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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(10): 4373-4382, out. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345715

ABSTRACT

Abstract The manuscript discusses interfaces between academic and practical fields of Global Health and Planetary Health, shedding light on some critical perspectives of cumulative and synergistic causes of global crises, and effects on health and food security, on human rights, on migration, and on environment. Concepts of Global Health and Planetary Health and the path for the Sustainable Development Goals -SDG in the context of the Syndemy of Global Crisis, in particular the COVID-19 pandemic, are presented. COVID-19 lessons highlight challenges of infectious diseases and pandemics of the crisis of food insecurity, and of climate emergency. The manuscript advocates for an innovative approach that simultaneously broader awareness of the interconnected problems and of their complex causes and calls for emancipatory knowledge to face urgent challenges for a transdisciplinary research agenda aiming to tackle enormous planetary problems brought by the Anthropocene. It calls for practical solutions, with examples of some nature-based. It highlights the need of a collective reflection on a viable path to promote changes for a more sustainable, equitable, and adaptive future, bridging gaps from Global and Planetary Health.


Resumo O manuscrito discute as interfaces entre os campos acadêmico e prático da Saúde Global e da Saúde Planetária, lançando luz sobre algumas perspectivas críticas acerca das causas cumulativas e sinérgicas de crises globais e seus efeitos na saúde e segurança alimentar, nos direitos humanos, na migração e no ambiente. São apresentados os conceitos de Saúde Global e Saúde Planetária, e perspectivas para os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) no contexto de uma sindemia de crises globais, em particular a pandemia de COVID-19, cujas lições lançam luz sobre os desafios relacionados às doenças infecciosas, crise de insegurança alimentar e emergência climática. O manuscrito defende uma abordagem inovadora que, simultaneamente, amplie a consciência dos problemas interligados e de suas complexas causas e fomente o conhecimento emancipatório para enfrentar os desafios urgentes de uma agenda de pesquisa transdisciplinar visando enfrentar os enormes problemas planetários trazidos pelo Antropoceno. Reforça a necessidade de soluções práticas, com exemplos de soluções baseadas na natureza, e de uma reflexão coletiva sobre um caminho viável para promover mudanças para um futuro mais sustentável, equitativo e adaptável, preenchendo as lacunas da Saúde Global e Planetária.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , COVID-19 , Global Health , Sustainable Development , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020854, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286339

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Descrever a concordância entre os dados de imunização do Sistema Juarez e as informações da caderneta de vacinação e as coberturas vacinais em crianças de 12 a 24 meses. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, para avaliar a situação vacinal aos 12 e 24 meses de idade de crianças nascidas em 2015 e registradas no Sistema Juarez. Foram verificados os níveis de concordância entre os dados do Sistema Juarez e as informações da caderneta de vacinação. Resultados: Foram incluídas 429 crianças. Verificou-se que a concordância variou entre 84,1 e 99,1%. As coberturas no inquérito vacinal para cada vacina variaram de 86,1 a 100%; e para o esquema completo, de 77,1 (12 meses) a 68,8% (24 meses). As distribuições espaciais da cobertura vacinal foram de 28 a 100%. Conclusão: Observou-se ótima concordância entre os dados, com altas coberturas vacinais, muito embora heterogeneidade em suas distribuições espaciais.


Resumen Objetivo: Describir la concordancia entre los datos de vacunación del Sistema Juárez y la información de la cartilla de vacunación y cobertura vacunal en niños de 12 a 24 meses. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo para evaluar el estado de vacunación a los 12 y 24 meses de edad de los niños nacidos en 2015 e inscritos en el Sistema Juárez. Se verificaron los niveles de concordancia entre los datos del Sistema Juárez y la información del carné de vacunación. Resultados: Se incluyeron 429 niños. Se encontró que la concordancia varió entre 84,1 y 99,1%. La cobertura (encuesta de vacunas) para cada vacuna varió de 86% a 100% y para el esquema completo, 77,1% (12 meses) y 68,8% (24 meses). Las distribuciones espaciales de la cobertura vacunal oscilaron entre el 28% y el 100%. Conclusión: excelente concordancia entre los datos, alta cobertura de vacunación, pero heterogeneidad en sus distribuciones espaciales.


Abstract Objective: To describe agreement between the Juarez System immunization data and information in vaccination record booklets and vaccination coverage in children aged 12 to 24 months. Methods: This was a descriptive study to assess the vaccination status at 12 and 24 months of age of children born in 2015 and recorded on the Juarez System. The levels of agreement between the Juarez System data and the information in vaccination record booklets were verified. Results: 429 children were included. It was found that agreement ranged between 84.1% and 99.1%. The vaccine survey found that coverage for each vaccine ranged from 86.01% to 100% and for the full schedule, from 77.1% (12 months) to 68.8% (24 months). The spatial distributions of vaccine coverage ranged from 28% to 100%. Conclusion: There was excellent agreement between the data, with high vaccination coverage, but heterogeneity in their spatial distributions.

3.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020854, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279006

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever a concordância entre os dados de imunização do Sistema Juarez e as informações da caderneta de vacinação e as coberturas vacinais em crianças de 12 a 24 meses. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, para avaliar a situação vacinal aos 12 e 24 meses de idade de crianças nascidas em 2015 e registradas no Sistema Juarez. Foram verificados os níveis de concordância entre os dados do Sistema Juarez e as informações da caderneta de vacinação. Resultados: Foram incluídas 429 crianças. Verificou-se que a concordância variou entre 84,1 e 99,1%. As coberturas no inquérito vacinal para cada vacina variaram de 86,1 a 100%; e para o esquema completo, de 77,1 (12 meses) a 68,8% (24 meses). As distribuições espaciais da cobertura vacinal foram de 28 a 100%. Conclusão: Observou-se ótima concordância entre os dados, com altas coberturas vacinais, muito embora heterogeneidade em suas distribuições espaciais.


Objetivo: Describir la concordancia entre los datos de vacunación del Sistema Juárez y la información de la cartilla de vacunación y cobertura vacunal en niños de 12 a 24 meses. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo para evaluar el estado de vacunación a los 12 y 24 meses de edad de los niños nacidos en 2015 e inscritos en el Sistema Juárez. Se verificaron los niveles de concordancia entre los datos del Sistema Juárez y la información del carné de vacunación. Resultados: Se incluyeron 429 niños. Se encontró que la concordancia varió entre 84,1 y 99,1%. La cobertura (encuesta de vacunas) para cada vacuna varió de 86% a 100% y para el esquema completo, 77,1% (12 meses) y 68,8% (24 meses). Las distribuciones espaciales de la cobertura vacunal oscilaron entre el 28% y el 100%. Conclusión: excelente concordancia entre los datos, alta cobertura de vacunación, pero heterogeneidad en sus distribuciones espaciales.


Objective: To describe agreement between the Juarez System immunization data and information in vaccination record booklets and vaccination coverage in children aged 12 to 24 months. Methods: This was a descriptive study to assess the vaccination status at 12 and 24 months of age of children born in 2015 and recorded on the Juarez System. The levels of agreement between the Juarez System data and the information in vaccination record booklets were verified. Results: 429 children were included. It was found that agreement ranged between 84.1% and 99.1%. The vaccine survey found that coverage for each vaccine ranged from 86.01% to 100% and for the full schedule, from 77.1% (12 months) to 68.8% (24 months). The spatial distributions of vaccine coverage ranged from 28% to 100%. Conclusion: There was excellent agreement between the data, with high vaccination coverage, but heterogeneity in their spatial distributions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Information Systems , Immunization Programs/supply & distribution , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Immunization Schedule
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 43, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094422

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The rapid increase in clinical cases of the new coronavirus disease, COVID-19, suggests high transmissibility. However, the estimates of the basic reproductive number reported in the literature vary widely. Considering this, we drew the function of contact-rate reduction required to control the transmission from both detectable and undetectable sources. Based on this, we offer a set of recommendations for symptomatic and asymptomatic populations during the current pandemic. Understanding the dynamics of transmission is essential to support government decisions and improve the community's adherence to preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brazil , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Feasibility Studies , Models, Statistical , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Basic Reproduction Number
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190404, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136910

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to estimate the prevalence and transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden Brazilian setting under directly observed therapy short-course strategy. METHODS: Isolates of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients from Guarulhos, Brazil, diagnosed in October 2007-2011 were subjected to drug susceptibility and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism testing. RESULTS: The overall resistance prevalence was 11.5% and the multi-drug resistance rate was 4.2%. Twenty-six (43.3%) of 60 drug-resistant isolates were clustered. Epidemiological relationships were identified in 11 (42.3%) patients; 30.8% of the cases were transmitted in households. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-resistant tuberculosis was relatively low and transmitted in households and the community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Directly Observed Therapy/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 125-133, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893911

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Early tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment are determinants of better outcomes and effective disease control. Although tuberculosis should ideally be managed in a primary care setting, a proportion of patients are diagnosed in emergency facilities (EFs). We sought to describe patient characteristics by place of tuberculosis diagnosis and determine whether the place of diagnosis is associated with treatment outcomes. A secondary objective was to determine whether municipal indicators are associated with the probability of tuberculosis diagnosis in EFs. Methods: We analyzed data from the São Paulo State Tuberculosis Control Program database for the period between January of 2010 and December of 2013. Newly diagnosed patients over 15 years of age with pulmonary, extrapulmonary, or disseminated tuberculosis were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used in order to evaluate the association between place of diagnosis and treatment outcomes. Results: Of a total of 50,295 patients, 12,696 (25%) were found to have been diagnosed in EFs. In comparison with the patients who had been diagnosed in an outpatient setting, those who had been diagnosed in EFs were younger and more socially vulnerable. Patients diagnosed in EFs were more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcomes (adjusted OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.42-1.66), including loss to follow-up and death. At the municipal level, the probability of tuberculosis diagnosis in EFs was associated with low primary care coverage, inequality, and social vulnerability. In some municipalities, more than 50% of the tuberculosis cases were diagnosed in EFs. Conclusions: In the state of São Paulo, one in every four tuberculosis patients is diagnosed in EFs, a diagnosis of tuberculosis in EFs being associated with poor treatment outcomes. At the municipal level, an EF diagnosis of tuberculosis is associated with structural and socioeconomic indicators, indicating areas for improvement.


RESUMO Objetivo: O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce da tuberculose são determinantes de melhores desfechos e controle eficaz da doença. Embora a tuberculose deva ser diagnosticada e tratada idealmente na atenção primária à saúde, uma porcentagem dos pacientes recebe o diagnóstico no pronto-socorro. Nosso objetivo foi descrever as características dos pacientes de acordo com o local onde o diagnóstico de tuberculose foi feito e determinar se há relação entre o local do diagnóstico e os desfechos do tratamento. Um objetivo secundário foi determinar se há relação entre indicadores municipais e a probabilidade de diagnóstico de tuberculose no PS. Métodos: Analisamos dados provenientes do banco de dados do Programa de Controle da Tuberculose do Estado de São Paulo, referentes ao período de janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2013. Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes recém-diagnosticados com mais de 15 anos de idade e tuberculose pulmonar, extrapulmonar ou disseminada. Modelos de regressão logística múltipla ajustados para levar em conta possíveis fatores de confusão foram usados para avaliar a relação entre o local do diagnóstico e os desfechos do tratamento. Resultados: De um total de 50.295 pacientes, 12.696 (25%) foram diagnosticados no PS. Em comparação com os pacientes que foram diagnosticados no ambulatório, os pacientes diagnosticados no PS eram mais jovens e mais vulneráveis socialmente. A probabilidade de tratamento com desfechos ruins, incluindo perda de seguimento e óbito, foi maior nos pacientes diagnosticados no PS (OR ajustada: 1,54; IC95%: 1,42-1,66). Nos municípios, a probabilidade de diagnóstico de tuberculose no PS relacionou-se com baixa cobertura da atenção primária, desigualdade e vulnerabilidade social. Em alguns municípios, mais de 50% dos casos de tuberculose foram diagnosticados no PS. Conclusões: No Estado de São Paulo, um em cada quatro pacientes com tuberculose é diagnosticado no PS; o diagnóstico de tuberculose no PS está relacionado com tratamento com desfechos ruins. Nos municípios, o diagnóstico de tuberculose no PS está relacionado com indicadores estruturais e socioeconômicos e indica pontos que precisam melhorar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis/therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Early Diagnosis , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(9): e00184317, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952450

ABSTRACT

Dados administrativos mostram altas coberturas vacinais no Brasil, porém não há avaliação da validade e oportunidade de aplicação das doses, nem se o esquema vacinal está completo. Este estudo avaliou as coberturas oportunas e atualizadas de crianças de 12 a 24 meses de idade. Estudo longitudinal de base populacional em Araraquara, São Paulo, uma cidade de médio porte predominantemente urbana, utilizando dados do Sistema Juarez, um registro informatizado de imunização (RII). As coberturas foram avaliadas para 49.741 crianças nascidas entre 1998 e 2013, período com cinco calendários de vacinação diferentes. As tendências foram estimadas pelo método de regressão linear Prais-Winsten. A cobertura atualizada do esquema completo variou entre 79,5% e 91,3%, aos 12 meses, e entre 75,8% e 86,9%, aos 24 meses. A cobertura oportuna (todas as doses aplicadas na idade recomendada, sem atraso) variou entre 53,3% e 74%, aos 12 meses, e entre 36,7% e 53,8%, aos 24 meses. Houve tendência crescente para a cobertura atualizada aos 24 meses. Os atrasos em relação à idade recomendada se acentuam em doses a partir dos seis meses e parecem estar mais relacionados à idade do que ao número de doses do esquema. A proporção de doses inválidas e atrasadas foi menor do que em outros estudos. Apesar do aumento do número de doses no calendário vacinal, foram alcançadas altas coberturas atualizadas e coberturas oportunas maiores do que as encontradas na literatura nacional e internacional, porém são necessários mais esforços para o aumento da oportunidade. O RII mostrou-se relevante para avaliação e monitoramento de coberturas vacinais, com análises mais acuradas.


Administrative data show high vaccination coverage rates in Brazil, but there is no assessment of the validity and timeliness of dose administration, or whether the vaccination schedule is complete. This study assessed timely and updated coverage rates in children 12 to 24 months of age. This was a longitudinal population-based study in Araraquara, São Paulo State, a predominantly urban medium-sized municipality, using the Juarez System, an electronic immunization registry (EIR). Coverage rates were assessed in 49,741 children born from 1998 to 2013, a period in which five different vaccination schedules were used. Trends were estimated with the Prais-Winsten linear regression method. Updated coverage of the complete schedule varied from 79.5% to 91.3% at 12 months and from 75.8% to 86.9%, at 24 months. Timely coverage (all doses applied at the recommended ages, with no delays) ranged from 53.3% to 74% at 12 months and from 36.7% to 53.8% at 24 months. There was an upward trend in updated coverage at 24 months. The delays in relation to recommended age increased starting at six months and appeared to relate more to age than to the number of doses in the schedule. The proportion of invalid and late doses was lower than in other studies. Despite the increase in the number of doses in the vaccination schedule, the study showed high updated coverage rates and higher timely coverage than reported in the national and international literature; however, more effort is needed to increase timeliness. EIR proved relevant for assessing and monitoring vaccination coverage with more accurate analyses.


Los datos administrativos muestran altas coberturas de vacunación en Brasil, sin embargo, no existe una evaluación de la validez y oportunidad de aplicación de las dosis, ni si la cartilla de vacunación ha sido completada. Este estudio evalúo las coberturas necesarias y actualizadas en niños de 12 a 24 meses de edad. Se trata de un estudio longitudinal con base poblacional en Araraquara, São Paulo, una ciudad media, predominantemente urbana, utilizando datos del Sistema Juarez, un registro informatizado de inmunización (RII). Las coberturas se evaluaron en 49.741 niños, nacidos entre 1998 y 2013, durante un período con cinco calendarios de vacunación diferentes. Las tendencias se estimaron mediante el método de regresión lineal Prais-Winsten. La cobertura actualizada del esquema completo varió entre 79,5% y 91,3%, a los 12 meses, y entre 75,8% y 86,9%, a los 24 meses. La cobertura necesaria (todas las dosis aplicadas a la edad recomendada, sin atrasos) varió entre 53,3% y 74%, a los 12 meses, y entre 36,7% y 53,8% a los 24 meses. Hubo una tendencia creciente en la cobertura actualizada a los 24 meses. Los atrasos, en relación con la edad recomendada, se acentúan en dosis a partir de los seis meses y parecen estar más relacionados con la edad que con el número de dosis del esquema. La proporción de dosis inválidas y atrasadas fue menor que en otros estudios. A pesar del aumento del número de dosis en el calendario de vacunas, se alcanzaron altas coberturas actualizadas y coberturas oportunas mayores que las encontradas en la literatura nacional e internacional, sin embargo, se necesitan más esfuerzos para el aumento de la oportunidad. El RII se mostró relevante en la evaluación y supervisión de coberturas de vacunación con análisis más exactos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Program Evaluation/methods , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Time Factors , Brazil , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Immunization Schedule , Cities , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 4, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903441

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe adverse events following vaccination (AEFV) of children under two years old and analyze trend of this events from 2000 to 2013, in the city of Araraquara (SP), Brazil. METHODS This is a descriptive study conducted with data of the passive surveillance system of AEFV that is available in the electronic immunization registry (EIR) of the computerized medical record of the municipal health service (Juarez System). The study variables were: age, gender, vaccine, dose, clinical manifestations and hospitalization. We estimated rates using AEFV as numerator and administered doses of vaccines as denominator. The surveillance sensitivity was estimated by applying the method proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We used Prais-Winsten regression with a significance level of 5.0%. RESULTS The average annual rate of AEFV was 11.3/10,000 administered doses, however without a trend in the study period (p=0.491). Most cases occurred after the first dose (41.7%) and among children under one year of age (72.6%). Vaccines with pertussis component, yellow fever and measles-mumps-rubella were the most reactogenic. We highlighted the rates of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion that were 4.1/10,000 and 1.5/10,000 doses of vaccines with pertussis component, respectively, most frequently in the first dose; 60,0% of cases presented symptoms in the first 24 hours after vaccination, however, 18.6% showed after 96 hours. The sensitivity of surveillance was 71.9% and 78.9% for hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes and convulsion, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The EIR-based AEFV surveillance system proved to be useful and highly sensitive to describe the safety profile of vaccines in a medium-sized city. It was also shown that the significant increase of the vaccines included in the basic vaccination schedule in childhood in the last decade did not alter the high safety standard of the National Immunization Program.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever os eventos adversos pós-vacina ocorridos em crianças com até dois anos de idade e analisar a tendência desses eventos, entre 2000 e 2013, em Araraquara, SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo com dados da vigilância passiva de eventos adversos pós-vacina, disponíveis no registro informatizado de imunização do prontuário eletrônico do serviço municipal de saúde (Sistema Juarez). As variáveis de estudo foram: idade, sexo, vacina, dose, manifestações clínicas e hospitalização. As taxas foram estimadas tomando-se os casos de eventos adversos pós-vacina como numerador e as doses aplicadas, como denominador. Estimou-se a sensibilidade da vigilância de eventos adversos pós-vacina aplicando-se o método proposto pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Para análise de tendência utilizou-se a regressão de Prais-Winsten, considerando o nível de significância de 5,0%. RESULTADOS A taxa anual média de eventos adversos pós-vacina foi de 11,3/10.000 doses aplicadas, porém, sem tendência no período estudado (p = 0,491). Houve predomínio de casos após a primeira dose (41,7%) e entre menores de um ano de idade (72,6%). As vacinas com componente pertussis, de febre amarela e de sarampo-caxumba-rubéola foram as mais reatogênicas. Destacou-se a frequência de episódio hipotônico hiporresponsivo e convulsão, com taxas de 4,1/10.000 e 1,5/10.000 doses de vacinas com componente pertussis, respectivamente, mais elevadas na primeira dose; 60,0% dos casos apresentaram sintomas nas primeiras 24 horas após a vacinação e 18,6% apresentaram-se após 96 horas. A sensibilidade da vigilância foi estimada em 71,9% e 78,9% para episódio hipotônico hiporresponsivo e convulsão, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES O sistema de vigilância de eventos adversos pós-vacina com base no registro informatizado de imunização mostrou-se útil e dotado de elevada sensibilidade para descrever o perfil de segurança das vacinas em um município de médio porte. Adicionalmente, a expressiva ampliação, na última década, das vacinas incluídas no esquema básico de vacinação na infância não alterou o elevado padrão de segurança do Programa Nacional de Imunizações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Brazil , Vaccines/classification , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs , Electronic Health Records
9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 26(4): 835-846, out.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-953353

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: descrever as coberturas vacinais por tipo de vacina aos 12 e aos 24 meses de idade. Métodos: estudo de coorte descritivo com crianças nascidas em 2012, residentes em Araraquara-SP, Brasil, registradas no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc); realizou-se relacionamento manual dos dados do Sinasc com um registro informatizado de imunização (RII); avaliou-se a situação vacinal pelas recomendações do estado de São Paulo, por doses recebidas e oportunas. Resultados: 2.740 crianças estavam registradas no Sinasc; dessas, 99,6% constavam no RII; entre as 2.612 (95,3%) crianças estudadas, a vacina tríplice viral (sarampo, caxumba e rubéola) apresentou as menores coberturas aos 12 meses por doses recebidas (74,8%) e aos 24 meses por doses oportunas (53,5%) e recebidas (88,0%). Conclusão: as coberturas foram superiores a 90% para a maioria das vacinas; entretanto, observou-se atraso vacinal, o que aponta a necessidade de intensificar ações que visem à vacinação oportuna.


OBJETIVO: describir las coberturas de vacunación, por tipo de vacuna, a los 12 y 24 meses de edad. MÉTODOS: estudio de cohorte descriptivo de nacidos en 2012, viviendo en Araraquara-SP, Brasil, registrados en el Sistema de Información de Nacidos Vivos (Sinasc); se realizó vinculación manual de Sinasc con un registro computarizado de inmunización (RCI); se evaluó el estado de vacunación siguiendo recomendaciones del estado de São Paulo, según dosis recibidas y oportunas. RESULTADOS: 2.740 niños fueron registrados en el Sinasc y 99,6% estaban en el RCI; entre los 2.612 (95,3%) niños estudiados, la vacuna triple viral (sarampión, paperas y rubéola) tuvo menor cobertura a los 12 meses según dosis recibidas (74,8%) y a los 24 meses según dosis oportunas (53,5%,) y recibidas (88,0%). CONCLUSIÓN: las coberturas fueron superiores al 90% para la mayoría de vacunas; no obstante, se observó un retraso de vacunaciones, que indica necesidad de intensificar acciones destinadas a la vacunación oportuna.


OBJECTIVE: to describe vaccine coverage by type of vaccine at 12 and 24 months of age. METHODS: descriptive cohort study with children born in 2012, living in Araraquara-SP, Brazil, recorded in the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc); a manual linkage of Sinasc data with an electronic immunization registry (EIR) was performed; the assessment was based on vaccination status according to São Paulo State recommendations, and on doses received and timely administered. RESULTS: 2,740 children were registered on Sinasc and 99.6% of them were included into EIR; among the 2,612 (95.3%) children studied, the triple viral vaccine (measles, mumps and rubella) had the lowest coverage at 12 months for received dose (74.8%) and at 24 months for timely vaccination (53.5%) and received doses (88.0%). CONCLUSION: coverage was higher than 90% for most vaccines; however, delayed vaccination was observed, which indicates the need to intensify actions aimed at timely vaccination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Vaccination Coverage , Electronic Health Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cohort Studies
10.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades. Thus, the journal has followed the success of public health interventions that permitted to control or eliminate numerous infectious diseases - which were responsible, in the past, for high rates of morbidity and mortality -, and also followed the reemergence of diseases already controlled and the emergence of until then unknown diseases, with a strong impact on the Brazilian population, establishing a little predictable and very challenging path.


RESUMO Neste artigo, comentamos as principais características das doenças infecciosas no Brasil, nos últimos 50 anos, destacando o quanto a Revista de Saúde Pública conseguiu capturar essa trajetória. De 1967 a 2016, foram publicados 1.335 artigos na Revista de Saúde Pública com foco em doenças infecciosas. Ainda que a proporção de artigos sobre esse tema tenha declinado de cerca de 50,0% para 15,0%, seu destaque se manteve e refletiu a crescente complexidade das pesquisas necessárias para o seu controle. Nota-se que os desenhos dos estudos e as estratégias de análise ganharam progressivamente maior sofisticação, acompanhando o grande desenvolvimento da epidemiologia no Brasil, nas últimas décadas. Assim, foi registrado não apenas o sucesso de intervenções de saúde pública que permitiram o controle ou a eliminação de inúmeras doenças infecciosas responsáveis, no passado, por elevadas taxas de morbimortalidade, como também a reemergência de males já controlados e o surgimento de doenças até então desconhecidas, com forte impacto na população brasileira, desenhando uma trajetória pouco previsível e muito desafiadora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Bibliometrics , Public Health
11.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(2): 405-416, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742165

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetiva descrever a magnitude, as características da mortalidade e da letalidade por doença meningocócica e investigar preditores de óbito por essa causa, no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, de 1986 a 2004. Utilizou-se a regressão logística múltipla não condicional para a investigação dos preditores de óbitos. Foram estudados 10.087 casos de doença meningocócica no município. A taxa anual média de mortalidade foi de 1,0/100 mil habitantes/ano, variando de 0,2 a 1,8; a letalidade foi de 20,5% com grandes diferenças segundo idade, sorogrupo e tipo de hospital. Os preditores de óbito por doença meningocócica foram idade, especialmente as faixas etárias de um a dois anos e de 40 anos ou mais e o sorogrupo W. Os resultados obtidos podem contribuir para a elaboração de políticas públicas com foco na organização da assistência hospitalar e elaboração de protocolos que promovam a maior efetividade do tratamento e a aplicação de estratégias de vacinação que diminuam a incidência nos grupos de maior risco para óbito por doença meningocócica.


This study aimed to describe the magnitude, mortality, and case-fatality rate from meningococcal disease and to investigate predictors of death from this cause in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1986 to 2004, using unconditional multiple logistic regression. We analyzed 10,087 cases of meningococcal disease in the city. Mean annual mortality was 1.0/100,000 inhabitants, ranging from 0.2 to 1.8. Case-fatality was 20.5%, with major differences according to age, serogroup, and type of hospital. Predictors of death from meningococcal disease were age, especially the age brackets from one to two years and 40 years and older, and serogroup W. The results can contribute to the elaboration of public policies with a focus on the organization of hospital care and protocols to promote greater treatment effectiveness and application of vaccination strategies that decrease the incidence in groups at greatest risk of death from meningococcal disease.


Los objetivos fueron describir la magnitud y las características de la morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedad meningocócica e investigar los predictores de muerte. Fueron estudiados 10.087 casos de enfermedad meningocócica ocurridos en São Paulo, entre 1986 y 2004. Los predictores de muerte por enfermedad meningocócica se investigaron por regresión logística no condicional. La tasa anual media de mortalidad por enfermedad meningocócica en el periodo del estudio fue de 1,0/100 mil habitantes/año, variando de 0,2 a 1,8, con distribución desigual, afectando fuertemente a los distritos más pobres. La letalidad fue de 20,5% con grandes diferencias según edad, serogrupo y tipo de hospital. Los principales predictores de muerte fueron la edad, especialmente, menores de dos años, y serogrupo W. Los resultados pueden contribuir a la elaboración de las políticas públicas con un enfoque en la organización de la atención hospitalaria y elaboración de protocolos que promuevan una mayor eficacia del tratamiento y la aplicación de las estrategias de vacunación para reducir la incidencia de los grupos con mayor riesgo de muerte por enfermedad meningocócica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Incidence , Logistic Models , Meningococcal Infections/mortality , Risk Factors , Urban Population
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(4): 379-386, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the behavior of meningococcal disease in the Federal District, Brazil, from 2005 to 2011, and to assess the direct impact of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine. METHODS: A descriptive study of cases of meningococcal disease among residents of the Federal District. We included in the study confirmed cases of meningococcal disease reported to the local surveillance. To reduce underreporting we compared data to the Brazilian Mortality Database and the Public Health Laboratory Database. We studied sociodemographic, clinical, and pathogen-related variables. For the assessment of the impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, which was introduced in 2010 for children under two years of age, we compared the incidence of meningococcal disease before and after vaccine introduction in the recommended age groups for vaccination. RESULTS: We identified 309 cases of meningococcal disease, of which 52.1% were males. The average case fatality rate was 20.7%, the median age was three years and there was a predominance of serogroup C (70.2%) and C:23:P1.14-6 phenotype throughout the study period. In 2005-2009, 2010 and 2011, the incidence rates of meningococcal disease were 2.0, 1.8 and 0.8/100,000 inhabitants/year, while mortality rates were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.2/100,000 inhabitants/year, respectively. In the first and last periods, the incidence in poorer and more affluent areas were, respectively, 2.0 and 0.8, and 0.9 and 0.0/100,000 inhabitants/year. Comparing 2009 (the year prior to the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine) and 2011, there was 85% reduction in the incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in children under four years of age, from 9.0 to 1.3/100,000 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine strategy implemented in Brazil proved highly effective and had a strong direct impact on the target population. However, case ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Neisseria meningitidis/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Phenotype , Population Surveillance , Program Evaluation
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(2): 150-157, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Survival of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome has improved with combination antiretroviral therapy; mortality due to liver diseases, however, has also increased in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the accumulated probability of survival in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected and non-coinfected patients and to investigate factors related to acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients' survival. METHODS: Non-concurrent cohort study using data from surveillance information systems of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients over 13 years of age. Hepatitis C and B, human immunodeficiency virus exposure category, CD4+ T cell count, age group, schooling, race, sex, and four acquired immune deficiency syndrome diagnosis periods were studied. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox model with estimates of the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval were used. RESULTS: Of the total 2864 individuals included, with median age was 35 years, 219 died (7.5%), and 358 (12.5%) were human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected. The accumulated probability of survival in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients, after acquired immune deficiency syndrome diagnosis, at 120 months, was 0%, 38.9%, 83.8% in 1986-1993, 1994-1996, 1997-2002, respectively, and 92.8% at 96 months in 2003-2010; survival in non-coinfected patients at 120 months was 80%, 90.2%, 94% in 1986-1993, 1994-1996, 1997-2002, respectively, and 94.1% at 96 months in 2003-2010. In the multivariate model the following variables were predictive of death: hepatitis C virus coinfection (hazard ratio=2.7; confidence interval 2.0-3.6); Hepatitis B virus coinfection (hazard ratio=2.4; confidence interval 1.7-3.6); being >50 years old (hazard ratio=2.3; confidence interval 1.3-3.8); having 8-11 years of schooling (hazard ratio=1.6; confidence interval 1.1-2.3), having 4-7 years of schooling ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Hepatitis C/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Educational Status , Longitudinal Studies , Survival Analysis
14.
Cad. saúde pública ; 29(12): 2535-2545, Dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697456

ABSTRACT

The study compared mortality from influenza and pneumonia in elderly people (65 years or older) before and since implementation of influenza vaccination in the South and Northeast regions of Brazil. Official population and mortality data were retrieved from government agencies to estimate weekly mortality rates. The Serfling model was used to identify influenza outbreaks and estimate the mortality attributable to them. In the South, the vaccination period showed a major reduction in mortality from influenza and pneumonia and in the number and duration of influenza outbreaks. These results were interpreted as consistent with the hypothesis of the vaccination program's effectiveness. In the Northeast, there was an increase in mortality from influenza and pneumonia during vaccination, which was associated with a quality improvement in recording causes of death in the elderly. An increase was also seen in mortality attributable to influenza outbreaks, suggesting a mismatch between the period in which vaccination is conducted and the relevant climatic characteristics for influenza transmission.


Comparou-se a mortalidade por gripe e pneumonia de idosos (65 anos ou mais) antes e depois do início da vacinação nas regiões Nordeste e Sul do Brasil. Dados oficiais de população e de mortalidade foram recuperados junto às agências governamentais para a estimação de coeficientes semanais de mortalidade. Para a identificação de surtos de gripe e a estimação da mortalidade atribuível a esses surtos, foi utilizado o modelo de Serfling. Na Região Sul, o período com vacinação teve expressiva redução da mortalidade por gripe e pneumonia, e da frequência e duração dos surtos de gripe. Esses resultados foram interpretados como sendo compatíveis com a hipótese de efetividade do programa de vacinação. Na Região Nordeste, houve aumento da mortalidade por gripe e pneumonia durante a vacinação, o que foi associado à melhoria da qualidade do registro das causas de óbito entre idosos. Foi também constatado aumento da mortalidade atribuível aos surtos de gripe, sugerindo inadequação entre o período em que ocorre a vacinação e características climáticas de interesse para a transmissão da gripe.


Se comparó la mortalidad por influenza y neumonía en adultos mayores (65 años o más) antes y después del inicio de la vacunación en el Noreste y Sur de Brasil. Datos oficiales sobre población y muertes fueron recuperados de agencias gubernamentales para estimar las tasas de mortalidad semanales. Se utilizó el modelo Serfling para identificar brotes de gripe y evaluar la mortalidad atribuible a esos brotes. En el Sur, hubo una reducción significativa de la mortalidad por influenza y neumonía y en la frecuencia y duración de los brotes de influenza en el periodo de vacunación, lo que sugiere la eficacia de la eficacia del programa de vacunación. En el Nordeste, el aumento de la mortalidad por influenza y neumonía durante la vacunación se explica por la mejora en la calidad del registro de causas de muerte entre las personas mayores. La mortalidad atribuible a los brotes de influenza también se incrementó durante la vacunación, lo que sugiere una falta de coincidencia entre el período de vacunación y características climáticas de interés para la transmisión de la gripe.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Pneumonia/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Seasons , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(supl.2): 1-2, jun. 2013.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688069
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(6): 760-766, set. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649491

ABSTRACT

Monitoring the extent of and trends in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a priority of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The current study aimed to estimate the incidence of MDR-TB, describe the profile of TB drug resistance in risk groups and examine whether screening for MDR-TB adhered to the recommended guidelines. A descriptive study that examined diagnosed cases of pulmonary TB was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil, between 2000-2004. Of the 2,176 pulmonary TB cases studied, 671 (30.8%) met the criteria for drug sensitivity testing and, of these cases, 31.7% (213/671) were tested. Among the tested cases, 9.4% were resistant to one anti-TB drug and 15% were MDR. MDR was observed in 11.6% of 86 new TB cases and 17.3% of 127 previously treated cases. The average annual incidence of MDR-TB was 1.9 per 100,000 inhabitants-years. The extent of known MDR-TB in the city of Santos is high, though likely to be underestimated. Our study therefore indicates an inadequate adherence to the guidelines for MDR-TB screening and suggests the necessity of alternative strategies of MDR-TB surveillance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Population Surveillance , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence , Incidence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Risk Factors
18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 14(3): 361-371, set. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604610

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Descrever e avaliar o Sistema brasileiro de vigilância passiva de eventos adversos pós-vacinação (SPVEAPV). MÉTODOS: A descrição e avaliação do SPVEAPV fundamentaram-se nas notificações de eventos adversos pós-vacina Tetravalente ou DTwP/Hib - vacina adsorvida difteria, tétano, pertussis e Haemophilus influenzae b (conjugada) - (EAPV-T), durante o período de 2002 a 2005. Empregou-se a metodologia proposta pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTADOS: O SPVEAPV apresenta abrangência nacional, tem por objetivos identificar e padronizar condutas frente a casos de eventos adversos pós-vacinação (EAPV) e identificar lotes reatogênicos. A vigilância é útil, simples e flexível, sua sensibilidade é baixa, superestima os eventos mais graves, mas descreve de forma consistente os EAPV-T, identificando a convulsão, a febre e o episódio hipotônico-hiporresponsivo como os mais frequentes, apontando a maior proporção de EAPV na primeira dose (49,7 por cento) e nas primeiras seis horas após a vacinação (72,8 por cento); é útil ao subsidiar decisões e investigações complementares; 46,1 por cento das notificações são feitas até 10 dias após a vacinação; sua completude varia de 70 por cento a 90 por cento, conforme o item. CONCLUSÕES: O SPVEAPV mostra-se útil no monitoramento da segurança da vacina DTwP/Hib, sendo, porém, recomendável a incorporação de novas metodologias como a de municípios e/ou hospitais sentinelas e a de sistemas informatizados de registros de imunização com a finalidade de elevar sua sensibilidade.


OBJECTIVES: To describe and evaluate the Brazilian system of passive surveillance of adverse events following immunization (PSAEFI). METHODS: The description and evaluation of PSAEFI were undertaken using the reported cases of adverse events following immunization with DTwP-Hib vaccine (AEFI-T), during the period from 2002 to 2005, using the Centers for Disease Control methodology. RESULTS: The PSAEFI system, which provides national coverage, is designed to standardize practices in cases of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and to identify highly reactogenic lots of vaccine. The PSAEFI system proved its usefulness, simplicity and flexibility; despite low sensitivity, overestimate the proportion of sever events, but it consistently described AEFI-T, identifying fever, convulsions and hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes as the most common events. It showed that 49.7 percent of AEFI-T occur after the first dose, and that 72.8 percent occur within the first six hours after vaccination. It facilitates public health decisions and epidemiological investigations. It is timely, 46.1 percent of all AEFI-T being reported within 10 days after vaccination and its completeness ranges from 70 to 90 percent, depending on the item evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The PSAEFI system proved useful for monitoring DTwP-Hib vaccine safety. We recommended the incorporation of new methodologies, such the use of sentinel cities/hospitals and computerized immunization registries in order to increase its sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Vaccination/adverse effects , Brazil
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(6): 428-432, June 2011. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Estimate cataract surgical rates (CSR) for Brazil and each federal unit in 2006 and 2007 based on the number of surgeries performed by the Unified Health System to help plan a comprehensive ophthalmology network in order to eliminate cataract blindness in compliance with the target set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 3 000 cataract surgeries per million inhabitants per year. METHODS: This descriptive study calculates CSR by using the number of cataract surgeries carried out by the Brazilian Unified Health System for each federal unit and estimates the need for cataract surgery in Brazil for 2006-2007, with official population data provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The number of cataract surgeries was compared with the WHO target. RESULTS: To reach the WHO goal for eliminating age-related cataract blindness in Brazil, 560312 cataract surgeries in 2006 and 568 006 surgeries in 2007 needed to be done. In 2006, 179121 cataract surgeries were done by the Unified Health System, corresponding to a CSR of 959 per million population; in 2007, 223317 were performed, with a CSR of 1179. With the Brazilian Council of Ophthalmology estimation of 165 000 surgeries each year by the non-public services, the CSR for Brazil would be 1842 for 2006 and 2051 for 2007. The proportions needed to achieve the proposed target were 38.6 percent in 2006 and 31.6 percent in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Human resources, technical expertise, and equipment are crucial to reach the WHO goal. Brazil has enough ophthalmologists but needs improved planning and infrastructure in order to eliminate the problem, aspects that require greater financial investment and stronger political commitment.


OBJETIVO: Calcular las tasas de cirugía de cataratas (TCC) correspondientes al 2006 y el 2007 en todo el Brasil y en cada estado según la cantidad de intervenciones efectuadas en el Sistema Único de Salud, con el objeto de planificar una red integral de atención oftalmológica tendiente a eliminar la ceguera por cataratas, en cumplimiento de la meta fijada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), de 3 000 intervenciones quirúrgicas de cataratas por millón de habitantes por año. MÉTODOS: En este estudio descriptivo se calculó la TCC según la cantidad de intervenciones quirúrgicas de cataratas llevadas a cabo en el Sistema Único de Salud del Brasil en cada estado, y se calculó la necesidad de intervenciones quirúrgicas de cataratas en el Brasil en el 2006 y el 2007 según los datos oficiales de la población proporcionados por el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. Se comparó la cantidad de intervenciones quirúrgicas de cataratas con la meta de la OMS. RESULTADOS: Para alcanzar la meta de la OMS de eliminar la ceguera producida por cataratas seniles en el Brasil, deberían haberse efectuado 560 312 intervenciones quirúrgicas de cataratas en el 2006, y 568006 en el 2007. En el 2006, se efectuaron 179 121 intervenciones quirúrgicas de cataratas en el Sistema Único de Salud, lo que representa una TCC de 959 por millón de habitantes; en el 2007, se realizaron 223317, con una TCC de 1179. Si estos datos se consideran junto con la estimación del Consejo Brasileño de Oftalmología de 165000 intervenciones quirúrgicas efectuadas cada año en los servicios no públicos, la TCC correspondiente al Brasil sería de 1842 para el 2006 y de 2 051 para el 2007. Las proporciones faltantes para lograr la meta propuesta fueron de 38,6 por ciento en el 2006 y de 31,6 por ciento en el 2007. CONCLUSIONES: Los recursos humanos, los conocimientos técnicos especializados y el equipo son esenciales para alcanzar la meta de la OMS. Brasil tiene suficientes oftalmólogos pero, para eliminar el problema, necesita una mejor planificación y más infraestructura, aspectos que requieren una mayor inversión financiera y un compromiso político más firme.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Cataract Extraction , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction/economics , Cataract/epidemiology , Cataract/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Goals , Health Planning , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Ophthalmology , World Health Organization
20.
Rev. saúde pública ; 45(1): 90-98, Feb. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-569464

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o programa de imunização de crianças de 12 e de 24 meses de idade, com base no registro informatizado de imunização. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo em amostra probabilística de 2.637 crianças nascidas em 2002 e residentes em Curitiba, PR. As fontes de dados foram: registro informatizado de imunização do município, Sistema de Informação de Nascidos Vivos e inquérito domiciliar para casos com registro incompleto. As coberturas foram estimadas aos 12 e aos 24 meses de vida e analisadas segundo características socioeconômicas de cada distrito sanitário e o vínculo das crianças aos serviços de saúde. Foram analisadas a abrangência, completude e duplicidades do registro informatizado de imunização. RESULTADOS: A cobertura do esquema de imunização foi de 95,3 por cento aos 12 meses sem diferenças entre os distritos e de 90,3 por cento aos 24 meses, tendo sido mais elevada em um distrito com piores indicadores socioeconômicos (p = 0,01). A proporção de vacinas, segundo o tipo, aplicadas antes e após a idade recomendada foi de até 0,9 por cento e até 32,2 por cento, respectivamente. A cobertura do registro informatizado de imunização foi de 98 por cento na amostra estudada, o sub-registro de doses de vacinas foi de 11 por cento e a duplicidade de registro foi de 20,6 por cento. Os grupos que apresentaram maiores coberturas foram: crianças com cadastro definitivo, aquelas com três ou mais consultas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde e as atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde que adotam plenamente a Estratégia de Saúde da Família. CONCLUSÕES: A cobertura vacinal em Curitiba mostrou-se elevada e homogênea entre os distritos, e o vínculo com os serviços de saúde foi fator importante para tais resultados. O registro informatizado de imunização mostrou-se útil no monitoramento da cobertura vacinal; no entanto, é importante a prévia avaliação do seu custo-efetividade para que seja amplamente utilizado pelo Programa Nacional de Imunização.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunization program for 12 and 24-month-old children based on electronic immunization registry. METHODS: A descriptive study of a random sample of 2,637 children born in 2002 living in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil was performed. Data was collected from local electronic immunization registers and the National Live Birth Information System, as well as from a household survey for cases with incomplete records. Coverage at 12 and 24 months was estimated and analyzed according to the socioeconomic characteristics of each administrative district and the child's enrollment status in the health care service. The coverage, completeness, and record duplication in the registry were analyzed. RESULTS: Coverage of immunization was 95.3% at 12 months, with no disparities among administrative districts, and 90.3% at 24 months, with higher coverage in a district with lower socioeconomic conditions (p < 0.01). The proportion of vaccines, according to type, given before and after the recommended age reached 0.9% and 32.2%, respectively. In the surveyed sample, electronic immunization registry coverage was 98%, underreporting of vaccine doses was 11%, and record duplication was 20.6%. Groups with highest coverage included children with permanent records, children with three or more appointments through the National Unified Health Care System, and children seen within Primary Health Care Facilities fully adopting the Family Health Strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination coverage in Curitiba was high and homogeneous among districts, and health service enrollment status was an important factor in these results. The electronic immunization registry was a useful tool for monitoring vaccine coverage; however, it will be important to determine cost-effectiveness prior to wide-scale adoption by the National Immunization Program.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Child Health Services , Health Equity , Vaccination Coverage , Immunization Programs , Immunization/statistics & numerical data , Registries
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