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1.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 41(3): 304-311, set. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-728339

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is caused by a defect of the ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex of the branched amino acids Valine, Isoleucine and Leucine (VIL). The treatment consists of a leucine-restricted diet. Objective: To evaluate the long-term follow-up in children with MSUD. Methodology: 29 records were reviewed of patients with MSUD, of which 24 were clinically identified (> 5th day of life), 4 cases by MSUD family history and one by neonatal screening (< 5th day of life). Leucine (Leu) levels were measured at diagnosis (Biotronic 2000) and during follow-up (mass spectrometry). The number of decompensation events, Total Intellectual Quotient (TIQ, Bayley and Wechsler scale) and nutritional status were also measured. STATA statistical software version 9.2 was applied (p≤0.05). Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 14 days old. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of Leu and alloisoleucin. When comparing the TIQ of 19 cases over 3 years old with their age at diagnosis, it was observed that those cases screened by the 5th day of life had a TIQ 84.6 ± 13, while those diagnosed later had a TIQ 73 ± 17 (p≤0.05). In assessing the number of hospitalizations that occurred during follow-up, we determined that the 5 cases screened early never had a metabolic crisis and had a higher TIQ than those who had had one or more decompensation (92 and 74, respectively, p≤0.05). An inverse correlation was observed between the Leu+Isoleucine value and TIQ. Conclusion: The diagnosis before the 5th day of life and a good metabolic control during follow-up, enables children with MSUD to have normal cognitive development.


La enfermedad de la orina olor a jarabe de arce (EOJA) se produce por un defecto del complejo enzimático deshidrogenasa de los cetoácidos de los aminoácidos ramificados: Valina, Isoleucina, Leucina (VIL). El tratamiento es una dieta restringida en leucina (Leu). Objetivo: evaluar el seguimiento a largo plazo en niños con EOJA. Metodología: Se revisaron 29 fichas de pacientes EOJA, 24 fueron pesquisados por clínica (> 5to día de vida) y 4 casos por antecedentes familiares con EOJA y 1 por pesquisa neonatal (< 5to día de vida). Se midió nivel de Leu al diagnóstico (Biotronic 2000) y durante el seguimiento (Espectrometría de masa), número de descompensaciones, Coeficiente Intelectual Total (CIT) (Escalas de Bayley y Wechsler) y estado nutricional. Se aplicó programa estadístico STATA versión 9.2 (p≤0.05). Resultados: La edad de diagnóstico fue a los 14 días de edad. En todos se confirmó el diagnóstico por los niveles elevados de Leu y presencia de alloisoleucina. Al comparar el CIT de los 19 casos mayores de 3 años con la edad de diagnóstico, se observó que aquellos casos pesquisados antes del 5to día tenían un CIT de 84,6±13, a diferencia de los diagnosticados posteriormente que tenían un CIT=73±17 (p≤0.05). Al evaluar el número de descompensaciones ocurridas durante el seguimiento, se determinó que los 5 casos nunca habían tenido una crisis metabólica, tuvieron un CI mayor que aquellos que habían tenido una o más descompensaciones (92 y 74 respectivamente) (p≤0.05). Cuando se correlacionó el valor de Leu+Iso de seguimiento con el CIT, se observó una correlación inversamente proporcional. Conclusión: el diagnóstico antes de los 5to día de vida y un buen control metabólico durante el seguimiento, permite que los niños con EOJA tengan un desarrollo cognitivo normal.


Subject(s)
Child , Child , Intelligence , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Child Development
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 34(3): 220-227, sept. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-515293

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Academia Americana de Pediatría (AAP) ha clasificado la Fenilquetonuria (PKU) e Hiperfenilalaninemia (HFA) según la tolerancia de la ingesta de fenilalanina (FA) en: PKU clásica: 20 mg FA/kg/día, PKU moderada: 21 y 25 mg FA/kg/día y PKU leve: 25 y 50 mg FA/kg/día, e HFA benigna con dieta normal, manteniendo un nivel plasmático de FA entre 2,0 y 10,0 mg/dl. Objetivo: Evaluar la evolución clínica de 67 niños con valores de FA plasmática entre 2.1 y 6.0 mg/dL en el período neonatal. Resultados: Del total, 29 niños tenía entre 0 y 2 años, 23 entre 2 y 4 años y 15 niños eran mayores de 4 años de edad. El estado nutricional de 45 niños era normal, 14 niños estaban con sobrepeso u obesidad, y 8 casos tenían riesgo nutricional. Se determinó que 4 niños tenían una ingesta menor de 20 mg FA/kg/día, dos niños entre 21 y 25 mg FA/kg/día, 15 casos entre los 26 a 50 mg FA/kg/día y 46 niños estaban con dieta normal. Conclusión: Los recién nacidos con niveles de FA entre 2.1 y 6.0 mg/dl durante el período neonatal, tienen una evolución clínica y nutricional diferente, que puede ir desde una PKU clásica a una HFA benigna, por lo cual se recomienda mantener un control frecuente de FA sanguínea y una vigilancia nutricional, con un mínimo de 2 años de seguimiento.


Introduction: The American Academy of Pediatric (AAP) has classified Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Hyperphenylalaninaemias (HPhe) according to tolerance of phenylalanine (Phe) intake in: Classic PKU (20 mg Phe/kg/day), moderate PKU (between 21 and 25 mg Phe/kg/day) and mild PKU (between 25 and 50 mg Phe/kg/day), and benign HPhe with normal diet, maintaining blood Phe levels between 2,0 and 10,0 mg/dL. Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution of 67 children with blood Phe values between 2,1 and 6.0 mg/dl in the neonatal period. Results: Of the total, 29 children were aged between 0 and 2 years, 23 between 2 and 4 years and 15 children were older than 4 years of age. The nutritional state of 45 children was normal, 14 children were overweight or obese, and 8 were at nutritional risk. Four children had Phe intake below 20 mg/kg/day, two children between 21 and 25 mg/kg/day; 15 cases between 26 to 50 mg/kg/day and 46 children were on normal diet. Conclusion: Newborns with blood Phe levels between 2,1 and 6,0 mg/dl in the neonatal period, had a different clinical and nutritional evolution, which could go from the classic PKU to a benign HPhe. Thus, it is recommended to keep a frequent control of plasmatic Phe levels and nutritional monitoring for a minimum of 2 years of follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/metabolism , Phenylketonurias/blood , Body Mass Index , Chile , Clinical Evolution , Follow-Up Studies , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/deficiency , Phenylalanine/administration & dosage , Phenylketonurias/diet therapy , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies
3.
Rev. chil. tecnol. méd ; 27(1): 1339-1346, jul. 2007. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-474858

ABSTRACT

El síndrome Xq frágil (SXF) es una causa frecuente de retraso mental (RM); se estima que uno de cada 4.000 varones y una década 6.000 mujeres lo presentan. Clínicamente los individuos afectados se caracterizan por presentar déficit intelectual y cognitivo, déficit de lenguaje, macroorquidismo, fascie alargada y orejas prominentes, entre otras dismorfias faciales. A nivel molecular es posible distinguir fundamentalmente dos tipos de alelos mutados: premutacion y mutación completa, las cuales corresponden a amplificación del trinucleótido CGG localizado en el primer exón del gen FMR1; las premutaciones presentan entre 52 y 200 repetidos y las mutaciones completas sobre 200 CGG, con hipermetilación de la región promotora del gen FMR1 e inhibición de la expresión de la proteína FMRP, causante del RM y dismorfias características de este síndrome. Desde que se identifico la mutación en 1991, la pesquisa de pacientes afectados se inicia por el examen clínico y luego el análisis citogenetico clásico y el test de screening basado en PCR para individuos varones y análisis molecular directo del gen FMR 1 por Southern Blot con la sonda Stb 12.3 para pacientes mujeres; los varones que presentan un PCR alterado deben ser confirmados por Southern Blot. El PCR debe ser usado como método de screening solo en varones con RM, sin historia familiar; es un sensible, rápido, de bajo costo y permite determinar el numero de repetidos CGG. Proponemos el uso conjunto de estos métodos para optimizar el estudio molecular directo del gen FMR1 y establecer un protocolo mas eficiente en la pesquisa de afectados, el estudio de familiares a riesgo y el consejo genético adecuado.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , RNA-Binding Proteins , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Blotting, Southern , Folic Acid Deficiency/complications , Gene Amplification , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trinucleotide Repeats/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 77(1): 34-42, feb. 2006. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-469642

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de X frágil (SXF) es una causa frecuente de retraso mental (RM), se presenta en 1 de 4 000 hombres y en 1 de 8 000 mujeres. A nivel molecular existen principalmente tres tipos de alteraciones: premutación, mutación completa y mosaicos, todas las cuales corresponden a amplificación del trinucleótido CGG localizado en el primer exón del gen FMR1: las premutaciones presentan entre 52 y 200 repetidos; las mutaciones completas, sobre 200 CGG, presentan hipermetilación de la región promotora del gen FMR1 e inhibición de la expresión de la proteína FMRP, causante del RM y dismorfias características de este síndrome. Los mosaicos presentan mutación completa y premutación o metilación parcial del gen FMR1. Los pacientes con SXF son diagnosticados clínicamente según un protocolo de tamizaje que considera 15 características clínicas que entrega un puntaje máximo de 30 puntos en individuos afectados. Objetivo: Definir criterios clínicos específicos para población chilena que ayuden a identificar a los individuos que deban ser sometidos a estudios moleculares confirmatorios de SXF. Pacientes y Método: Se consideraron 99 pacientes varones referidos al INTA por presentar retraso mental y características clínicas sugerentes del SXF; a todos se les realizó evaluación clínica utilizando el protocolo descrito por Buttler y estudio molecular con análisis directo del gen FMR1 por Southern blot. Resultados: 23 de los 99 pacientes estudiados presentaron una mutación en FMR1 y puntaje clínico entre 16 y 27 puntos; los 76 casos restantes con puntajes clínicos entre 10 y 26 puntos, no presentaron mutación en el gen FMR1. Se evaluaron las características clínicas en ambos grupos y se observó que 4 de ellas se asocian significativamente a la mutación, siendo tres de ellas independientes de la edad de los pacientes. Conclusiones: Con estos resultados y a fin de optimizar el estudio molecular directo del gen FMR1, proponemos que el criterio de selección de pacientes sea a través del examen clínico y que todo individuo con puntaje ³ 15 puntos debe ser sometido al estudio molecular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Genetic Testing , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Blotting, Southern , Chile , Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion/genetics , Genetic Markers , Methylation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mutation/genetics , Sex Factors
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 131(11): 1280-1287, nov. 2003. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-358947

ABSTRACT

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to of a defect in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (12q22-24.1) leading to hyperphenylalaninemia. Treatment consists in a low phenylalanine (Phe) diet. Aim: To evaluate the evolution of early diagnosed PKU children, receiving direct breast feeding, and a special formula without Phe, during their first six months of life. Patients and methods: Nineteen PKU children diagnosed in the neonatal period (19.29±13.8 days of age), treated with breast feeding and formula without Phe since diagnosis, were studied. Intake of calories, proteins and dietary Phe were quantified. Blood Phe, nutritional status and psychomotor development were also measured. Results: The diet that these children received during the 6 months period of study, had a mean of 127±19.9 Kcal/kg/day, 1.95±0.3 g protein/kg/day and 35.3±9.5 mg Phe/kg/day. Fifteen children maintained the blood level of Phe under 8 mg/dl, considered an excellent metabolic control. Only 4 cases had intermittently high levels, between 10-12 mg/dl. At 6 months of age, 74% of the children maintained breast feeding as the only source of Phe. Sixty three percent had a normal nutritional status, 5.2% were at nutritional risk and 31.6% were overweight. Eighty one percent had a normal mental development. Conclusions: The use of direct breast feeding allows a good metabolic control and improves growth and development of early diagnosed PKU children (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 1280-87).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/administration & dosage , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/blood , Proteins/administration & dosage , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 130(3): 259-266, mar. 2002. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-314851

ABSTRACT

Background: Propionic aciduria (PA) and Methymalonic aciduria (MMA) result from an inherited abnormality of the enzymes propionyl CoA carboxylase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase respectively. This produces marked increases in the amino acids methionine, threonine, valine and isoleucine (MTVI). Their clinical presentation can be neonatal or late onset forms. Aim: To report 23 children with organic acidurias. Material and methods: Twenty three cases of organic acidurias diagnosed since 1980 (17 PA and 6 MMA) and followed at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, are reported. Results: The average age of diagnosis was 3.9 days for the neonatal form and 8.3 months for the late onset form. The most frequent symptoms were hypotonia, lethargy and vomiting. Neonatal PA had mean ammonemias of 1089ñ678.3 µg/dl. The figure for MMA was 933ñ801.9 µg/dl. Seven children were dialyzed and 30 percent died. 16 children are followed and 81.2 percent have normal weight for age. Seven children required gastrostomy because of anorexia and failure to thrive. The nutritional treatment is based on natural and artificial proteins without MTVI, with periodical controls, amino acid and ammonia quantification. Some patients were submitted to enzyme assays and molecular studies. Conclusions: An early diagnosis and a very strict follow up allows a normal development of children with organic aciduras. There is a relationship between prognosis and the presentation form, the nutritional status and the emergency treatment during acute episodes. The importance of the enzymatic and molecular studies is emphasized because they facilitate treatment, accurate diagnosis and allow an adequate genetic counseling


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Methylmalonic Acid/urine , Propionates/urine , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Methylmalonic Acid/metabolism , Propionates/metabolism , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Energy Intake , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diet therapy , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/drug therapy , Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase , Nutritional Status
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 126(12): 1435-46, dic. 1998. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-243740

ABSTRACT

Background: The unequivocal diagnosis of fragile Xq syndrome is based in the direct analysis of the underlying FMR-1 gene mutation, that consists in an increased number of trinucleotide CGG repetitions. Aim: To study families with fragile Xq syndrome, using the Southern technique for the analysis of the mutation. Subjects and methods: Fifteen individuals, pertaining to 6 families with fragile Xq syndrome, were studied. Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular analysis using Southern technique, were done. Results: Five male individuals had a clinically evident syndrome, confirmed by cytogenetic analysis that showed fragility in 10 to 29 percent of studied cells. One subject with a clinical picture suggesting fragile Xq had a normal cytogenetic study. The other studied subjects were the mothers of the five subjects with the syndrome, that must be carriers, and four brothers. Molecular analysis showed that seven subjects (5 males) had a complete mutation, five (4 females) were carriers of a pre mutation and three (2 males) did not have the mutation. Conclusions: The southern technique allows to verify the normal condition of FRAXA locus, identify carriers and to detect complete mutations in fragile Xq syndrome


Subject(s)
Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Autoradiography , Clinical Diagnosis , Genetic Techniques , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Pedigree , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis
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