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Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Jun; 37(2): 219-224
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198862


Purpose: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has become a major health problem across the globe. The increased life expectancy of HIV-1 patients due to antiretroviral therapy has led to the emergence of liver disease as a major mortality factor among them. The purpose of the study was to examine the baseline characteristics of HBV in treatment-naïve HBV/HIV coinfection from southern India compared to monoinfected individuals. Materials and Methods: The study was cross sectional in design, and samples were examined from 80 HIV-1, 70 HBV and 35 HBV/HIV-coinfected individuals using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry assays. Results: There was a significant increase in HBV DNA (P = 0.0001), higher hepatitis B e antigen percentage difference (P = 0.027) and lower CD4 counts (P = 0.01) among the HBV/HIV-coinfected individuals, but no difference in the HIV-1 viral load compared to HIV-1-monoinfected individuals. Also, the aspartate aminotransferase levels, prothrombin time and the international normalised ratio were significantly high among coinfected individuals. Conclusion: These findings conclude that HIV-1 coinfection can have serious implications on the outcome of HBV-related liver disease. To the contrary, HBV infection had no consequence on the progression of HIV-1 disease but distinctly lowered CD4+ T-cells.

Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2018 Jun; 36(2): 172-177
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198776


Purpose: BK virus (BKV) is an opportunistic pathogen which causes significant morbidity and mortality in individuals who are immunodeficient. We aimed to quantitate and characterise BKV and to correlate with the degree of immunosuppression among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals. Methods: BKV DNA detection was carried out using an in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on paired whole-blood and urine samples collected from 187 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals and 93 healthy individuals who served as controls. Sequencing was performed for a proportion of high BK viral load (VL) samples to observe non-coding control region (NCCR) rearrangements. Results: BKV positivity in urine was 25.6% among HIV-infected individuals and 10.7% in control individuals (P = 0.03). The BK VL showed a significant negative correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts, a positive correlation with WHO clinical staging and no significant correlation with HIV-1 VL. Of 42 BKVs from urine samples sequenced, two showed rearrangements without clinically severe disease or high VL. Their NCCR and VP1 sequence-based genotyping revealed genotype I. In a small subset of individuals (n = 8) on ART who were being followed up, six individuals showed either decrease or complete clearance of virus with ART. Conclusion: There was a higher frequency of BK viruria in HIV-1-infected individuals than among healthy controls and the positivity correlated with the degree of immunosuppression. There was no association of high VL with NCCR rearrangements in urine.

Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2018 Jun; 36(2): 289-292
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198771


Brucellosis, a common zoonosis, is under reported in India despite its endemicity and increased exposure to livestock among the population. This study was conducted to determine the clinical manifestations, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, treatment and outcome of culture confirmed brucellosis. Adult patients with culture confirmed brucellosis who presented to a large teaching hospital in South India between 2009 and 2015 were included. A diagnosis of brucellosis was confirmed on automated culture. Clinical profile, laboratory parameters, drug susceptibility, treatment and outcome were documented by reviewing the medical records. The cohort comprised of 22 patients with mean ± SD age of 42 ± 13 years. Twenty one (95.5%) was male. Thirteen (59%) patients were from rural area and risk of acquisition of brucellosis including occupational exposure or consumption of unpasteurized milk was evident in 16 (72.7%) patients. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 54.5 ± 52 days. The commonest clinical presentation was prolonged fever without a definite focus in 18 patients (82%), whereas 2 (9%) patients had osteoarticular involvement and one patient (4.5%) each had genital involvement and endocarditis. Eighteen patients (82%) with uncomplicated brucellosis were treated with aminoglycoside and doxycycline for 6 weeks. There was no relapse or mortality at 18 ± 9 months of follow up. Brucellosis in this cohort had acute or subacute presentation with prolonged fever and bacteremia. High index of clinical suspicion based on significant epidemiological history along with automated blood culture improves the efficiency of diagnosis. Cure with lack of relapse among these cases suggests a combination therapy with doxycycline and aminoglycoside is highly effective for the treatment.