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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(4): 602-606, Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340642


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: A survey among medical students in a Brazilian public university was performed to investigate the acceptance of organ donation in Brazil, particularly donation after circulatory death (DCD). METHODS: A questionnaire including 26 objectives and Likert scale questions was validated and sent to all medical students of our institution. The answers were analyzed considering the whole set of individuals as well as by dividing the medical students into two groups: less graduated students and more graduated students. RESULTS: From 1050 students, 103 spontaneous answers (9.8%) were retrieved after 3 weeks. A total of 89.3% agreed totally with deceased donor organ donation and 8.7% agreed partially. However, only 50.5% of the students agreed totally and 31.1% agreed partially to living donation. Students revealed that 82.6% know the concept of brain death. On the other hand, 71.8% of them declared not knowing the concept of planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, mainly cardiorespiratory support. A total of 85.4% of students agreed totally with donation after brain death and 11.7% agreed partially. However, when questioned about donation in awaiting circulatory death after a planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, only 18.4% agreed totally and 32% agreed partially. Both groups of less and more graduated students showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a clear lack of information and consequently in acceptance of DCD. Education in the field of end-of-life management may improve not only the acceptance of DCD donation but also the whole understanding of planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy.

Humans , Students, Medical , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Tissue Donors , Brain Death , Attitude , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(4): 510-517, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-770491


ABSTRACT Objective To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. Methods Tissue samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues were obtained from 64 operated patients who had colorectal carcinoma with no distant metastases. Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. The statistical analysis included mean, standard deviation, and Student’st test. Results The glycosaminoglycans extracted from colorectal tissue showed three electrophoretic bands in agarose gel. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. The average amount of chondroitin and dermatan increased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p=0.01). On the other hand, the average amount of heparan decreased in the neoplastic tissue compared to normal tissue (p= 0.03). Conclusion The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Neoplastic tissues showed greater amounts of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate compared to non-neoplastic tissues, while heparan sulphate was decreased in neoplastic tissues.

RESUMO Objetivo Determinar a presença de glicosaminoglicanos na matriz extracelular do tecido conjuntivo colorretal neoplásico e não neoplásico, tendo em vista seu papel central no desenvolvimento e na progressão dos tumores. Métodos Amostras de tecidos colorretais neoplásicos e não neoplásicos foram obtidas de 64 pacientes operados com carcinoma colorretal sem metástases a distância. As expressões de heparan sulfato, sulfato de condroitina e sulfato de dermatan e seus fragmentos foram analisadas por espectrometria de massa por ionização por electrospray, com técnica de extração e quantificação de glicosaminoglicanos após proteólise e eletroforese. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se média, desvio padrão e teste t de Student. Resultados Em gel de agarose, os glicosaminoglicanos extraídos de tecido colorretal mostraram três bandas eletroforéticas. A espectrometria de massa por ionização por electrospray mostrou fragmentos de dissacarídeos característicos de glicosaminoglicanos e indicou sua característica estrutural. Alguns picos na espectrometria de massa por ionização por electrospray não foram caracterizados como fragmentos de açúcares, sugerindo a presença de fragmentos de proteínas estruturais dos proteoglicanos, formadas durante a purificação dos glicosaminoglicanos. A quantidade média de condroitina e dermatan aumentou no tecido neoplástico em relação ao tecido normal (p=0,01). Por outro lado, a quantidade média de heparan foi menor no tecido neoplásico em relação ao tecido normal (p=0,03). Conclusão O método empregado permitiu determinar o perfil estrutural dos glicosaminoglicanos nas amostras. Tecidos neoplásicos apresentaram maiores quantidades de sulfato de condroitina e sulfato de dermatan em comparação com os não neoplásicos, enquanto o sulfato de heparan foi encontrado em menores quantidades nos tecidos neoplásicos.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma/chemistry , Colorectal Neoplasms/chemistry , Extracellular Matrix/chemistry , Glycomics/methods , Glycosaminoglycans/analysis , Carcinoma/pathology , Chondroitin Sulfates/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Connective Tissue/chemistry , Disease Progression , Dermatan Sulfate/analysis , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Heparitin Sulfate/analysis , Mucous Membrane/metabolism , Proteolysis , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(1): 28-35, Jan-Fev/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733007


CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Heparanase-1 degrades heparan sulfate and has been correlated with tumor progression. Although the isoform heparanase-2 has no catalytic activity, it seems to be important for modulating heparanase-1 activity. Cathepsin B is a proteinase involved in tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze heparanase isoform expression and cathepsin B activity in plasma samples from patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas, compared with healthy individuals (control group). DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood samples were collected at a Brazilian public hospital, from 21 patients with histopathological diagnoses of gastrointestinal carcinomas and from 43 healthy individuals. The analyses were performed in two Brazilian medical schools. METHODS: Heparanase isoforms were identified and quantified in plasma samples by means of Western blot. The enzymatic activities of heparanase-1 and cathepsin B were also measured. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the expression of both heparanase isoforms was significantly greater in plasma samples from gastrointestinal carcinoma patients, compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis showed that increased heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression was exclusively dependent on the ...

CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A heparanase-1 degrada heparam sulfato e está relacionada à progressão de tumor. Apesar de a isoforma heparanase-2 não possuir atividade catalítica, parece ser importante para modular a atividade da heparanase-1. A catepsina B é uma proteinase envolvida na metástase de tumores. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a expressão das isoformas de heparanase e atividade da catepsina B em amostras de plasma de pacientes com carcinomas gastrointestinais, comparando-se com indivíduos saudáveis (grupo controle). TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Este é um estudo transversal analítico. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue periférico, em hospital público brasileiro, de 21 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de carcinoma gastrointestinal e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. As análises foram realizadas em duas faculdades de medicina brasileiras. MÉTODOS: As isoformas da heparanase foram identificadas e quantificadas em amostras de plasma por Western blot. As atividades enzimáticas de heparanase-1 e catepsina B foram também mensuradas. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que as expressões das isoformas de heparanase foram significativamente maiores nas amostras de plasma de pacientes com carcinoma gastrointestinal em comparação com ...

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Carcinoma/enzymology , Cathepsin B/blood , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/enzymology , Glucuronidase/blood , Blotting, Western/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Isoenzymes/blood
Clinics ; 67(9): 1039-1046, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649383


OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the relationship between fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblasts, and telomerase-mediated regulatory signals in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty-four surgical lung biopsies, which had been obtained from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histologically classified as usual interstitial pneumonia, were examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and the tissue expression of inter leu kin-4, transforming growth factor-β, and basic fibroblast growth factor. The point-counting technique was used to quantify the expression of these markers in unaffected, collapsed, mural fibrosis, and honeycombing areas. The results were correlated to patient survival. RESULTS: Fibroblast telomerase expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression were higher in collapsed areas, whereas myofibroblast expression and interleukine-4 tissue expression were higher in areas of mural fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β expression was higher in collapsed, mural fibrosis and honeycombing areas in comparison to unaffected areas. Positive correlations were found between basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression and fibroblast telomerase expression and between interleukin-4 tissue expression and myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. Negative correlations were observed between interleukin-4 expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis. Myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and interleukin-4 tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis were negatively associated with patient survival. CONCLUSION: Fibroblast telomerase expression is higher in areas of early remodeling in lung tissues demonstrating typical interstitial pneumonia, whereas myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression predominates in areas of late remodeling. These events seem to be regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor and interleukin-4 tissue expression, respectively.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Actins/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Biopsy , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , /metabolism , Lung/pathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
Clinics ; 67(6): 557-564, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640203


OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether the inclusion of videothoracoscopy in a pleural empyema treatment algorithm would change the clinical outcome of such patients. METHODS: This study performed quality-improvement research. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent pleural decortication for pleural empyema at our institution from 2002 to 2008. With the old algorithm (January 2002 to September 2005), open decortication was the procedure of choice, and videothoracoscopy was only performed in certain sporadic mid-stage cases. With the new algorithm (October 2005 to December 2008), videothoracoscopy became the first-line treatment option, whereas open decortication was only performed in patients with a thick pleural peel (>2 cm) observed by chest scan. The patients were divided into an old algorithm (n = 93) and new algorithm (n = 113) group and compared. The main outcome variables assessed included treatment failure (pleural space reintervention or death up to 60 days after medical discharge) and the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Videothoracoscopy and open decortication were performed in 13 and 80 patients from the old algorithm group and in 81 and 32 patients from the new algorithm group, respectively (p<0.01). The patients in the new algorithm group were older (41 +1 vs. 46.3+ 16.7 years, p = 0.014) and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores [0(0-3) vs. 2(0-4), p = 0.032]. The occurrence of treatment failure was similar in both groups (19.35% vs. 24.77%, p = 0.35), although the complication rate was lower in the new algorithm group (48.3% vs. 33.6%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The wider use of videothoracoscopy in pleural empyema treatment was associated with fewer complications and unaltered rates of mortality and reoperation even though more severely ill patients were subjected to videothoracoscopic surgery.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Algorithms , Empyema, Pleural/surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted/methods , Length of Stay , Operative Time , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Acta cir. bras ; 26(6): 496-502, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604200


PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical evolution of orthotopic small bowel transplantation in outbred rats. METHODS: Seventy-two outbred Wistar rats weighting from 250 to 300g were used as donor and recipient in 36 consecutives ortothopic small intestine transplantation without immunosuppression. The graft was transplanted into the recipient using end-to-side aortic and portacaval microvascular anastomosis. Procedure duration, animal clinical course and survival were evaluated. Survival shorter than four days was considered technical failure. Recipients were sacrificed with signs of severe graft rejection or survival longer than 120 days. Necropsies were performed in all recipients to access histopathological changes in the graft. RESULTS: Median time for the procedure was 107 minutes. Six recipients (16.7 percent) presented technical failure. Twenty-seven recipients were sacrificed due to rejection, being nineteen (52.7 percent) between 7th and 15th postoperative day and eight (22.2 percent) between 34th and 47th postoperative day. Graft histology confirmed severe acute cellular rejection in those recipients. Uneventful evolution and survival longer than 120 days without rejection were observed in three recipients (8.3 percent). CONCLUSION: Intestinal transplantation in outbred rats without immunosuppressant regiment accomplishes variable clinical evolution.

OBJETIVO: Investigar a evolução clínica do transplante de intestino delgado ortotópico em ratos não-isogênicos. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois ratos Wistar não-isogênicos, com peso variando entre 250 e 300g, foram utilizados como doadores e receptores em 36 transplantes ortotópicos de intestino delgado sem regime de imunossupressão. Os enxertos foram implantados nos receptores por meio de anastomose microvascular término-lateral aorta-aorta e porto-cava. A duração do procedimento, evolução clínica dos animais e sobrevida foram avaliados. Sobrevida menor que quatro dias foi considerada falha técnica. Os receptores foram sacrificados quando apresentaram sinais de rejeição grave do enxerto ou sobrevida maior que 120 dias. Necropsias foram realizadas em todos os receptores para avaliar alterações histopatológicas no enxerto. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio para o procedimento foi de 107 minutos. Seis receptores (16,7 por cento) apresentaram falha técnica Vinte e sete receptores (75 por cento) foram sacrificados por rejeição sendo dezenove (52,7 por cento) entre o 7º e 15º dia de pós-operatório e oito (22,2 por cento) entre o 34º e 47º. Análise histopatológica confirmou rejeição celular aguda severa nesses recipientes. Evolução sem complicações e sobrevida maior que 120 dias sem sinais de rejeição foi observada em três receptores (8,3 por cento). CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado ortotópico em ratos Wistar não-isogênicos sem regime de imunossupressão apresenta evolução clínica variada.

Animals , Male , Rats , Graft Rejection/pathology , Intestine, Small/transplantation , Acute Disease , Graft Rejection/mortality , Intestine, Small/pathology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar/classification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
J. vasc. bras ; 10(3): 198-204, jul.-set. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604462


CONTEXTO: A recidiva de varizes em membros inferiores é complicação frequente da safenectomia e sua incidência atinge até 80 por cento dos casos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade do exame físico e do mapeamento com eco-color Doppler no diagnóstico da insuficiência do coto da veia safena magna, em doentes previamente operados, comparando-os com os achados da exploração operatória da junção safeno-femoral. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 30 doentes envolvendo 37 membros submetidos previamente à safenectomia magna para tratamento de varizes e que foram reoperados por recidiva de varizes na região inguinal ou em face anterossuperior da coxa. Todos os doentes foram submetidos ao mapeamento com eco-color Doppler. Os dados foram comparados com os achados da exploração da crossa da veia safena magna na reoperação. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade do mapeamento com eco-color Doppler para a presença de insuficiência do coto da veia safena magna foi de 70,3 por cento (26 concordâncias dentre os 37 membros) e resultados falsos negativos ocorreram em 29,7 por cento (11) membros avaliados (p=0,03). A sensibilidade do achado de varizes na região inguinal e na face anteromedial da coxa com a presença de insuficiência do coto da veia safena magna foi de 100 por cento (37 concordâncias dentre os 37 membros) e não houve resultados falsos negativos. CONCLUSÕES: No doente já submetido à safenectomia magna, a presença no exame físico de varizes recidivadas em região inguinal e na face anteromedial da coxa é sugestivo de insuficiência do coto da veia safena magna, devendo-se realizar o mapeamento com eco color Doppler para o adequado planejamento da reexploração da crossa da veia safena magna.

BACKGROUND: Recurrent varicose veins of the lower limbs are a frequent complication of saphenous vein stripping and their incidence may reach 80 percent of the cases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of physical examination and color-Doppler flow mapping for the diagnosis of insufficiency in the greater saphenous vein stump in patients who had previously undergone saphenous vein stripping, comparing the results with the findings at reoperation of the saphenofemoral junction. METHODS: This prospective study included 37 limbs of 30 patients who had been previously submitted to saphenous vein stripping to treat varicose veins. Color-Doppler flow mapping was performed in all patients. Results were compared with findings at reoperation of the saphenofemoral junction. RESULTS: The sensitivity of color-Doppler flow mapping was 70.3 percent (26 limbs out of 37 limbs) and false negative results occurred in 11 (29.7 percent) limbs (p=0.03). The sensitivity of finding varicose veins in the groin and/or in the anteromedial aspect of the upper thigh was 100 percent (37 limbs out of 37 limbs), without false-negatives. CONCLUSIONS: In patients previously submitted to saphenous vein stripping, recurrent varicose veins found at physical examination in the groin or anteromedial aspect of the upper thigh are suggestive of greater saphenous vein stump insufficiency. Color-Doppler flow mapping should be performed for an adequate saphenofemoral junction reoperation.

Humans , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Vascular Diseases , Lower Extremity/surgery , Varicose Veins , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color/nursing , Incidence , Saphenous Vein/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 26(2): 140-143, abr. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-579642


PURPOSE: To introduce a model of equipment for inhalation anesthesia in rats that offers better control of both flow and losses of ether during induction, maintenance, and recuperation. METHODS: The equipment consists of an air compressor with two outlets, a closed glass induction chamber, a glass reservoir for the anesthetic agent, a pediatric inhalation mask, a three-way stopcock, a Y-connector, and urinary catheters. Three hundred Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were given inhalation anesthesia. The evaluated parameters were equipment operation, duration of each phase of anesthesia, corneal reflex, muscular tonus, respiration during induction and maintenance, and volume of anesthesia. RESULTS: The average time taken for induction was 7.3 minutes; the average anesthetic recuperation time was 6.4 minutes. The amount of anesthetic used varied according to the weight of the animal, with the average volume of ether used being 6.5ml/hour. The availability of oxygen (room air) decreased the recuperation time and averted both respiratory depression and insufficient depth of anesthesia. CONCLUSION: The proposed equipment is practical, inexpensive, and allows for satisfactory control of anesthetic parameters during the entire procedure, making inhalation anesthesia in rats safe and essentially complication free.

OBJETIVO: Apresentar modelo de equipamento para anestesia inalatória em ratos, com melhor controle do fluxo, das perdas de anestésico na indução, da manutenção e da recuperação anestésica. MÉTODOS: O equipamento é constituído por compressor de ar com saída dupla, câmara de vidro fechada para indução, reservatório de vidro para o agente anestésico, máscara de inalação pediátrica, torneira de três vias, conexão em "Y" e sondas uretrais. Trezentos ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus) foram anestesiados por via inalatória. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: viabilidade do equipamento, tempo de cada fase, reflexo corneano, tônus muscular e movimentos respiratórios na indução e na manutenção anestésica, além do volume de anestésico. RESULTADOS: A média do tempo gasto na indução anestésica foi de 7,3 minutos. A média do tempo de recuperação anestésica foi de 6,4 minutos. A média do volume de éter utilizado foi de 6,5 ml/h. Não foram observadas neste experimento morte dos animais, aumento excessivo de secreção traqueobrônquica ou interrupção da operação por superficialização anestésica. CONCLUSÃO: O equipamento proposto é prático, possui baixo custo e permite o controle adequado dos parâmetros de controle da anestesia durante todo o procedimento, tornando a anestesia inalatória em ratos segura e praticamente isenta de complicações.

Rats , Anesthesia , Rats/classification , Analgesia , Ether/administration & dosage
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 90(1): 15-28, jan.-mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-746915


Cerca de 40% dos pacientes portadores de pneumoniadesenvolverão derrame pleural parapneumônico (DPP), o que está associado a considerável morbimortalidade. O DPP possui três fases: exsudativa, fibrino-purelenta e de organização, que representam o progresso da doença. Apesar das várias opções de tratamento existentes, a conduta terapêutica não está bemestabelecida, visto que para cada fase a eficácia de cada método é variável. Procurou-se, nesta revisão de literatura, analisar as diversas opções disponíveis e os critérios que determinam suaindicação. De modo geral, o uso da toracocentese terapêutica deve ser restrito a casos de DPP simples pequenos, que ocupam até metade do hemitórax. Já a toracostomia com drenagem fechada apresenta indicação mais ampla: DPP simples volumosos ouDPP complicados e empiema livres na cavidade. Para tais casos com múltiplas loculações, a decorticação vídeo-assistida (VATS) constitui o tratamento ideal. Por fim, a decorticação por toracotomia está indicada em casos mais crônicos com encarceramentopulmonar, embora existam evidências de que a VATS também pode ser empregada nesses casos e, em caso de necessidade, convertida no intra-operatório para toracotomia. Em relação aos agentes fibrinolíticos, os dados existentes sobre sua eficácia sãocontraditórios, de modo que seu uso ainda é restrito...

At least, 40% of all patients with pneumonia will have a parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE), which is associated to considerable morbidity and mortality. The PPE has three phases: exsudative, fibrinopurulent and organizing, which represent the development of the disease. Despite the great number of therapeutic methods, the PPE management is not well established, because for each phase the success rate of each technique is variable. The objective of this review of literature was to analyzeeach method available and its indications. Briefly, the use oftherapeutic thoracocentesis is restricted to small simple PPE, which are limited to half of the hemithorax. On the other hand, tube thoracostomy has a wider indication: large simple effusions and free-flowing complicated PPE or empyema. For multiloculated cases, the Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) is recommendable. Finally, the decortication through thoracotomy isindicated for chronic cases with lung entrapment, although there areevidences that VATS can be used too and, if needed, converted tothoracotomy in the operation room. Regarding thrombolytics, the data available about its efficacy is controversial, thereby its use isstill very restricted...

Humans , Adult , Pleural Effusion/surgery , Review Literature as Topic , Thoracic Surgery , Pneumonia , Thoracotomy
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 90(1): 36-46, jan.-mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-746917


Objetivo: Identificar potenciais marcadores associados à expressão de telomerase em fibroblastos e de α-actina de músculo liso (α-AMS) em miofibroblastos de pulmões de pacientes com fibrose pulmonar idiopática/pneumonia intersticial usual (FPI/PIU). Métodos: Utilizamos cortes histológicos de 34 biópsias cirúrgicas de pulmão de pacientes com FPI, caracterizados, à histopatologia, pelo padrão de PIU. As expressões de telomerase por fibroblastos, de α-AMS por miofibroblastos e tecidual deinterleucina-4 (IL-4), de fator de crescimento transformador-β (TGF- β) e de fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico (bFGF) foram avaliados por imunohistoquímica e quantificadas pela técnica de contagem de pontos nas áreas pulmonares de colapso (COL),de fibrose mural (FM) e de faveolamento (FV). Resultados: Aexpressão de telomerase foi significativamente maior nas áreasde COL que nas áreas de FM e FV. O mesmo foi observado para a expressão de bFGF. Interleucina-4 e α-AMS tiveram expressão significativamente maior nas áreas de FM. A expressão de TGF-β foi maior nas áreas de COL e FV. Observamos uma associação positiva entre expressão de telomerase e bFGF nas áreas COL, FM e FV. O mesmo ocorreu com a expressão de α-AMS e IL-4. Nas áreas de FM, houve uma correlação negativa entre IL-4e bFGF, e TGF-β apresentou tendência a associação positiva com α-AMS. Análise multivariada revelou que a expressão de IL-4 e α-AMS nas áreas de FM são indicadores independentes de menor sobrevida em modelo estatístico significante incluindo idade, tabagismoe FVC (capacidade vital forçada). Pacientes com expressão de IL-4 menor que 13,5% nas áreas de FMapresentaram melhor sobrevida. O mesmo foi observado para expressão de α-AMS menor que 8,5%. Conclusão: Fibroblastos, com capacidade multiplicativa caracterizada pela expressão de telomerase e de bFGF tecidual, tendem a predominar no estágio precoce de remodelamento da FPI/PIU...

Objective: To identify potential markers associated with fibroblast telomerase and interstitial myfibroblast alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-AMS) expression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual intersticial pneumonia (IPF/UIP). Methods:Pulmonary specimens included 34 surgical lung biopsies, histologicallyclassified as UIP, from patients clinically diagnosed with IPF. Fibroblast telomerase expression, interstitial myofibroblast α-AMSexpression and IL-4 (interleukin 4), TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) tissue expressionwere evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantifiedin collapsed (COL), mural fibrosis (MF) and honeycombing areas (HC). Results: Telomerase expression was significantly higher in COL areas than in MF and HC areas. The same was observed for b-FGF. Interleukin-4 and α-AMS expression were significantly higher in MF areas. TGF-β expression ws higher in COL and HC areas. We observed a positive correlation between telomerase and bFGF expression in COL, MF and HC areas. The same was noted for α-AMS and IL-4. In MF areas, a negative correlation between IL-4 and b-FGF was obtained and TGF-β tended to positively correlate with α-AMS. In multivariate analysis, IL-4 tissue andα-AMS myofibroblast expression in MF areas were independently predictive of mortality in a statistically significant model including age, tobacco use and FVC (full vital capacity). Patients with IL-4 expression lower than 13.5% in MF areas had better survival. The same was noted for α-AMS expression lower than 8.5%. Conclusion: Fibroblast multiplicative capacity, characterized by telomerase expression and associated with bFGF tissue expression, seems to predominate in the early remodeling process of IPF/UIP, whereas myofibroblast differentiation, characterized by alpha-smooth muscleactin expression and associated with IL-4 tissue expression, seems to lead to the later fibrotic response...

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Fibroblasts , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Myofibroblasts , Telomerase , Immunohistochemistry , Muscle, Smooth , Survival
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.2): 57-65, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602645


PURPOSE: To study the functional behavior of the allograft with immunosuppression of pancreatic islets in the spleen. METHODS: Five groups of 10 Mongrel dogs were used: Group A (control) underwent biochemical tests; Group B underwent total pancreatectomy; Group C underwent total pancreatectomy and pancreatic islet autotransplant in the spleen; Group D underwent pancreatic islet allograft in the spleen without immunosuppressive therapy; Group E underwent pancreatic islet allograft in the spleen and immunosuppression with cyclosporine. All of the animals with grafts received pancreatic islets prepared by the mechanical-enzymatic method - stationary collagenase digestion and purification with dextran discontinuous density gradient, implanted in the spleen. RESULTS: The animals with autotransplant and those with allografts with immunosuppression that became normoglycemic showed altered results of intravenous tolerance glucose (p < 0.001) and peripheral and splenic vein plasmatic insulin levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in animals that had allografts with immunosuppression than in those with just autotransplants. CONCLUSIONS: In the animals with immunosupression with cyclosporine subjected to allograft of pancreatic islets prepared with the mechanical-enzymatic preparation method (stationary collagenase digestion and purification with dextran discontinuous density gradient), the production of insulin is decreased and the response to intravenous glucose is altered.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento funcional do alotransplante com imunossupressão de ilhotas pancreáticas no baço. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados cinco grupos de 10 cães mestiços: grupo A (controle) submetido aos exames bioquímicos; grupo B, submetido à pancreatectomia total; grupo C (autotransplante) submetido à pancreatectomia total e autotransplantação de ilhotas pancreáticas no baço; grupo D, submetido à alotransplantação de ilhotas pancreáticas no baço sem terapia imunossupressiva; grupo E, submetido à alotransplantação de ilhotas no baço e imunossupressão com ciclosporina. Todos os animais transplantados receberam ilhotas pancreáticas isoladas pelo método mecânico-enzimático, digestão estacionária com colagenase e purificação com gradiente de densidade descontínua de dextran e foram implantadas no baço. RESULTADOS: Animais autotransplantados e alotransplantados com imunossupressão que se tornaram normoglicêmicos apresentaram testes de tolerância à glicose intravenosa alterados (p<0,001) e o nível de insulina plasmática periférica e na veia esplênica foram significantemente menores (p<0,001) nos animais alotransplantados com imunossupressão em relação aos autotransplantados. CONCLUSÃO: Nos animais submetidos ao alotransplante de ilhotas pancreáticas com imunossupressão com ciclosporina e preparadas pelo método mecânico-enzimático, digestão estacionária com colagenase e purificação com gradiente de densidade descontínua de dextran, a produção de insulina está diminuída e a resposta à sobrecarga de glicose intravenosa alterada.

Animals , Dogs , Male , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/methods , Spleen , Blood Glucose/analysis , Fasting/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hyperglycemia/blood , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , Insulin/biosynthesis , Insulin/blood , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/physiology , Islets of Langerhans/drug effects , Pancreatectomy/methods , Transplantation, Autologous , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 25(4): 552-558, out.-dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-574752


INTRODUCTION: Academic Leagues (Academic Interest Group) are entities that belong to medical schools and their hospitals. Their goals are research, medical education and health care. The cardiothoracic Surgery League (Liga de Cirurgia Cardiotorácica - LCCT), University of São Paulo Medical School, was founded 12 years ago, aimed at providing undergraduate medical students an opportunity to expand knowledge in cardiothoracic surgery and to take part in scientific studies in the field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experience gained through LCCT implementation. METHODS: Current students and former members of LCCT were submitted to a specific evaluation form, delivered personally or by email, which provided data on the general opinion regarding LCCT's activities, the reasons for answers provided and choice of medical specialties. Furthermore, LCCT's total scientific production was evaluated. Results: Most undergraduate medical students 51/65 (78.5 percent) and former members 94/121 (77.7 percent) completed the form. The interest in Cardiothoracic Surgery was the most common reason for joining LCCT 44/161 (27.3 percent). Most students 32/51 (62.7 percent) - reported their initial expectations were partially met. Almost every member would recommend a fellow medical student to join LCCT 50/51 (98 percent) and 25/51 (49 percent) of them participated in a scientific project linked to LCCT. In total, 47 scientific papers were published having LCCT's medical students as authors or co-authors during the existence of the league. Of the former members who chose a surgical career, 7/52 (13.4 percent) chose thoracic or cardiovascular surgery. CONCLUSION: LCCT has met its goals, since most current and former members recognized its role in their medical training, besides it is a good way to produce scientific initiation.

INTRODUÇÃO: Ligas acadêmicas são entidades pertencentes a faculdades de Medicina e seus hospitais. Compartilham os objetivos: pesquisa, ensino e assistência à saúde. Há doze anos, fundou-se a Liga de Cirurgia Cardiotorácica (LCCT) pela Faculdade de Medicina da USP, com o objetivo de fornecer aos estudantes de Medicina a oportunidade de ter conhecimento mais profundo em Cirurgia Cardiovascular e para participar de iniciação científica nesse campo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a experiência adquirida nos 12 anos de existência da LCCT. Métodos: Membros atuais e antigos da LCCT responderam a um formulário entregue pessoalmente ou por e-mail, fornecendo opinião geral (e suas razões) sobre atividades da LCCT e escolha de especialidades médicas. O total de produção científica da LCCT foi também contabilizado. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos atuais estudantes 51/65 (78,5 por cento) e ex-membros 94/121 (77,7 por cento) respondeu ao formulário. O interesse em Cirurgia Cardiovascular foi o motivo mais apontado para ingressar na LCCT, representrando 44/161 (27,3 por cento). A maioria dos estudantes - 32/51 (62,7 por cento) - relatou que suas perspectivas iniciais foram parcialmente preenchidas. Quase todos os membros recomendariam a um colega participar da liga 50/51 (98 por cento) e 25/51 (49 por cento) deles participaram de uma iniciação científica vinculada à LCCT. No total, 47 trabalhos científicos com alunos da LCCT como autores ou coautores foram publicados. Dentre os exmembros que optaram por uma carreira cirúrgica, 7/52 (13,4 por cento) deles escolheram Cirurgia Torácica ou Cardiovascular. CONCLUSÃO: LCCT cumpriu seus objetivos, os alunos reconheceram a colaboração da LCCT na sua formação médica, além de ter se mostrado um bom meio de realizar iniciação científica.

Humans , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/education , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/standards , Peer Group , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Publishing/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical/classification
Arq. gastroenterol ; 47(4): 361-367, Oct.-Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-570523


CONTEXT: NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, may be associated with prognosis in patients with colorectal carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To analyze NM23 expression and its association with the presence of lymph node and liver metastases and survival in patients operated on for colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: One hundred thirty patients operated on for colorectal carcinoma were investigated. Tissue microarray blocks containing neoplastic tissue and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa were obtained and analyzed by immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-NM23 antibody. Immunohistochemical expression was assessed using a semiquantitative scoring method, counting the percentage of stained cells. The results were compared regarding morphological and histological characteristics of the colorectal carcinoma, presence of lymph node and liver metastases, tumor staging, and patient survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. RESULTS: NM23 expression was higher in colorectal carcinoma tissue than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa (P<0.0001). NM23 protein expression did not correlate with degree of cell differentiation (P = 0.57), vascular invasion (P = 0.85), lymphatic invasion (P = 0.41), perineural infiltration (P = 0.46), staging (P = 0.19), lymph node metastases (P = 0.08), or liver metastases (P = 0.59). Disease-free survival showed significant association (P = 0.01) with the intensity of NM23 protein immunohistochemical expression in colorectal carcinoma tissue, whereas overall survival showed no association with NM23 protein expression (P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: NM23 protein expression was higher in neoplastic colorectal carcinoma tissue than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, showing no correlation with morphological aspects, presence of lymph node or liver metastases, colorectal carcinoma staging, or overall survival. Disease-free survival was higher in patients with increased NM23 expression.

CONTEXTO: O NM23, denominado de gene supressor de metástases, pode estar relacionado com o prognóstico em doentes com carcinoma colorretal. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a expressão do marcador tumoral NM23 relacionando-a com a presença de metástases linfonodais e hepáticas e com a sobrevivência dos doentes operados por carcinoma colorretal. MÉTODO: Cento e trinta doentes operados por carcinoma colorretal foram analisados. Blocos de "tissue microarray" foram obtidos com tecido neoplásico e com mucosa não neoplásica adjacente ao tumor e submetidos ao estudo imunoistoquímico com o anticorpo monoclonal NM23. A imunoexpressão foi avaliada por método semiquantitativo, com contagem do percentual de células coradas. Os resultados encontrados foram relacionados com as características morfológicas e histopatológicas do carcinoma colorretal, presença de metástases linfonodais e hepáticas, estádio e sobrevivência dos doentes. O estudo estatístico foi realizado com os testes de Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis e exato de Fisher. A análise da sobrevivência foi calculada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e pelo teste de long-rank. RESULTADOS: A expressão do marcador NM23 foi maior no tecido do carcinoma colorretal do que na mucosa não-neoplásica adjacente (P<0,0001). A expressão da proteína NM23 não apresentou relação com o grau de diferenciação celular (P = 0,57), invasão vascular (P = 0,85), invasão linfática (P = 0,41), infiltração perineural (P = 0,46), estádio (P = 0,19), metástases linfonodais (P = 0,08) ou metástases hepáticas (P = 0,59). A sobrevivência livre de doença mostrou relação significante (P = 0,01) com a intensidade de imunoexpressão da proteína NM23 no tecido do carcinoma colorretal, e a sobrevivência global não mostrou relação com a expressão da proteína NM23 (P = 0,13). CONCLUSÕES: A expressão da proteína NM23 foi mais intensa no tecido neoplásico do carcinoma colorretal do que na mucosa não-neoplásica adjacente. A expressão da proteína NM23 não se relacionou com os aspectos morfológicos, presença de metástases linfonodais ou hepáticas, estádio do carcinoma colorretal ou com a sobrevivência global. A sobrevivência livre de doença foi maior nos doentes com expressão aumentada do gene supressor de metástases NM23.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma/secondary , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , /analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Carcinoma/chemistry , Colorectal Neoplasms/chemistry , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Disease-Free Survival , Immunohistochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/chemistry , Lymphatic Metastasis , Lymph Nodes/enzymology , Microarray Analysis , Survival Analysis , Tissue Array Analysis