de bolsas periodontais e canais radiculares necróticos de 10 dentes com lesões endoperiodontais. A investigação de 40 espécies bacterianas diferentes foram determinadas em cada amostra endodôntica e periodontal usando o método de hibridização de DNA-DNA (checkerboard) e o ensaio cinético cromogênico LAL foi usado para quantificação de endotoxinas. O teste exato de Fisher correlacionou as espécies bacterianas com a microbiota endodôntica ou periodontal. Os níveis de endotoxina (EU/mL) encontrados nas amostras do canal radicular e na bolsa periodontal foram comparados pelo teste de Wilcoxon (p<0,05). Bactérias e unidades de LPS foram encontradas em 100% das amostras endodônticas e periodontais. As espécies E. faecium, P. acnes, G. morbillorum, C. sputigena e L. buccalis foram fortemente correlacionadas com a microbiota endodôntica e P. nigrescens com a microbiota periodontal. P. intermedia, P. endodontalis e V. parvula foram mais prevalentes em ambas microbiotas endodôntica e periodontal. Os níveis de endotoxina na bolsa periodontal (89600 EU/mL) foram significativamente maiores do que no canal radicular (2310 EU/mL). Concluiu-se que a microbiota presente nos tecidos periodontal e endodôntico é semelhante, com maior prevalência de espécies do complexo laranja e maior nível de endotoxina nas bolsas periodontais.

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Periodontal Pocket , Root Canal Therapy , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endotoxins
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-192250


Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffusion of hydroxyl ion to the external root surface using different irrigating solutions and intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide. Materials and Methods: Sixty bovine tooth roots were randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 10), according to the irrigating substance used during biomechanical preparation: 12% glycolic propolis extract (PROP); 20% glycolic ginger extract (GENG); 2% sodium hypochlorite with surfactant (NaOClS); 2% chlorhexidine gel (CLX); 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); and physiological saline solution. After filling the root canals with calcium hydroxide paste, pH measurements were taken directly at the external cavities over time intervals of up to 30 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Results: The pH of the external root surface was increased when the surfactant associated with NaOCl was used. However, the pH values were very close for the different groups. Hydroxyl ion diffusion up to the external root surface did not exceed the pH value of 8.5, and in the hollow passage of the canal, the pH was higher than 12. Conclusions: Hydroxyl ion diffusion of calcium hydroxide paste through the dentinal tubules up to the external root surface allows minimal alkalinization of this surface, and it is greater when using NaOCl with surfactant during biomechanical preparation.

Braz. dent. sci ; 22(2): 171-177, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-996337


Objective: The prevalence of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) has increased in the recent years, especially in the elderly population. The successful prevention and treatment of those lesions requires an understanding of the biomechanics of aged teeth. Considering the importance of such aspect, the impact of the age-related dentin deposition on the stress distribution of NCCLs was evaluated by means of finite element analysis. Material and Methods: A 2-dimensional model of a sound maxillary first premolar was created using CAD software. Two tooth geometries (sound, aged) and two lesion shapes (wedge, saucer) were simulated to the model. The mesh was built with 35,000 triangle and square elements of 0.1 mm in length. All tissues were considered isotropic, homogeneous and linear. Occlusal surfaces were loaded with 300 N for simulating normal chewing forces. The stress distribution was analyzed by a color scale and by the maximum principal stress at the cavosurface line angle. Results: The aged models presented lower stress concentration in the overall system in comparison to sound models. The sharp angle of wedge shaped lesions promoted higher stress concentration at the center of cavosurface angle, favoring the lesions progression. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the current methodology, it is possible to conclude that aged tooth is a more compact structure that can better respond to stress loadings. This protective intrinsic mechanism should be considered when adopting preventive and restorative measures for NCCLs for the elderly. (AU)

Objetivo: A prevalência de lesões cervicais nãocariosas (NCCLs) tem aumentado nos últimos anos, especialmente em idosos. A prevenção e o tratamento bem-sucedidos dessas lesões requerem um entendimento da biomecânica dos dentes envelhecidos. Considerando a importância de tal aspecto, o impacto da deposição de dentina que ocorre com a idade na distribuição de estresse de NCCLs foi avaliado por meio da análise de elementos finitos. Material e Métodos: Um modelo bidimensional de um primeiro pré-molar superior foi criado usando o software CAD. Duas geometrias de dentes (padrão, envelhecido) e duas formas de lesão (cunha, pires) foram simuladas ao modelo. A malha foi construída com 35.000 elementos triangulares e quadrados de 0,1 mm de comprimento. Todos os tecidos foram considerados isotrópicos, homogêneos e lineares. Superfícies oclusais foram carregadas com 300 N para simular forças normais de mastigação. A distribuição das tensões foi analisada por uma escala de cores e pela tensão principal no ângulo da linha cavo-superficial. Resultados: Os modelos envelhecidos apresentaram menor concentração de tensão no sistema geral em comparação aos modelos padrão. O ângulo agudo das lesões em cunha promoveu maior concentração de tensão no centro do ângulo cavo-superficial, favorecendo a progressão das lesões. Conclusão: Considerando as limitações da metodologia atual, é possível concluir que o dente envelhecido é uma estrutura mais compacta que pode responder melhor às cargas de estresse. Este mecanismo intrínseco de proteção deve ser considerado ao adotar medidas preventivas e restaurativas para as NCCLs em idosos. (AU)

Aging , Neck Injuries , Finite Element Analysis
Braz. dent. j ; 29(1): 93-98, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888723


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of 20% glycolic ginger extract on the bond strength of glass-fiber post cemented with etch-and-rinse or self-etching resin cement. Forty-eight bovine roots were standardized (17±0.5 mm) and randomly divided into two groups, according to irrigant used during biomechanical preparation: NaOCl: 1% sodium hypochlorite and GEN: 20% glycolic ginger extract. Root canal was prepared and randomly assigned to one of two subgroups (n=12), according to luting protocol: self-etching (RelyX U200) and etch-and-rinse (RelyX ARC). After 48 h, the roots were sectioned perpendicularly (4 in cervical third and 3 in middle third) and submitted to push-out bond strength test (50 kgf load cell, 1.0 mm/min). Failure mode was analyzed in SEM and stereomicroscopy. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences between U200 (2.01±0.17)B and ARC (1.93±0.12)B in GEN group, and at the cervical third for both irrigants, 2.69±0.16A and 2.54±0.17A, respectively. Middle third showed lower bond strength than cervical third, regardless the irrigant. Overall, the cervical third regardless the irrigant employed and the association between NaOCl and ARC, presented better adhesive performance.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a influência do extrato de gengibre 20% na resistência adesiva de pinos de fibra de vidro cimentados com cimentos resinosos convencional ou autocondicionantes. Quarenta e oito raízes bovinas foram padronizadas (17±0.5mm) e aleatoriamente divididas em dois grupos (n=24), de acordo com o irrigante utilizado durante o preparo biomecânico: NaOCl: hipoclorito de sódio 1%; e GEN: extrato glicólico de gengibre 20%. Os canais radiculares foram preparados e aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois subgrupos (n=12), conforme o protocolo de cimentação: autocondicionante (RelyX U200) e convencional (RelyX ARC). Após 48 h, as raízes foram seccionadas perpendicularmente (4 no terço cervical e 3 no terço médio) e submetidas ao teste de resistência adesiva push-out (50 kgf carga, 1.0 mm/min). O modo de falha foi analisado em MEV e estereomicroscopia. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA 3-fatores e Tukey (p<0.05). ANOVA mostrou que não houve diferenças significativas entre U200 (2.01±0.17)B e ARC (1.93±0.12)B no grupo GEN, e no terço cervical para ambos os irrigantes (2.69±0.16A and 2.54±0.17A, respectivamente). O terço médio apresentou menor resistência adesiva que o terço cervical, independente do irrigante. Em geral, o terço cervical, independentemente do irrigante empregado, e a associação entre NaOCl e ARC apresentaram melhores desempenhos adesivos.

Animals , Cattle , Ginger/chemistry , Glass , Materials Testing , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Post and Core Technique
Braz. dent. sci ; 21(3): 315-319, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-911407


Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of aging through different thermocycling protocols on the flexural strength of a feldspathic ceramic. Material and Methods: Fifty ceramic bars, Vitablock Mark II (VITA), with dimensions of 18X4X2mm were prepared. The bars were randomly distributed to the groups (n = 10), which were defined according to the number of thermal cycles (TCy): G0 - no TCy; G500 - 500 cycles of TCy; G6000 - 6000 TCy; G10000 - 10000 TCy; G15000 - 15000 TCy. After aging, the specimens were subjected to the three point bending test in a universal testing machine (EMIC DL 1000), under 0.5mm/min speed and loading of 50kgf, until catastrophic failure. A sample of each group was evaluated for topographic morphology under Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: For mechanical testing, the following mean values and standard deviation (MPa) were obtained: G0 (99.78 ± 5.07); G500 (101.64 ± 5.59); G6000 (98.13 ± 4.95); G10000 (91.77 ± 9.68); G15000 (101.51 ± 4.22). An analysis of variance by regression equation (p = 0.387) was performed, demonstrating a weak and non-significant correlation between flexural strength and number of thermal cycles. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aging in water solely by different numbers of temperature cycles did not influence on the flexural strength of a feldspathic ceramic. (AU)

Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito do envelhecimento por meio de diferentes protocolos de ciclos térmicos na resistência à flexão de uma cerâmica feldspática. Material e Métodos: Cinquenta barras de cerâmica, Vitablock Mark II (VITA), com dimensões de 18X4X2mm foram preparadas. As barras foram distribuídas aleatoriamente pelos grupos (n = 10), os quais foram definidos de acordo com o número de ciclos térmicos (CT): G0 ­ nenhum; G500 - 500 CT; G6000 - 6000 CT; G10000 ­ 10000 CT; G15000 - 15000 CT. Após envelhecimento, as amostras foram submetidas ao ensaio de flexão de três pontos em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC DL 1000), sob a velocidade de 0,5 mm / min e célula de carga de 50kgf, até uma falha catastrófica. Uma amostra de cada grupo foi avaliada quanto à morfologia topográfica sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Resultados: Para os testes mecânicos, foram obtidos os seguintes valores médios e desvio padrão (MPa): G0 (99,78 ± 5,07); G500 (101,64 ± 5,59); G6000 (98,13 ± 4,95); G10000 (91,77 ± 9,68); G15000 (101,51 ± 4,22). Uma análise de variância pela equação de regressão (p = 0,387) foi realizada, o que demonstra uma correlação fraca e não significativa entre a resistência à flexão e do número de ciclos térmicos. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que o envelhecimento somente em água por diferentes números de ciclos térmicos não influenciou na resistência à flexão de uma cerâmica feldspática (AU)

Aging , Material Resistance , Metal Ceramic Alloys , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 566-574, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893657


Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the influence of porcelain (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany) thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in bilayered zirconia systems (YZ, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany). Material and Methods: Thirty zirconia bars (20.0x4.0x1.0 mm) and six zirconia blocks (12.0x7.5x1.2 mm) were prepared and veneered with porcelain with different thickness: 1 mm, 2 mm, or 3 mm. The bars of each experimental group (n=10) were subjected to four-point flexural strength testing. In each ceramic block, a Vickers indentation was created under a load of 10 kgf for 10 seconds, for the propagation of cracks. Results: The results of flexural strength were evaluated by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, with a significance level of 5%. The factor "thickness of the porcelain" was statistically significant (p=0.001) and the l-mm group presented the highest values of flexural strength. The cracks were predominant among the bending specimens with 1 and 2 mm of porcelain, and catastrophic failures were found in 50% of 3-mm-thick porcelain. After the indentation of blocks, the most severe defects were observed in blocks with 3-mm-thick porcelain. Conclusion: The smallest (1 mm) thickness of porcelain on the zirconia infrastructure presented higher values of flexural strength. Better resistance to defect propagation was observed near the porcelain/ zirconia interface for all groups. Higher flexural strength was found for a thinner porcelain layer in a bilayered zirconia system. The damage caused by a Vickers indentation near and far the interface with the zirconia shows that the stress profiles are different.

Zirconium/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Pliability , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Stress Analysis , Hardness Tests , Hot Temperature
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 459-464, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893004


Knowledge on internal dental morphology is extremely important to the correct execution of the treatment and modeling of root canals. The aim of the present study was to analyze, "in vitro", the configuration of the canal system in the mesial root of 180 maxillary first molars obtained from a Brazilian sample. The teeth diaphanized in order to confirm the presence of the MB2 canal and to determine the internal anatomy. Only in 41 % of the teeth the orifice of MB2 canal emerged from the pulp chamber floor. Among teeth two apical foramina were found in 23.3 %, a single apical foramen was observed in 15,5 % and three apical foramina were present in 2,2 %. Considering the hole sample, the MB2 canal was observed in 65.4 %, merged with the MB1 or branching from the MB1 or even independent all the way. In 55.1 % of the teeth a single orifice stemmed from the pulp chamber floor. A single apical foramen was found in 43,5 % of these cases, two apical foramina were present in approximately 12 % and apical delta was found in 0,5 % of the specimens. Three orifices which emerged from the pulpal floor were observed in 1.1 % of the sample. Paths considered very atypical were observed at 2.8 % of the teeth. The MB root canal anatomy was complex. The frequency of occurrence of the bifurcated or double canal, isthmus, accessory canals and apical delta must be taken into consideration as a possible cause of otherwise unexplained failure during endodontic treatment of first maxillary molars.

El conocimiento de la morfología dental interna es muy importante para la correcta ejecución del tratamiento de conductos radiculares. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar "in vitro", la configuración del sistema de canales en la raíz mesiobucal del 180 primeros molares maxilares obtenidos de una muestra brasileña. Mediante el uso de la diafanización de los dientes se confirmó la presencia del canal MB2 y su anatomía interna. Solamente 41 % de los dientes el canales MB2 emergió desde el piso de la cámara pulpar. De estos dientes fueron encontrados dos forámenes apicales en 23,3 %, un solo foramen apical en 15,5 % y tres forámenes apicales estaban presentes en el 2,2 %. Teniendo en cuenta la totalidad de la muestra, 65,4 % presentaron el MB2; que se fusionó con el MB1, a veces se observó como una rama de este canal, o sigue siendo independiente hasta el final. En 55,1 % de los dientes un solo foramen provenía del piso de la cámara pulpar. Un solo foramen apical se encontró en 43,5 % de estos casos, dos forámenes apicales estaban presentes en aproximadamente el 12 % y el delta apical se encontró en 0,5 % de los especímenes. Tres canal a partir del piso pulpar se observaron en 1,1 % de la muestra. Caminos considerados muy atípicos se observaron a 2,8 % de los dientes. La morfología del sistema de canales radiculares en la raíz MB de los primeros molares maxilares es compleja y variable. La alta frecuencia de canal MB2, bien como la presencia del canal bifurcado o doble, istmo, conductos accesorios y delta apical deben tenerse en cuenta como posible causa de la falla de otro modo inexplicable durante el tratamiento endodóntico de los primeros molares maxilares.

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Molar/anatomy & histology , Tooth Root/anatomy & histology
Braz. dent. j ; 27(5): 573-577, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828032


Abstract This clinical study investigated the effects of endodontic treatment by using different irrigants (limewater + NaOCl and polymyxin B + NaOCl) and intracanal medication on endotoxins in teeth with primary endodontic infection and radiographically visible apical periodontitis. Thirty-three teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesions from different patients were selected for this study. Samples were collected after the coronal opening (S1) and after instrumentation (S2). Root canals were divided in 3 groups (n = 11) according to the irrigant combination used: NaOCl + LW: 2.5% NaOCl + calcium hydroxide solution (0.14%, limewater); NaOCl + PmB: 2.5% NaOCl + 10.000 UI/mL polymyxin B; 2.5% NaOCl (control). The third sampling (S3) was performed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the fourth (S4) after samples got 14 days with intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine gel + calcium hydroxide. Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide) were quantified by chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). Endotoxins were detected in all root canals after the coronal opening (S1). NaOCl + PmB group presented the greatest endotoxin reduction after instrumentation (76.17%), similar to NaOCl + LW group (67.64%, p<0.05) and different from NaOCl group (42.17%, p<0.05). After intracanal medication period (S4), there was significant increase of endotoxins neutralization. It was concluded that NaOCl + PmB promoted the greatest reduction of endotoxin levels, followed by NaOCl + LW. Intracanal medications had no significant complementary role in the reduction of endotoxins at the end of the treatment

Resumo Este estudo clínico investigou os efeitos do tratamento endodôntico com uso de diferentes irrigantes (NaOCl + água de cal e NaOCl + polimixina B) e medicação intracanal sobre endotoxinas em dentes com infecção endodôntica primária e presença de lesão periapical visível radiograficamente. Foram selecionados para o estudo trinta e três dentes de pacientes que apresentavam necrose pulpar e presença de lesão periapical. As amostras foram coletadas após a abertura coronária (S1) e após a instrumentação (S2). Os canais radiculares foram divididos em 3 grupos (n = 11) de acordo com a combinação de irrigantes utilizada: NaOCl + LW:- hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% + solução de hidróxido de cálcio (água de cal 0,14%); NaOCl + PmB: hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% + polimixina B 10.000 UI/mL; NaOCl (controle): hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5%. A terceira coleta (S3) foi realizada após aplicação do ácido etilenodiamino tetra acético (EDTA) e a quarta coleta (S4) após 14 dias de medicação intracanal de hidróxido de cálcio + clorexidina gel 2%. Endotoxinas (lipopolissacarídeos) foram quantificadas pelo ensaio cromogênico do lisado de amebócitos de Limulus (LAL). Endotoxinas foram detectadas em todos os canais radiculares após abertura coronária (S1). Grupo NaOCl + PmB apresentou a maior redução de endotoxinas após a instrumentação (76,17%), sendo similar ao grupo NaOCl + LW (67,64%, P >.05) e diferente do grupo NaOCl (42,17%, P <.05). Após o período de medicação intracanal, houve aumento significativo da neutralização de endotoxinas. Concluiu-se que NaOCl + PmB promoveu a maior redução dos níveis de endotoxinas, seguido de NaOCl + LW. A medicação intracanal não teve um papel complementar significativo na redução de endotoxinas no final do tratamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Endotoxins/administration & dosage , Polymyxin B/administration & dosage , Root Canal Therapy/methods
Braz. dent. j ; 27(4): 412-418, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794609


Abstract This clinical study investigated and quantified cultivable bacteria and their levels of endotoxins in persistent endodontic infection, determining their antigenicity against macrophages and fibroblast cells by IL-1β and TNF-α secretion and evaluating their relationship with clinical and radiographic features. Samples from the root canals were obtained after root filling removal. Culture techniques were used to determine the bacterial count and the endotoxins were determined by LAL-assay. PCR analysis (16S rDNA) was used for bacterial detection. Raw 264.5 macrophages and V79 fibroblast were stimulated with endodontic contents. ELISA assay measured the amounts of IL-1ß/TNF-?#61537; secretion. Bacteria and endotoxin medians were 1.24x105 CFU/mL and 9.62 EU/mL, respectively. Porphyromonas endodontalis was the most frequently detected species. Higher levels of endotoxins were found in teeth with pain on palpation (23.56 EU/mL) rather than in its absence (8.21 EU/mL). Larger areas of bone destruction were related to higher levels of endotoxins and IL-1β and TNF-α secretion. The study findings revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria species in persistent endodontic infection, with their endotoxins related to both severity of bone destruction and development of symptomatology. Moreover, larger areas of bone destruction were related to higher levels of IL-1β and TNF-α secreted by macrophages and fibroblast cells.

Resumo Este estudo clínico investigou e quantificou bactérias cultiváveis e seus níveis de endotoxinas na infecção endodôntica persistente, determinando a sua antigenicidade contra macrófagos e células de fibroblastos através de IL-1β e TNF-α; e avaliando sua relação com características clínicas e radiográficas. As amostras dos canais radiculares foram obtidas após a desobturação. Técnicas de cultura foram utilizadas para determinar a contagem de bactérias e a quantificação de endotoxinas foram determinadas por ensaio de LAL. Análise por PCR (16S rDNA) foi utilizada para a detecção bacteriana. Células 264,5 macrófagos e fibroblastos V79 foram estimuladas com conteúdo endodôntico. IL-1β e TNF-α produzidas pelas células avaliadas foram medidas por ensaio de ELISA. As medianas de bactérias e endotoxinas foram 1,24x105 UFC/mL e 9,62 EU/mL, respectivamente. Porphyromonas endodontalis foi a espécie mais frequentemente detectada. Níveis mais elevados de endotoxinas foram encontrados em dentes com dor à palpação (23,56 EU/mL) quando comparado a sua ausência (8,21 EU/mL). Maiores áreas de destruição óssea foram relacionados com níveis mais elevados de endotoxinas e IL-1β e TNF-α. O estudo revelou presença de espécies de bactérias Gram-negativas em infecção endodôntica persistente, com níveis elevados de endotoxinas relacionados a maior destruição óssea periapical e presença de sintomatologia. Além disso, grandes áreas de destruição óssea foram relacionados com níveis mais elevados de IL-1β e TNF-α secretadas por macrófagos e fibroblastos.

Animals , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Cell Line , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mice
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 10(1): 35-40, abr. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-782619


This study evaluated the cleanliness of post space after different irrigation protocols, associated or not to the use of ultrasound. Thirty-six single-rooted bovine roots were instrumented with rotary system, irrigated with 1 % hypochlorite and filled with Ah Plus sealer and gutta-percha cones. After seven days in stove at 37 °C, two-thirds of canal filling was removed by drilling and the post space preparation was irrigated with 2.5 % NaOCl (group NaOCl); 0.2 % chlorhexidine (group CLX); distilled water (group Water); 2.5 % NaOCl + ultrasound (group NaOCl-US); 0.2 % chlorhexidine + US (Group CLX-US); or water + US (Group Water-US). Roots were cleaved in mesiodistal direction, prepared for scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the smear layer and debris presence and for energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses, to evaluate chemical components of dentin after treatment. The data were subjected to statistical analysis (two-way Anova and Tukey's test 5 %). EDS analysis showed the presence of chemical components of filling material in the samples from all groups. SEM images showed large amount of obliterated dentinal tubules. The use of ultrasound influenced the removal of some components of filling material (p<0.05), but not allowed for total cleaning. It was concluded that none of the irrigating solutions, associated or not to the use of ultrasound were able to completely clean the post space.

Este estudio evaluó la limpieza de la preparación para el espacio de los postes después de diferentes protocolos de irrigación, asociados o no al uso de ultrasonido. Treinta y seis raíces unirradiculares de bovinos fueron instrumentados con sistema rotatorio, irrigadas con un 1 % de hipoclorito y rellenadas con el sellador Ah Plus y conos de gutapercha. Después de siete días en horno a 37 °C, dos tercios de la obturación del canal se removió por perforación y la preparación del espacio para los postes fueron irrigadas con 2,5 % de NaOCl (grupo NaOCl); Clorhexidina 0,2 % (grupo CLX); agua destilada (grupo agua); 2,5 % NaOCl + ultrasonido (grupo NaOCl - US); 0,2 % de clorhexidina + US (Grupo CLX - US); y agua + US (grupo Agua - US). Las raíces se cortaron en dirección mesiodistal y se prepararon para el microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) con el fin de evaluar el barrillo dentinario y la presencia de restos; así como mediante el análisis de espectroscopía de energía dispersiva (EDS) para evaluar componentes químicos de la dentina después del tratamiento. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis estadístico (pruebas ANOVA de dos factores y de Tukey al 5 %). El análisis EDS mostró la presencia de componentes químicos del material de relleno en las muestras de todos los grupos. Imágenes del MEB mostraron gran cantidad de túbulos dentinarios obliterados. El uso de la ultrasonido influyó en la eliminación de algunos de los componentes de material de relleno (p <0,05), pero no permitió la limpieza total. Se concluyó que ninguna de las soluciones de irrigación, asociadas o no a la utilización de los ultrasonidos fueron capaces de limpiar completamente el espacio para los postes.

RGO (Porto Alegre) ; 64(1): 56-61, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-778530


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of toothbrushing using a fluoride toothpaste and Aloe vera tooth gel on artificial white spot lesions through the Knoop microhardness (KHN) analysis. Methods: Sound bovine enamel samples (2 mm/diameter and 2 mm/depth) were prepared and immersed in artificial white spot lesion for 24 h. The preparation of artificial white spot lesions was performed by pH-cycling process. The samples were randomly divided into two groups (n=20), according the dentifrice used: containing fluoride (Colgate Total 12) or Aloe vera (Forever Bright Aloe Vera Toothgel). The top surface of samples was submitted to 10,000, 25,000, 50,000 and 100,000 brushing cycles (200 g load) in an automatic brushing machine with abrasive slurry. The KHN analysis were evaluated at baseline, after immersion in artificial white spot lesion and after 10,000, 25,000, 50,000 and 100,000 cycles of brushing. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests (p=0.05). Results: The KHN values significantly increased after brushing cycles compared to demineralized means. No significant differences showed for dentifrice factor (p=0.263). However, there were statistically significant differences between groups in cycles of brushing times (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The toothpastes (containing fluoride or Aloe vera) were effective in increasing the superficial microhardness of artificial white spot lesions.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da escovação simulada usando creme dental com flúor e Aloe vera em lesão de mancha branca artificial in vitro, através da análise da microdureza Knoop (KHN). Métodos: Amostras de esmalte bovino (2 mm/diâmetro e 2 mm/altura) foram preparados e imersos em solução artificial de cárie por 24 h. O preparo para indução de lesão de mancha branca foi realizado por processo de ciclagem de pH. As amostras foram aleatoriamente divididas em dois grupos (n=20), de acordo com o dentifrício utilizado: creme dental contendo flúor (Colgate Total 12) ou creme dental à base de Aloe vera (Forever Bright Aloe Vera Toothgel). A superfície das amostras foi submetida à 10.000, 25.000, 50.000 e 100.000 ciclos de escovação simulada (200 g/peso) em uma máquina de escovação. A análise de microdureza (KHN) foi realizada inicialmente, após o período de imersão em solução artificial de mancha branca e após 10.000, 25.000, 50.000 e 100.000 ciclos de escovação. Os dados foram submetidos aos testes RM-ANOVA dois fatores e Tukey (p=0.05). Resultados: Os valores de KHN aumentaram significantemente após os ciclos de escovação, quando comparado aos valores após a imersão em solução desmineralizante. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os cremes dentais (p=0.263). Entretanto, em relação aos ciclos de escovação, houve diferenças significantes (p=0001). Conclusão: Os cremes dentais (contendo flúor ou Aloe vera) foram efetivos no aumento da microdureza superficial em lesão artificial de mancha branca.

Braz. dent. sci ; 19(4): 56-62, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-850488


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e morfológicas em esmalte, dentina e cemento após clareamento interno utilizando microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectrometria de energia dispersiva. Materiais e Métodos: Setenta e dois incisivos bovinos foram preparados, cortados e clareados por 7 dias com os seguintes agentes clareadores: PH: gel de peróxido de hidrogênio 35%; PH + PS: gel de peróxido de hidrogênio 35% + perborato de sódio; PC: gel de peróxido de carbamida 37%; PC + PS: gel de peróxido de carbamida 37% + perborato de sódio; PS: perborato de sódio + água; e Controle: água deionizada. Os espécimes foram seccionados e preparados para análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise dos níveis de cálcio, fósforo, oxigênio e carbono usando espectrometria de energia dispersiva. Resultados: Foi observada uma redução significante nos níveis de cálcio em esmalte após clareamento com PC + PS e PC (p < 0,05). Os níveis de carbono (parte orgânica) foram alterados em esmalte. Uma redução significante nos níveis de cálcio foi encontrada na dentina nos grupos PH + PS, PC e PC + PS. Os níveis de fósforo aumentaram após o uso de PS (p < 0,05) e PC (p < 0,05). Níveis de carbono mostraram pequena variação e a maior quantidade foi encontrada nos grupos PC e PC + PS (p < 0,05), nos outros grupos não houve alteração. Uma redução significante nos níveis de cálcio foram encontradas no cemento no grupo PC + PS (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Alterações em esmalte, dentina e cemento ocorreram após o clareamento e essas alterações foram menos significantes quando utilizado perborato de sódio e água

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and chemical alterations in enamel, dentin and cementum after internal bleaching using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Material and Methods: Seventy-two bovine incisor teeth were prepared, cut and bleached for 7 days as follows: HP: 35% hydrogen peroxide gel; HP+SP: 35% hydrogen peroxide gel + sodium perborate; CP: 37% carbamide peroxide gel; CP+SP: 37% carbamide peroxide gel + sodium perborate; SP: sodium perborate + water; and control: deionized water. The specimens were sectioned and prepared for morphological analysis under SEM and analysis of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon levels using EDS. Results: A significant reduction was found in the calcium levels in enamel after treatment with CP + SP and CP (p < 0.05). Carbon (organic part) was hardly altered in enamel. A significant reduction in the calcium levels was found in dentin in Groups HP+SP, CP and CP+SP. Phosphorus levels increased after SP+H20 (p < 0.05) and CP (p < 0.05). Carbon levels showed little variation and the largest amount was found in Groups CP and CP+SP (p < 0.05); in the other groups there was no alteration. A significant reduction in the calcium levels was found in the cementum in Group CP+SP (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Alterations in the enamel, dentin and cementum compositions occurred after bleaching and these alterations showed to be less significant with sodium perborate and water.

Animals , Cattle , Hydrogen Peroxide , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Tooth Bleaching
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 44(3): 131-136, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-749887


Aim The present study evaluated the morphological and chemical changes of dentin produced by different sterilization methods, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis. Material and method Five human teeth were sectioned into 4 samples, each divided into 3 specimens. The specimens were separated into sterilization groups, as follows: wet heat under pressure; cobalt 60 gamma radiation; and control (without sterilization). After sterilization, the 60 specimens were analyzed by SEM under 3 magnifications: 1500X, 5000X, and 10000X. The images were analyzed by 3 calibrated examiners, who assigned scores according to the changes observed in the dentinal tubules: 0 = no morphological change; 1, 2 and 3 = slight, medium and complete obliteration of the dentinal tubules. The chemical composition of dentin was assessed by EDS, with 15 kV incidence and 1 μm penetration. Result The data obtained were submitted to the statistical tests of Kruskall-Wallis and ANOVA. It was observed that both sterilization methods – with autoclave and with cobalt 60 gamma radiation – produced no significant changes to the morphology of the dentinal tubules or to the chemical composition of dentin. Conclusion Both methods may thus be used to sterilize teeth for research conducted in vitro. .

Objetivo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações morfológicas e químicas na dentina geradas por diferentes métodos de esterilização, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e da análise por espectrometria de energia dispersiva de raios-X. Material e método Seccionaram-se 5 dentes humanos em 4 amostras, as quais foram divididas em 3 espécimes cada, totalizando 60 espécimes. Os espécimes foram separados conforme os grupos de esterilização: calor úmido sob pressão; radiação gama cobalto 60; controle (sem esterilização). Após a esterilização, os 60 espécimes foram analisados por MEV, usando 3 aumentos: 1500X, 5000X, 10000X. As imagens foram analisadas por 3 examinadores previamente calibrados, que distribuíram escores referentes às alterações observadas nos túbulos dentinários: 0 = sem alteração morfológica, 1 = baixa obliteração dos túbulos dentinários, 2 = moderada obliteração, 3 = completa obliteração. A composição química da dentina foi avaliada por meio do processo EDS, com 15 kV de incidência e penetração de 1 μm. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste estatístico de Kruskall-Wallis com nível de significância de 5%. Resultado De acordo com os resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a esterilização tanto por autoclave quanto por radiação gama cobalto 60 não provocou alterações significativas na morfologia dos túbulos dentinários e na constituição química da dentina. Conclusão Concluiu-se que ambos os métodos podem ser utilizados para a esterilização de dentes em pesquisa in vitro. .

Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 105-109, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741217


Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.

Extratos seco, fresco e glicólico de Zingiber officinale foram obtidos para avaliar suas ações por meio de ensaio de sobrevivência em G. mellonella contra infecção por Enterococcus faecalis. Oitenta larvas foram divididas em: 1) Suspensão de E. faecalis (controle); 2) E. faecalis + extrato fresco de Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + extrato seco de Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + extrato glicólico de Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Solução tampão fosfato salina (PBS). Para o grupo de controle, 5 µL de inóculo de suspensão padronizada (107 células/mL) de E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) foi injetado na última proleg esquerda de cada lagarta. Para os grupos com tratamento, após a injeção de E. faecalis, os extratos foram injetados na última proleg direita. Após as injeções, as lagartas foram armazenadas a 37 °C e o número de animais mortos foi registrado diariamente em 168 h (7 dias) para analisar a curva de sobrevivência. As lagartas foram consideradas mortas quando elas não mostraram qualquer movimento após o toque. A infecção por E. faecalis levou à morte de 85% das lagartas após 168 h. Não obstante, nos grupos de tratamento com associação dos extratos, houve um aumento nas taxas de sobrevivência de 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) e 66% (DEO) das lagartas. Em todos os grupos com tratamento, as lagartas apresentaram um aumento na sobrevivência, com diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação ao grupo controle (p=0,0029). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os tratamentos com os diferentes extratos (p=0,3859). Pode concluir-se que os extratos testados mostraram atividade antimicrobiana contra a infecção por E. faecalis, aumentando a sobrevivência das lagartas de G. mellonella.

Humans , Receptors, GABA-A/chemistry , Binding Sites , Benzamidines/chemistry , Benzamidines/metabolism , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Conserved Sequence , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drug Design , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/chemistry , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/metabolism , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glycosylation , Models, Molecular , Mutation/genetics , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Subunits , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, GABA-A/genetics , Synaptic Transmission
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154653


Context: Teeth with periapical lesion usually present external root resorption around the apical foramen. These areas facilitate adhesion and co-aggregation of microorganisms developing biofilms. Up to the present moment, there is no methodology in the literature that enables the in vitro evaluation of endodontic irrigants and intracanal dressings on biofilms located in apical external root resorptions of human teeth. Aims: This study aimed to describe a new in vitro methodology for Enterococcus faecalis biofilm development in external apical reportion areas of human extracted teeth in different periods of time. Settings and Design: In vitro qualitative laboratory study. Subjects and Methods: Thirty roots from human extracted teeth presenting external apical resorption had their root canal diameters standardized by means of instrumentation. Next, the roots were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30) according to E. faecalis strains (ATCC 29212) exposure time as follows: Group T5, with 5‑day exposure; Group T10, with 10‑day exposure, and Group T15, with 15‑day exposure. The roots were attached to 24‑well culture plates so that only their apices could be in contact with bacteria for induction of biofilm formation. At the end of these exposure times, the roots were qualitatively evaluated with scanning electron microscope to observe the presence of biofilm in external resorptions around the apical foramen. Results: It was found that microorganisms were present in all exposure times, although structures suggesting the presence of biofilm with great conglomerate of bacteria showing structures similar to polysaccharide extensions were observed at the 10th day of exposure. Conclusions: By means of this new methodology, it was possible to observe biofilm formation in the areas of external apical resorption after 10 days of exposure.

Biofilms , Enterococcus faecalis , In Vitro Techniques , Root Resorption , Tooth Apex/therapy
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 43(3): 209-213, May-Jun/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-710388


Introduction: There is great demand for esthetic treatment by patients who have discolored teeth, because currently aesthetic standards have become stricter and many patients have tooth bleaching procedures performed before or during orthodontic treatment. Objective: To evaluate the bonding of orthodontic brackets to human molars after internal tooth bleaching. Material and method: Forty molars were divided into four groups according to the bleaching agent used: PS) sodium perborate + water; PC) carbamide peroxide; PC + PS) carbamide peroxide + sodium perborate; Cont) water (control group). Bleaching agents placed inside the pulp chambers were replaced every 7 days for 2 weeks, and the brackets were bonded 30 days after the end of bleaching. The shear strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (Emic). Result: ANOVA with a significance level of 5% (p > 0.05), showed no statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.1214). Conclusion: It was concluded that the different bleaching agents studied did not interfere with the bond strength of brackets to enamel and bonding the brackets 30 days after internal bleaching is a safe procedure. .

Introdução : O apelo estético de pacientes que possuem dentes escurecidos é grande, pois atualmente os padrões estéticos se tornaram rigorosos e muitos pacientes antes ou durante o tratamento ortodôntico, realizam o procedimento de clareamento dental. Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão de braquetes ortodônticos em molares humanos que receberam clareamento interno. Material e método: Quarenta coroas de molares humanos foram divididas em quatro grupos, de acordo com o agente clareador utilizado: SP) perborato de sódio + água; SP) peróxido de carbamida; CP+SP) peróxido de carbamida + perborato de sódio; Cont) água (grupo controle). Os agentes clareadores colocados no interior das câmaras pulpares foram substituídos a cada 7 dias por 2 semanas, e a colagem dos braquetes foi efetuada após 30 dias do final do clareamento. O teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado em máquina de ensaios universal (Emic). Resultado: O teste estatístico ANOVA com nível de significância de 5% (p > 0,05), mostrou que não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos (p = 0,1214). Conclusão: Concluiu-se que os diferentes agentes clareadores estudados não interferem na resistência de adesão dos braquetes ao esmalte dentário e a colagem dos braquetes 30 dias após o clareamento interno é um procedimento seguro. .

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154596


Background: Abrasive wear is one of the most common type of wear that not only affect teeth, as also dental restorations. Thus to investigate one of the etiological factors as tooth brushing procedure is clinical relevant in order to select the best material combination that may prevent damage of resin dental restoration's abrasion. Aims: This study evaluated the influence of tooth brushing on mass loss and surface roughness of direct Venus (Vs) and indirect Signum (Sg) resin composites, with and without a surface sealant, Fortify (F). Materials and Methods: Twenty‑four specimens were prepared with each resin composite, using their proprietary curing units, according to manufacturer’s instructions. All the specimens were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water for 5 minutes. Half of the specimens of each resin (n = 12) were covered with F (VsF and SgF), except for the control (C) specimens (VsC and SgC), which were not sealed. Mass loss (ML) as well as surface roughness (Ra) was measured for all the specimens. Then, the specimens were subjected to toothbrush–dentifrice abrasion, using a testing machine for 67.000 brushing strokes, in an abrasive slurry. After brushing simulation, the specimens were removed from the holder, rinsed thoroughly and blot dried with soft absorbent paper. The abrasion of the material was quantitatively determined with final measurements of ML and surface roughness, using the method described above. Results: ML data were analyzed by two‑way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis indicated that resin composites were not statistically different; however, the specimens sealed with F showed higher ML. Ra mean values of the groups VsF and SgF significantly increased. Conclusion: Tooth brushing affects mainly the roughness of the direct and indirect resin composites veneered with a sealant.

Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Veneers , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Tooth Abrasion/etiology , Toothbrushing/adverse effects
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154531


Objective: The practice of playing musical instruments can affect structures of the head, neck, mouth, and the masticatory system. The aim of this study was to obtain information regarding the prevalence of orofacial pain in musicians according to the type of instrument they play, by applying a specific questionnaire. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventeen musicians of Sao Paulo state's orchestras participated in this study. They answered an anamnesis questionnaire with 20 questions regarding their personal data, type of instrument played, hours of daily practice, and presence or absence of orofacial pain according to the Chronic Pain Grade Classification (CPGC). Musicians were divided into two groups in accordance with the risk of affecting TMJ: RG (risk group, including violin, viola, vocalist, trombone, tuba, clarinet and saxophone); CG (control group, other instruments). They received an informative brochure about the subject. Data obtained from the questionnaire were submitted to descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis and Z-test for difference between two proportions. Results: The participants were from 15 to 62 years old. Pain degree showed positive correlation for reported symptoms (P = 0.002) and hour/day practice (P = 0.030). Regarding the prevalence of pain degree, data were, for RG: Grade 0 (54.5%), Grade 1 (30.3%), and Grade ≥2 (15.1%). For CG, Grade 0 (84.4%), Grade 1 (8.9%), and Grade ≥2 (6.6%). Z-test showed positive difference between groups (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: It was concluded that the musicians of risk group presented higher prevalence of orofacial pain than control (non-risk) group.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Facial Pain/epidemiology , Facial Pain/etiology , Music , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology