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J. med. virol ; 92(10): 1-6, Aug. 2, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1120884


Respiratory viral infection can cause severe disease and hospitalization, especially among children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities. In Brazil, the official surveillance system of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) investigates influenza A (IAV) and B (IBV) viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (HAdV), and parainfluenza viruses (hPIV 1­3). In Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, many fatalities associated with SARI between 2013 and 2017 occurred among patients without underlying diseases and for whom the causative agent had not been identified using official protocols. This cross­sectional study analyzed the presence of coronaviruses (HCoV), bocavirus (HBoV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinovirus in patients who died of SARI despite not having comorbidities, and that were negative for IAV, IBV, RSV, HAdV, and hPIV. Nasopharyngeal aspirates/swabs from patients were used for nucleic acid extraction. The presence of HCoVs OC43, HKU1, NL63, and 229E; HBoV; hMPV; and rhinovirus was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription­polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were also analyzed. Between 2013 and 2017, 16 225 cases of SARI were reported in RS; 9.8% of the patients died; 20% of all fatal cases were patients without comorbidities and for whom no pathogen was detected using standard protocols. Analysis of 271 of these cases identified HCoV in nine cases; HBoV, hMPV, and rhinovirus were detected in 3, 3, and 10 cases, respectively. Of note, patients infected with HCoV were adults. Results reinforce the importance of including coronaviruses in diagnostic panels used by official surveillance systems because besides their pandemic potential, endemic HCoVs are associated to severe disease in healthy adults.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Respiratory System , Coronavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring , Infections , Patients , Rhinovirus , Viruses , Virus Diseases , Adenoviridae , Disease , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Bocavirus
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 55-60, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1121303


Background: The number of fungal infections has increased in recent years in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Epidemiological studies are important for proper control of infections. Aims: To evaluate the etiology of fungal infections in patients in RS, from 2003 to 2015. Methods: This is a retrospective and longitudinal study carried out at Mycology Department of Central Laboratory of RS; 13,707 samples were evaluated. The variables sex, age, site of infection, and etiologic agent were analyzed. Susceptibility of Candida to fluconazole was tested in samples collected in 2015from 51 outpatients. Results: Of the 13,707 samples, 840 cases (6.12%) of fungal infections were found and included in the analyses; female gender accounted for the 55.9% of the cases. The main fungus was Candida albicans (450 cases, 53.38%; p < 0.001). Onychomycosis was the most frequent infection in superficial mycoses. Systemic mycoses accounted for 54.05% of the cases, from which 68.8% occurred in males, mainly HIVpositive (33.11%), and the main etiologic agent in these cases was Cryptococcus neoformans (73.13%). Among 51 samples tested for susceptibility to fluconazole, 78.43% of Candida isolates were susceptible; 5.88% were susceptible in a dose-dependent manner, and 15.69% were resistant. Conclusions: C. albicans is a common cause of fungal infections in RS, accounting for half of the cases;resistance to antifungals was found in non-hospitalized patients. In addition, women seem to be moresusceptible to fungal infections than men, however men show more systemic mycoses than women. Thenails are the most common site of infection. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 525-529, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888904


Abstract Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide public health problem. Chronic HBV infection with high viral replication may lead to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Mutant HBV strains, such as the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant, have been associated with poor prognosis and higher risk of the patient for developing cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. This study analyzed the presence of the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant in patients with chronic HBV and its association with clinical parameters such as viral load, aminotransferases, and HBV antigens. A total of 49 patients with chronic hepatitis B were included in the study, and the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain was detected in four samples (8.16%) by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length analysis (PCR-RFLP). The viral load was not significantly different between patients with or without the double mutant strain (p = 0.43). On the other hand, carriers of the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant had higher levels of ALT (p = 0.0028), while AST levels did not differ between groups (p = 0.051). In this study, 75% of the samples with the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutation were HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive, reflecting seroconversion even though they still displayed high viral loads. Our study has shown that the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain circulates in Brazilian patients, and is associated with elevated levels of ALT and HBeAg seroconversion.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Mutation/genetics , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Genotype
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(4): 246-249, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794596


ABSTRACT Background Due to the high prevalence of co-infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the severity of these infections, the understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in these processes, including viral behavior and host genetic profile, is of great importance for patient treatment and for public health policies.Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome, such as the SNP rs1045642 (C3435T) in the MDR1 gene, have been reported to be associated to the sustained virological response (SVR) to HCV treatment in HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Objective The present study analyzes the MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism in HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Methods A total of 99 HCV-HIV patients were included in the study. The DNA was extracted from blood samples, and the SNP rs1045642 was assessed by Real Time PCR (qPCR). Risk factors for acquiring the virus and the SVR after HCV treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin were also analyzed. Results Among the patients, 54 (54.5%) were male and 45 (45.5%) were female. The average age was 46.1±9.8 years. The SVR after HCV treatment was 40%. The frequencies of MDR1 genotypes CC, CT and TT were 28.3%, 47.5% and 24.2%, respectively. Allele frequencies were 52% for the C allele and 48% for the T allele. No association was found for SNP rs1045642 (C3435T) regarding response to treatment (P=0.308). Conclusion - In this study, the C3435T polymorphism in the MDR1 gene appears not to be associated with SVR in HCV-HIV co-infected individuals.

RESUMO Contexto Em virtude da elevada prevalência da coinfecção pelos vírus da hepatite C (HCV) e da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) e às inúmeras complicações que esses vírus acarretam, é fundamental o maior entendimento do comportamento biológico dos mesmos. O polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único rs1045642 C3435T do gene de resistência a múltiplas drogas MDR1, no qual ocorre modificação do códon ATC para ATT, parece estar relacionado à resposta virológica sustentada ao tratamento do HCV em coinfectados HCV-HIV. Objetivo Mapear o polimorfismo C3435T do gene MDR1 em pacientes coinfectados HCV-HIV e correlacionar com dados clínicos e laboratoriais. Métodos Foram analisados 99 pacientes coinfectados HCV-HIV. A identificação molecular do polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único rs1045642 do gene MDR1 foi realizada pela técnica de PCR em tempo real (qPCR) alelo-específico com primers e sondas específicos para a identificação desse polimorfismo. Fatores de risco para a aquisição do HCV e a resposta virológica sustentada ao tratamento do HCV com interferon-alfa peguilado e ribavirina foram analisados. Resultados Dentre os pacientes avaliados, 54 (54,5%) eram do gênero masculino e 45 (45,5%) do gênero feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,1 anos (±9,8). As frequências dos genótipos CC, CT e TT foram 28,3%, 47,5% e 24,2% respectivamente, e as frequências alélicas foram 52% para alelo C e 48% para alelo T. Não houve associação entre o gene MDR1 e a resposta virológica sustentada (P=0,308). Conclusão Neste estudo, o polimorfismo C3435T no gene MDR1 não apresentou associação com a resposta virológica sustentada ao tratamento em indivíduos coinfectados HCV-HIV.

Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/genetics , Genes, MDR , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Coinfection/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Middle Aged
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(3): 336-341, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723916


Objective A growing number of published articles report the expression of specific genes with different behavior patterns in rats. The levels of messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts are usually analyzed by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction and quantified after normalization with an internal control or reference gene (housekeeping gene). Nevertheless, housekeeping genes exhibit different expression in the central nervous system, depending on the physiological conditions and the area of the brain to be studied. The choice of a good internal control gene is essential for obtaining reliable results. This study evaluated the expression of three housekeeping genes (beta-actin, cyclophilin A, and ubiquitin C) in different areas of the central nervous system in rats (olfactory bulb, hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex). Methods Wistar rats (virgin females, n=6) during the diestrum period were used. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted from each region of the brain; the complementary deoxyribonucleic acid was synthesized by reverse transcription and amplified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using SYBR™ Green and primers specific for each one of the reference genes. The stability of the expression was determined using NormFinder. Results Beta-actin was the most stable gene in the hippocampus and striatum, while cyclophilin A and ubiquitin C showed greater stability in the prefrontal cortex and the olfactory bulb, respectively. Conclusion Based on our study, further studies of gene expression using rats as animal models should take into consideration these results when choosing a reliable internal control gene. .

Objetivo Um número crescente de artigos publicados relaciona a expressão de genes específicos com diferentes padrões de comportamento em ratos. Os níveis de transcritos de ácido ribonucleico mensageiro são geralmente analisados por transcrição reversa, seguida de reação em cadeia da polimerase, e quantificados após a normalização com um controle interno ou gene de referência (gene housekeeping). No entanto, os genes housekeeping exibem expressão diferencial no sistema nervoso central, dependendo das condições fisiológicas e da área do cérebro a ser estudada. A escolha de um bom gene de controle interno é essencial para a obtenção de resultados confiáveis. Este estudo avaliou a expressão de três genes housekeeping (beta-actina, ciclofilina A e ubiquitina C) em diferentes áreas do sistema nervoso central de ratos (bulbo olfatório, hipocampo, estriado e córtex pré-frontal). Métodos Foram usadas ratas Wistar (fêmeas virgens, n=6) durante o período de diestro. O ácido ribonucleico total foi extraído a partir de cada região do cérebro; o ácido desoxirribonucleico complementar foi sintetizado por transcrição reversa e amplificado por reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativo em tempo real utilizando SYBR® Green e primers específicos para cada um dos genes de referência. A estabilidade de expressão foi determinada utilizando NormFinder. Resultados A beta-actina foi o gene mais estável no hipocampo e estriado, enquanto a ciclofilina A e a ubiquitina C apresentaram maior estabilidade no córtex pré-frontal e no bulbo olfatório, respectivamente. Conclusão Com base em nosso trabalho, estudos posteriores de expressão gênica utilizando ratos como modelos animais devem levar ...

Animals , Female , Actins/genetics , Brain/physiology , Cyclophilin A/genetics , Ubiquitin C/genetics , Actins/analysis , Behavior, Animal , Cyclophilin A/analysis , Genes, Essential/physiology , Internal-External Control , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Ubiquitin C/analysis
Arq. gastroenterol ; 50(3): 219-225, July-Sept/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687251


Context Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is one of the most common causes of acute and chronic liver failure. The genetic variants of HBV can be decisive for the evolution of these diseases as well as for the election of therapy. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and standardize an in house methodology based on the analysis of the melting curve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of real-time (qPCR) to screen for genotypes A, D and F of HBV in patients from a hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods We evaluated 104 patients presumably with HBV chronic infection. Viral DNA was extracted from plasma and viral genotypes and different mutations were determined using PCR-based protocols. Results A PCR-based methodology was standardized for the analysis of genotypes A, D and F of HBV. The technique was based in a nested PCR with the final step consisting of a multiplex real-time PCR, using the melting curve as a tool for the differentiation of fragments. A higher frequency of genotype D (44.4%), followed by genotype A (22.2%) and genotype F (3.7%) was observed. Conclusion The standardized assay, a nested PCR-multiplex qPCR using specific primers, provides a rapid and accurate method for the differentiation of HBV genotypes that are more frequent in Southern Brazil – A, D and F. This method can be applied in the clinical practice. .

Contexto O vírus da hepatite B pode causar hepatite fulminante, cirrose e carcinoma hepatocelular, sendo uma das causas mais frequentes de doença aguda e crônica do fígado. As variantes genéticas do VHB podem ser determinantes para a evolução da doenças assim como para a eleição da terapêutica. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar e avaliar uma metodologia “in house”, através da utilização da curva de melting de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) em tempo real (qPCR), como rastreamento para análise dos genótipos A, D e F do vírus da hepatite B em pacientes do Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos Foram avaliados 104 pacientes supostamente com infecção crônica pelo VHB. O DNA foi extraído com kit comercial, os genótipos e as mutações foram determinados utilizando diferentes protolocos baseados em PCR. Resultados Foi padronizada uma metodologia baseada em PCR para a análise dos genótipos A, D e F do VHB. A técnica consistiu de uma PCR Nested incluindo uma etapa final de PCR em tempo real Multiplex, utilizando a curva de melting como ferramenta para a definição dos fragmentos. Foi observada uma maior frequência do genótipo D (44,4%), seguido do genótipo A (22,2%) e do genótipo F (3,7%) na amostra analisada. Conclusão O ensaio padronizado fornece um método rápido e preciso para diferenciar genótipos do VHB mais frequentes no sul do Brasil – A, D e F – usando um PCR Nested Multiplex com primers específicos, o qual apresenta potencial aplicação na prática clínica. .

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Brazil , DNA, Viral/analysis , Genotype , Hospitals, General , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transition Temperature