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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196168

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs) are heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical presentations and outcomes. Therefore, accurate classification is crucial for treatment planning. At present, flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCM-IPT) is a useful tool for diagnosing these diseases. However, overlapping immunophenotypes do exist. Recently, differential expression of CD200 and variation in number of CD20 antibody bound per cell (ABC) in different CLPDs has been reported. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven CLPD cases were analyzed by FCM-IPT for CD200 expression, and Quantibrite bead was used to calculate CD20 ABC. Results: Variability in CD200 expression can help in the differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL) from other CLPDs. CD200 was brightly expressed in 100% CLL cases, having homogenous bright (2+) intensity. On the contrary, CD200 was uniformly negative in all Mantle cell lymphoma cases except 1, in which the intensity was dim, and the mean fluorescence intensity was significantly lower than CLL. Furthermore, all HCL cases showed bright expression of CD200, thereby making it useful in differentiation from other CLPD with villous lymphocytes. Evaluation of CD20 ABC showed that it differs among various CLPD and was significantly lowest in CLL and highest in HCL both on peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Conclusion: Our results support the fact that CD200 can be added to routine CLPD panel as it is useful in subcategorizing them. However, inclusion of CD20 ABC to routine panel does not seem plausible but may be done for difficult diagnostic cases or where anti-CD20 therapy is planned.

2.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Feb ; 33 (5_Suppl):s151-153
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157066

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old, HIV-seropositive male (CD4 count 41 cells/mm3) on highly active antiretroviral ( HAART) presented with fever and weight loss for 3 months and new skin lesions. He was earlier diagnosed of TB and was on anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). The retroperitoneal lymph node aspirate showed acid-fast bacilli and epithelioid cell granulomas; however, cultures remained sterile. A dual infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium was diagnosed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). Clarithromycin was added to ATT, and on follow-up at 1 and 3 months, the patient responded well. Molecular methods like MPCR should be exploited for routine diagnosis of high-risk patients

3.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2013 Jan-Mar; 31(1): 24-28
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147541

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLA) is a common manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) accounting for 30-40% of cases. Prompt diagnosis and timely initiation of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) is the key for successful clinical outcome. This study was carried out to evaluate multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) using MPB64 and IS6110, and compare with the conventional methods for rapid diagnosis of TBLA. Materials and Methods: In our study, lymph node fine-needle aspirates of patients were evaluated for TBLA. They were classified as Group I: TBLA group, divided into (a) Confirmed TBLA cases (n0 = 80): Culture/smear-positive or cytological examination showing presence of epithelioid cell granuloma with or without multinucleate giant cell and caseation necrosis with presence of AFB, and (b) suspected TBLA cases ( n = 30): Culture/smear-negative and cytological examination showing presence of epithelioid cell granuloma and response to ATT and Group II (Control) (n = 25): Patients of lymphadenopathy confirmed to be caused by other diseases such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, etc., All samples were subjected to conventional tests and MPCR. For MPCR we used Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific deoxyribonucleic acid sequences specific for the MPB64 and IS6110 region. Results: In the confirmed TBLA group, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear, cytology, culture, and MPCR positivity was 30%, 70%, 26.3%, and 91.3% respectively. In the suspected TBLA group, smear and culture were negative, and sensitivity of cytology and MPCR was 73.3% and 86.6%, respectively. In the control group all tests were found to be negative, thus giving a specificity of 100% to all the tests in the study. Conclusion: In conclusion, techniques like MPCR with high sensitivity and specificity can play an important role in rapid diagnosis of TBLA.

4.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-Jun 55(2): 206-210
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142223

ABSTRACT

Background : Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) results due to decrease or absence of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI) molecules, such as CD55 and CD59, from the surface of the affected cells. PNH-phenotype has been described in various hematological disorders, mainly aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes; recently it has been reported in patients with lymphoproliferative syndromes and multiple myeloma (MM). Materials and Methods : We evaluated the presence of CD55 negative and/or CD59 negative red blood cell (RBC) populations in newly diagnosed treatment naive-54 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 29 MM patients by flow cytometry. Results : PNH-phenotype was not reported in any patient; however, RBC populations deficient in CD55 were detected in 16.66% (9/54) CLL and 6.89% (2/29) MM patients. Clinical presentation or the hematological parameters did not show any relationship with the presence of CD55 deficient RBC population. Conclusion : Our study showed absence of PNH-phenotype in patients with CLL and MM; however, isolated CD55 deficient RBC were identified in both CLL and MM. Larger prospective studies by other centers, including simultaneous analysis of granulocytes for the presence of PNH-phenotype, are needed to corroborate these findings and to work out the mechanisms and the significance of the existence of this phenotype in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD55 Antigens/analysis , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Female , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications
5.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2010 Oct-Dec; 53(4): 745-749
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141800

ABSTRACT

Background: There is lack of data comparing the improvement in CD4 count following antitubercular (ATT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients presenting with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Tuberculosis (HIV/TB) dual infection compared with CD4 matched cohort of TB uninfected HIV patients initiated on ART. We sought to test the hypothesis; TB additionally contributes to reduction in CD4 count in HIV/TB co-infected patients and this would result in greater improvement in count following treatment compared with CD4 matched TB uninfected individuals. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective cohort study design we studied the change in CD4 cell counts in two groups of patients - those with CD4 cell count >100 cells / mm 3 (Group 1) and <100/mm 3 (Group 2) at presentation. In each group the change in CD4 cell count in dually infected patients following six-month ATT and ART was compared to cohorts of CD4 matched TB uninfected patients initiated on ART. Results: In Group 1 (52 patients) dually infected subjects' CD4 count improved from 150 cells/ mm 3 to 345 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001). In the control TB uninfected patients, the change was from 159 cells/mm 3 to 317 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001). Additional improvement in dually infected patients compared to the control group was not statistically significant (P=0.24). In Group 2 (65 patients) dually infected subjects count improved from 49 cells/mm3 to 249 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001) where as in control TB uninfected patients improvement was from 50 cells/ mm 3 to 205 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001), there being statistically significant additional improvement in dually infected subjects (P=0.01). Conclusion: Greater increment in CD4 counts with ATT and ART in dually infected patients suggests that TB additionally influences the reduction of CD4 counts in HIV patients.

6.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2010 Apr-Jun; 53(2): 287-289
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141664

ABSTRACT

Objective: A preliminary opt-out screening study for HIV was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in India according to Center for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines. A total of 876 cases were screened for HIV during August 2007 to December 2007 using tests approved by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO). Results: Data indicates that the prevalence of HIV in emergency and pre-surgical setting was 21 per thousand at the tertiary care center. Positivity rate in the pediatric population was 20.9 per thousand while in adults it was 21.4 per thousand. Most patients were totally unsuspected. Nearly 40000 patients seek admission annually to the emergency department alone. Thus nearly 700 to 800 patients may be missed every year if one does not resort to such a practice. Conclusion: Since India has the second largest number of HIV cases in the world, opt-out screening program and testing in an emergency setting, as recommended by CDC, is extremely relevant. Logistics of implementation of this policy need to be worked out at a national level.

7.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2010 Feb; 64(2) 90-93
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145491

ABSTRACT

Prolonged thrombocytopenia in a usual case of dengue virus infection is uncommon. Dengue-related thrombocytopenia is self-limiting and responds within 3-5 days. An underlying immunological disorder may be responsible for delayed return of platelet count to a normal level. We present a case of prolonged thrombocytopenia in a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever. The response to steroids suggests a possible immunological dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Severe Dengue/complications , Severe Dengue/epidemiology , Severe Dengue/immunology , Female , Humans , Steroids/immunology , Steroids/pharmacokinetics , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/immunology
9.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2009 Apr-Jun; 52(2): 167-70
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-75501

ABSTRACT

A second malignant neoplasm has been found to be more frequent than might be expected from the general population rates. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia are dreaded long-term complications of five cases of hematological malignancies following treatment for successful breast cancer therapy (therapeutic drugs or radiotherapy). We encountered carcinoma from north India over a 7-year period from 1999 to 2005. The patients presented 2-5 years after treatment of breast carcinoma. Three patients underwent surgery and received chemoradiotherapy. One patient received chemotherapy after surgery. One patient underwent only surgery and after 3 years presented with acute myeloid leukemia and bone marrow metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. At the time of presentation, all the patients had either bicytopenia or pancytopenia. A close follow-up with complete blood cell counts of the patients who previously had carcinoma of the breast is suggested for early detection of hematological abnormalities. However, the poor prognosis, limited financial resources and poor health insurance coverage results in few patients and their family members opting for treatment.

10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-88461

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Though acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an immunosuppressed state, CMV disease has been reported infrequently. We present a patient of adult B lineage ALL who was on maintenance chemotherapy and developed CMV pneumonia. Patient was managed with intravenous ganciclovir and had successful outcome. However, three weeks later patient had a relapse of ALL and died shortly after high dose chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppression , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Risk Factors
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-23352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) are increased in patients with HIV infection leading to increased apoptosis and reduced CD4 cell life. Pentoxiphylline is a TNF inhibitor with properties that might make it useful for the treatment of HIV infection. These include improved cell mediated immunity and inhibition of viral replication. We carried out this study to determine the therapeutic utility of pentoxiphylline in improving constitutional manifestations, preventing opportunistic infections and sustaining CD4 counts among asymptomatic HIV infected individuals (i.e., those with no opportunistic infection). METHODS: Individuals with HIV infection who were over 18 yr of age and free of opportunistic infections were recruited in the study and followed up 4 weekly. CD4 counts were measured using a flowcytometer using anti-human CD4 intervals. Pentoxiphylline was prescribed in a dose of 400 mg thrice daily. RESULTS: Thirty three (18 males) patients with HIV infection were studied. During their follow up (mean 12.5 +/- 5.6 months) one patient each developed cryptococcal meningitis and fibrocavitary tuberculosis. Weight increased from 51.3 +/- 7.4 kg at baseline to 55.3 +/- 7.4 kg (P<0.05). Malaise, fatigue and appetite improved in all those with these complaints, except the two with opportunistic infections. Mean CD4 counts were 184 +/- 36.4/microl at baseline and increased to 210 +/- 28.6/microl3 at four weeks (P<0.05). The patients had stable CD4 counts over the follow up period since then, i.e., within 25 per cent of the previous levels. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Pentoxiphylline therapy in HIV infected individuals, who were free of opportunistic infections, improved their body weight, minimized opportunistic infections, increased and sustained CD4 counts. Given the low cost of the drug it could be recommended for the use in individuals who are at a high risk of developing opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31435

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been reported as a leading cause of upper and lower viral respiratory tract infection in high-risk adult populations. We prospectively studied 48 patients with hematological malignancies over a period of 2 years. Throat and nasal washings were subjected to immunofluorescence and cell culture for virus isolation. Of these 48 patients, 31 had acute leukemia, 6 had chronic leukemia, 10 had lymphoma and one had multiple myeloma. The median age of the patients was 20 years with a male to female ratio of 4:1. No RSV was detected in any of the samples. RSV was not found as a major cause of community acquired upper respiratory tract infections in adults with hematological malignancies in India.


Subject(s)
Adult , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , India , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2006 Oct; 49(4): 553-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-72733

ABSTRACT

Pure red cell aplasia sometimes accompanies thymoma. Herein we report a PRCA patient with malignant thymoma. Only two Indian cases of PRCA with malignant thymoma have been reported so far and six cases in the world literature, to the best of our knowledge. This paper describes a malignant thymoma in a 40 year old male who later on developed pure red cell aplasia 7 months after thymectomy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure/etiology , Thymectomy , Thymoma/complications , Thymus Neoplasms/complications
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-69086

ABSTRACT

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of many opportunistic infections and has caused re-emergence of certain diseases in the developing world. In tropical countries, immunosupression due to HIV infection has resulted in changes in the clinical presentation of endemic infections. Although the immune deficiency caused by HIV infection should presumably lead to an increased frequency of clinical malaria in areas with endemic malarial infection, like India, evidence of the association between HIV and malaria in India is scanty, with only a few studies showing a positive correlation. We hereby report a case of concurrent infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a young male patient.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Comorbidity , Endemic Diseases , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunosuppression , India , Malaria/diagnosis , Male , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2005 Jul; 48(3): 349-53
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74857

ABSTRACT

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as a serious health problem in India. Although tuberculosis appears to be the commonest opportunistic infection, studies pertaining to opportunistic viruses are scant In the present study co infection with EBV was evaluated in patients with AIDS using a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction besides anti Zebra antibody assays for diagnosis of an active EBV infection in 37 patients of full-blown AIDS and 32 healthy seropositives. Thirty healthy laboratory workers were used as controls. Out of 37 patients with AIDS, 12 were positive for anti Zebra antibodies and 23 were positive for EBV by the PCR reaction. Out of the 32 seropositives, 3 were positive for anti Zebra antibodies and 4 were positive by PCR assay. The difference between seropositives and AIDS was significant (p < .05). None of the controls were positive for an active EBV infection. It is concluded that active EBV infection is an important co infection in patients with AIDS and may contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , DNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Seropositivity/complications , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Trans-Activators/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology
16.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2005 Jul; 48(3): 402-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74059

ABSTRACT

Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of ovary-hypercalcaemic type is a rare cancer of young pre-menopausal women of unclear histogenesis. Bone metastasis and bone marrow infiltration by ovarian carcinomas is a rare feature and only a few case reports are available in the literature. Herein we report a case of small cell carcinoma-hypercalcaemic type of both the ovaries with bone marrow infiltration and features of metastatic calcification in various organs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone Marrow Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Small Cell/pathology , Female , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-87249

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of cryptococcal meningitis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), despite being immunosuppresed state is uncommon. We report a 28-year gentleman in the maintenance treatment phase of ALL developing cryptococcal meningitis. The diagnosis was made by positive India ink staining and detection of cryptola antigen by latex agglutination. The patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B. The rarity of this condition in ALL is briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-88839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To find the prevalence of anemia in adult males and non-pregnant females of rural north Indian population. METHODS: During an epidemiological survey on hypertension in rural population of north India (n=2559), a random sample of 215 individuals underwent blood investigations including hemoglobin estimation. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia in 16-70 years of age group was 47.9% (n=215), being 50% (n= 136) among females and 44.3% (n=78) among males. Low socioeconomic status, illiteracy and lower body mass index, were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of higher prevalence of anemia in adult males need further investigation and corroboration in other studies. The intervention for anemia should be directed on the community as a whole.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Anemia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rural Health , Sex Distribution , Social Class
19.
Indian J Public Health ; 2003 Oct-Dec; 47(4): 180-2
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110436

ABSTRACT

Cleaning of register exercise was based on examination of records and not of patients. Because of this exercise, names of 5676 patients were deleted for various reasons viz. completed FDT, Defaulter, AMDT etc. The findings of the present study are more or less similar to the finding of similar other studies carried out in different countries from time to time. Updating of leprosy registers should be a routine activity. For this sensitization of health functionaries at various level must be carried out about importance of cleaning of register and for systematic effort to review the registers at least on sample basis.


Subject(s)
Humans , India/epidemiology , Leprosy/epidemiology , Registries , State Government
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