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1.
Indian Heart J ; 2019 Mar; 71(2): 118-122
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191707

ABSTRACT

Aims The prevalence of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in India is two to three times more than other ethnic groups. Untreated heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the important causes for premature CAD. As the age advances, these patients without treatment have 100 times increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality resulting from myocardial infarction (MI). Recent evidence suggests that one in 250 individuals may be affected by FH (nearly 40 million people globally). It is indicated that the true global prevalence of FH is underestimated. The true prevalence of FH in India remains unknown. Methods A total of 635 patients with premature CAD were assessed for FH using the Dutch Lipid Clinical Network (DLCN) criteria. Based on scores, patients were diagnosed as definite, probable, possible, or no FH. Other CV risk factors known to cause CAD such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were also recorded. Results Of total 635 patients, 25 (4%) were diagnosed as definite, 70 (11%) as probable, 238 (37%) as possible, and 302 (48%) without FH, suggesting the prevalence of potential (definite + probable) FH of about 15% in the North Indian population. FH is more common in younger patients, and they have lesser incidence of common CV risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and smoking than the younger MI patients without FH (26.32% vs.42.59%; 17.89% vs.29.44%; 22.11% vs.40.74%). Conclusion FH prevalence is high among patients with premature CAD admitted to a cardiac unit. To detect patients with FH, routine screening with simple criteria such as family history of premature CAD combined with hypercholesterolemia, and a DLCN criteria score >5 may be effectively used.

2.
Indian Pediatr ; 2014 Aug; 51(8): 666-668
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-170753

ABSTRACT

Background: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are disorders of Mitochondrial DNA maintenance causing varied manifestations, including fulminant liver failure. Case characteristics: Two infants, presenting with severe fatal hepatopathy. Observation: Raised serum lactate, positive family history (in first case), and absence of other causes of acute liver failure. Outcome: Case 1 with homozygous mutation, c.3286C>T (p.Arg1096Cys) in POLG gene and case 2 with compound heterozygous mutations, novel c.408T>G (p.Tyr136X) and previously reported c.293C>T (p.Pro98Leu), in MPV17 gene. Message: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is a rare cause of severe acute liver failure in children.

3.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136348

ABSTRACT

ATR-X syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by mental retardation, alpha thalassaemia and distinct facial features which include microcephaly, frontal hair upsweep, epicanthic folds, small triangular nose, midface hypoplasia and carp-shaped mouth. Here we report two brothers with clinical features of ATR-X syndrome, in whom a novel missense (C>T) mutation was identified in exon 31 of the ATRX gene.


Subject(s)
DNA Helicases/genetics , Exons/genetics , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Retardation, X-Linked/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Siblings , alpha-Thalassemia/genetics
4.
Indian Pediatr ; 2011 October; 48(10): 779-784
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-168984

ABSTRACT

Objective: Gaucher disease in India has been reported only in a few case reports from India. The aim of the study was to assess the response to enzyme replacement therapy in Indian patients with Gaucher disease. Design: Retrospective analysis of patients receiving CHO-derived recombinant macrophage-targetted glucocorebrosidase. Setting: Five centers from India with experience in treating lysosomal storage disorders. Patients: The diagnosis of Gaucher disease was confirmed by low glucocerebrosidase levels, though it was first made on splenectomy in 8 and on bone marrow examination in 9 patients. Twenty five of 52 patients diagnosed with Gaucher disease (17 Type I, 8 mild Type III) received treatment for >6 months. Indications for treatment included symptomatic anemia, thrombocytopenia, organomegaly, bone disease or mild neurological symptoms leading to impairment of quality of life. Patients with significant neurological involvement were excluded. The drug infusions were given intravenously every 15 days. Main Outcome measures: Hemoglobin, platelet counts, liver and spleen volumes and growth parameters. Results: 22 of the 25 children who survived were analyzed. After 6 months of treatment, the mean (range) increase in hemoglobin was 1.5 (-3.4 to 6.1) g/dL (P=0.01) and in platelet count was 32 x 109/L (-98.5 x 109 to 145.5 x109) /L (P=0.02). The mean (range) increase in weight was 3 kg (-5.6 to 10.5) (P=0.04) and in height was 7.1 cm (0 to 26.5) (P=0.0003). Liver size decreased by a mean (range) of 38.5% (- 5.5 to 86.7) (P=0.0003) and the spleen size by 34.8% (0 to 91.7) (P=0.004). All patients had improvement in bone pains and in 2 patients, neurological symptoms improved with others remaining static. Conclusions: This is the first reported cohort of patients in India reporting our experience with imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy for treatment of Gaucher Disease in India.

5.
Indian Pediatr ; 2011 Sptember; 48(9): 733-734
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-168963

ABSTRACT

Congenital hyperinsulinism is the most frequent cause of severe, persistent hypoglycemia in infancy and childhood. We report a 2.5 year old girl with severe congenital hyperinsulinism. Mutation analysis showed that the child is a compound heterozygote for two missense mutations in the ABCC8 gene.

6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135673

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is fairly easy in the presence of classical features, but can be difficult in cases with partial or non-classical features, especially in the parents. The demonstration that the disease is caused by mutations in the NEMO gene, has remarkably improved genetic counselling for this disorder. We present four families of IP in whom molecular studies established an unequivocal diagnosis in the affected daughters, and showed two mothers to be carriers, thus allowing accurate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Services , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , Incontinentia Pigmenti/diagnosis , Incontinentia Pigmenti/genetics , Infant , Mutation/genetics , Nuclear Family , Pedigree , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis , Sequence Deletion/genetics
7.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2010 Apr; 77(4): 431-433
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142553

ABSTRACT

Congenital myopathies are a group of genetic disorders characterized by generalised muscle hypotonia and weakness of varying severity. They are distinct entities and do not include muscular dystrophies, metabolic myopathies and mitochondrial disorders. Myotubular myopathy is a rare sub type within this group of disorders. Clinical differentiation of the various types is difficult and requires muscle biopsy with histopathological and immunohistochemical studies for specific diagnosis. Gene studies are a prerequisite for genetic counseling adn prenatal diagnosis. Here presented three cases of X-linked myotubular myopathy in three Indian families where the diagnosis was established by mutation analysis in the MTM1 gene in all, and supported his histopathology in two. All three families had history of previous male neontal deaths with similar complaints. Molecular analysis revealed hemizygous mutations in the MTM1 gene including c.1261-10A>G in case, 1, c.70C>T (R24X) in case 2, and a previously unreported mutation, c.924_926delCTT(p. F308del), in case 3. Genetic counseling was performed regarding the X-linked inheritance, their 50% risk of recurrence in boys in subsequent pregnancies, and a feasibility of prenatal diagnosis. This is the first report of cases of X-linked Myotubular myopathy from India.


Subject(s)
Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Mutation , Myopathies, Structural, Congenital/diagnosis , Myopathies, Structural, Congenital/genetics , Myopathies, Structural, Congenital/pathology , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor/genetics
8.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 June; 76(6): 615-621
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142299

ABSTRACT

Objective. To resolve all indeterminate cases on HPLC screening with the help of family studies and to further confirm the results by genetic analysis. Methods. In our 11 years experience with HPLC at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, we solved many cases with the help of family studies on parental blood samples in which patient could have possibly been homozygous vs compound heterozygous. Genetic analysis was done on index case as well as on parental samples with ARMS-PCR technique to confirm the results. Results. In 100% of cases, we noted that the diagnosis obtained by family studies was commensurate with that obtained by DNA analysis. Conclusion. In centers, which do not have the facility for genetic analysis, family studies by HPLC can be equally useful.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Testing , Hemoglobinopathies/diagnosis , Hemoglobinopathies/genetics , Hemoglobins, Abnormal/genetics , Humans , Pedigree , Thalassemia/diagnosis , Thalassemia/genetics
9.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2007 Nov; 74(11): 995-1002
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-80660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe skeletal dysplasias are a group of bone growth disorders characterized by a lethal outcome in utero or infancy. We describe our experience of the severe skeletal dysplasias diagnosed amongst fetal autopsies done at a tertiary level centre over a five year period. METHODS: We evaluated 15 cases with short limbed dwarfism, of which 13 fetuses were examined after termination of pregnancy and two were evaluated postnatally. RESULTS: Short rib dysplasia syndromes with or without polydactyly, osteogenesis imperfecta type II, thanatophoric dysplasia, campomelic dysplasia, chondrodysplasia punctata, rhizomelic type and achondrogenesis were the lethal skeletal dysplasias diagnosed. CONCLUSION: Precise identification of the tye of skeletal dysplasia is paramount for proper genetic counseling. Postnatal examination and detailed radiographic examination of the fetus especially of the pelvis, limbs, skull and spine are essential to identify the type of skeletal dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Developmental/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171319

ABSTRACT

Xmn-1 polymorphism is a known factor, which increases foetal haemoglobin production. Among, b thalassaemics in India five mutations are common. Disease severity was assessed based on age of presentation, age when received first transfusion and blood transfusion in ml/kg/year. Data was divided into three Xmn-1 categories, (+/+), (-/+), (-/-) and intergroup correlation was made. Mutations were divided into 2 groups, (group I) IVS 1-1 as one of its variables and (group II) without IVS 1-1. They were correlated. In Xmn-1 +/+ category 66.66% were diagnosed after one year of age, in mutations (group I) 53.57% had age of diagnosis after 1 year. 77.77% in Xmn-1 +/+ received their first blood transfusion after 1 year of age, in mutations (group I) 64.28% received their first blood transfusion after 1 year of age. About 66.66% patients in Xmn-1 +/+ category received blood <200ml/kg/year as against 72.22% in Xmn-1 -/- category. In mutations group I 57.14% received blood transfusion <200 ml/kg/year as against 68.18% in group II. It is concluded that the presence of Xmn-1 polymorphism and IVS 1-1 mutation leads to a milder phenotypic presentation causing a delay in onset of blood transfusions but dose not effect the amount of blood received /kg/year.

12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-24512

ABSTRACT

We report prenatal diagnosis of phenylketonuria by linkage analysis of the markers linked to the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Three markers comprising STR (TCTAT)n in intron 3, VNTR (30bp long cassette) in the 3' UTR and Xmn1 RFLP were ascertained in the affected child, the parents and the chorionic villi sample. The foetus was confirmed to be heterozygous for the mutant allele. The diagnosis that the foetus was unaffected was confirmed by biochemical tests in the newborn.


Subject(s)
Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Genetic Markers , Humans , Genetic Linkage , Minisatellite Repeats/genetics , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/genetics , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2005 Sep; 53(3): 167-71
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-70720

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) presents in early adulthood with painless progressive blindness of one or both eyes. Usually there is a positive family history of similar disease on the maternal side. Definitive diagnosis can be established by finding the change in the mitochondrial gene. No molecular studies have been reported from India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical, ophthalmologic and molecular studies were carried out in two patients from different families and available first degree relatives. The subjects were tested for the three common mutations seen in LHON by molecular techniques of polymerase chain reaction using mutation specific primers. RESULTS: The mutations G3460A and G11778A in the mitochondrial genes MTND1 and MTND4, known to be causative for LHON, were found in one family each. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of LHON should be considered in familial cases and in young adults with optic atrophy. Confirmation of diagnosis should be sought by molecular gene analysis. Genetic counselling should be offered to all 'at risk' relatives of a patient harbouring the mutation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , India , Male , Mutation , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber/diagnosis , Pedigree , Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2005 May; 11(2): 94-98
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: First trimester pregnancy loss is a very common complication and a matter of concern for couples planning pregnancy. Balanced chromosomal rearrangements in either parent is an important cause of recurrent pregnancy loss particularly in the first trimester. AIMS: In this study an evaluation of the contribution of chromosomal anomalies in causing repeated spontaneous abortions was made. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A review of the cytogenetic data in 742 couples (1484 individuals) with recurrent spontaneous abortions who were examined for chromosomal aberrations in the period 1990-2003 is presented. Women who had at least two abortions, or spontaneous abortions preceded or followed by fetal deaths or birth of a malformed child, and patients who had recurrent spontaneous abortions (> 3) with normal live issue/s were studied. RESULTS: Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 31 individuals (2%). These abnormalities included 22 (2.9%) structural aberrations, 9 (1.2%) numerical anomalies. In addition to these abnormalities, 21 (3.2%) chromosomal variants were also found. CONCLUSION: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with repeated spontaneous abortions as it helps in genetic counseling and deciding about further reproductive options.

15.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2004 Jun; 71(6): 535-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-78452

ABSTRACT

A patient with multiple malformations poses a diagnostic dilemma to the pediatrician. There are thousands of malformation syndromes described and diagnosis of a syndrome appears a daunting task. An approach to diagnosis of a malformation syndrome is presented. Relevant details in the history and examination, important investigations, the process of differential diagnosis, and search engines used to aid in diagnosis of a malformation syndrome are described.


Subject(s)
Child , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnosis , Family Health , Humans , Pedigree , Physical Examination , Syndrome
18.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2003 Apr; 70(4): 347-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-84911

ABSTRACT

The authors present a family with three children affected with triple A syndrome--one had died, one was saved by diagnosis and timely therapy, and one was born after the diagnosis in the second child. The gene for the syndrome has been cloned and genetic counseling should be offered to these families.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Function Tests , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Child, Preschool , Esophageal Achalasia/complications , Female , Humans , Hyperpigmentation/etiology , Infant , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases/complications , Male , Medical History Taking , Pedigree , Siblings , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
19.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2003 Apr; 70(4): 293-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-83199

ABSTRACT

The experiences in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis at a tertiary genetic center in India are described. Of 3500 subjects provided genetic counseling 28.7% were for prenatal diagnosis, 13.7% for mental retardation +/- malformations, 11.5% for thalassemia, hemophilia and leukemia, 8.5% for neural tube defects and other malformations, and 8% for muscle dystrophy and spinal muscle atrophy. Chromosomal studies in blood (n = 5459) were for recurrent abortions (57.8%), delayed milestones (14.7%), malformations (11%), and infertility and amenorrhea (10.2%). Indications for amniotic fluid studies (n = 835) were advanced maternal age (35.7%), high risk result on triple test (21.3%), previous child with trisomy 21 (21.3%) and abnormalities seen on ultrasound (11.1%). Molecular studies were mostly for thalassemia (843, 24.3%), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (443, 12.5%), fragile X syndrome (367, 10.3%), spinal muscular atrophy (315, 8.9%), thrombophilia profile (233, 6.6%), triplet repeat disorders-spinocerebellar ataxias, Huntington disease and Friedreich ataxia-162 (4.6%), cystic fibrosis 140 (3.9%) and mitochondrial disorders 101 (2.9%). Other disorders for which molecular diagnosis was done were intrauterine infections by PCR on the amniotic fluid, Prader Willi/Angelman syndromes, hemophilia, achondroplasia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and Apert syndrome etc. In biochemical studies triple marker tests were the most common (3239), followed by aminoacid chromatography (774). Among neurolipidosis metachromatic leukodystrophy was the commonest, followed by Krabbe's disease, Tay Sach disease and Gaucher disease. Of the mucopolysacharidoses Hurler syndrome was the commonest, followed by Hunter syndrome. These data are compared with previous studies and a change towards increased prenatal diagnostic tests is observed. The commonest indication for amniocentesis has changed to advanced maternal age. CONCLUSION: Advanced molecular, cytogenetic and biochemical techniques have been a useful addition for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in India.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations/statistics & numerical data , Cytogenetic Analysis , Female , Genetic Counseling/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/diagnosis , Genetic Testing/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Departments , Humans , India/epidemiology , Molecular Biology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies
20.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2003 Feb; 70(2): 169-71
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-81212

ABSTRACT

This article reports two families with children having acrocallosal syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by agenesis of corpus callosum, facial dysmorphism and polydactyly along with psychomotor retardation. Both families sought genetic counseling in subsequent pregnancies. Although the gene for the disorder is not yet identified, prenatal diagnosis was attempted by ultrasound studies. In both families, an affected fetus was diagnosed in the presence of postaxial polydactyly of hands and absence of corpus callosum. It is emphasized that pediatricians should make precise diagnosis in cases of dysmorphism and mental retardation, as this enable prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Corpus Callosum/abnormalities , Genes, Recessive , Genetic Counseling , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Syndrome , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
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