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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18474, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249171


Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, the search for new antibiotics is necessary and the medicinal plants represent its most important source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial property of extract and fractions from Protium spruceanum leaves, against pathogenic bacteria. By means of diffusion and microdilution assays, the crude extract was active against the nine bacteria tested being the hydromethanolic fraction the most active. During phytochemical procedures, procyanidin (1) and catechin (2) were identified as the main antibacterial constituents of this fraction. In silico results obtained using PASSonline tool indicated 1 and 2 as having good potential to interact with different targets of currently used antibiotics. These results no indicated potential to none DNA effect and indicated the cell wall as mainly target. Electrophoresis result supported that had no DNA damage. Cell wall damage was confirmed by propidium iodide test that showed increased membrane permeability and by cell surface deformations observed in scanning electronic microscopy. The in vitro assays together with the in silico prediction results establish the potential of P. spruceanum as source of antibacterial compounds that acts on important bacterial targets. These results contribute to the development of natural substances against pathogenic bacteria and to discovery of new antibiotics.

Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/analysis , Catechin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Computer Simulation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Leaves/classification , Burseraceae/classification , Phytochemicals
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(11): e180271, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976226


BACKGROUND The infection led by Trypanosoma cruzi persists in mammalian tissues causing an inflammatory imbalance. Carvedilol (Cv), a non-selective beta blocker drug indicated to treat heart failure and antihypertensive has shown to promote antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties which might improve the inflammation induced by T. cruzi. OBJECTIVES Evaluate the role of Cv on the inflammatory response of C57BL/6 mice acutely infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. METHODS Animals were infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi and treated with Cv (25 mg/kg/day), benznidazole (Bz) (100 mg/kg/day) or their combination. On the 28th day of infection and 23 days of treatment, the euthanasia occurred, and the heart preserved for histopathological, oxidative stress (SOD, catalase, TBARs, carbonylated proteins) and plasma (CCL2, CCL5, TNF, IL-10) analyses. Parasitaemia and survival were assessed along the infection. FINDINGS Cv decreased TBARs, but increased the mortality rate, the parasitaemia and the levels of CCL2, CCL5, catalase and the inflammatory infiltrate in the cardiac tissue. Bz led the reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate and circulating levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in the infected mice. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that Cv, in this experimental model using the Colombian strain of T. cruzi, caused damage to the host.

Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , /therapeutic use , Chemokines , Heart Diseases
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 1005-1013, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732612


Trypanosoma cruzi infection may be caused by different strains with distinct discrete typing units (DTUs) that can result in variable clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease. The present study evaluates the immune response and cardiac lesions in dogs experimentally infected with different T. cruzi strains with distinct DTUs, namely, the Colombian (Col) and Y strains of TcI and TcII DTU, respectively. During infection with the Col strain, increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, erythrocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin were observed. In addition, CD8+ T-lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood produced higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4. The latter suggests that during the acute phase, infection with the Col strain may remain unnoticed by circulating mononuclear cells. In the chronic phase, a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells was detected in the right atrium. Conversely, infection with the Y strain led to leucopoenia, thrombopoenia, inversion of the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes and alterations in monocyte number. The Y strain stimulated the production of interferon-γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and IL-4 by CD8+ T-cells. In the chronic phase, significant heart inflammation and fibrosis were observed, demonstrating that strains of different DTUs interact differently with the host.

Animals , Dogs , Chagas Disease/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , /metabolism , /metabolism , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Erythrocyte Count , Flow Cytometry , Fibrosis/immunology , Fibrosis/parasitology , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/analysis , /metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Myocardium/chemistry , Myocardium/immunology , Phenotype , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 51-60, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703645


Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model.

Animals , Dogs , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Colon/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Esophagus/parasitology , Myenteric Plexus/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Autopsy , Acute-Phase Reaction/parasitology , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/pathology , Colitis/parasitology , Colon/pathology , Disease Progression , Esophageal Achalasia/parasitology , Esophagitis/parasitology , Esophagus/pathology , Megacolon/parasitology , Species Specificity