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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912995

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To evaluate the impact of different surgical strategies for moderate functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVR) on patients' prognosis. Methods    A total of 118 AVR patients, including 84 males and 34 females, aged 58.1±12.4 years, who were complicated with moderate FMR were retrospectively recruited. Patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment strategy of mitral valve: a group A (no intervention, n=11), a group B (mitral valve repair, n=51) and a group C (mitral valve replacement, n=56). The primary endpoint was the early and mid-term survival of the patients, and the secondary endpoint was the improvement of FMR. Results    The median follow-up time was 29.5 months. Five patients died perioperatively, all of whom were from the group C. Early postoperative FMR improvement rates in the group A and group B were 90.9% and 94.1% (P=0.694). The mid-term mortality in the three groups were 0.0%, 5.9% and 3.9%, respectively (P=0.264), while the incidences of major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were 0.0%, 9.8% and 17.7%, respectively (P=0.230). Improvements of FMR in the group A and group B were 100.0% and 94.3% at the mid-term follow-up (P>0.05). Conclusion    For patients receiving AVR with moderate FMR, conservative treatment or concurrent repair of mitral valve may be more reasonable, while mitral valve replacement may increase the incidence of early and mid-term adverse events.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the efficacy and safety of domestic generic levetiracetam in replacement of brand-name levetiracetam in the treatment of children with epilepsy.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 154 children with epilepsy who received domestic generic levetiracetam in the inpatient or outpatient service of Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from May 2019 to December 2020. Domestic generic levetiracetam and brand-name levetiracetam were compared in terms of efficacy and safety.@*RESULTS@#For these 154 children, the epilepsy control rate was 77.3% (119/154) at baseline. At 6 months after switching to domestic generic levetiracetam, the epilepsy control rate reached 83.8% (129/154), which showed a significant increase (P<0.05). There was no significant change in the frequency of seizures from baseline to 6 months after switching (P>0.05). The incidence of refractory epilepsy in children with no response after switching treatment was significantly higher than that in children with response (P<0.05). Before switching, only 1 child (0.6%) experienced somnolence, while after switching, 3 children (1.9%) experienced mild adverse drug reactions, including dizziness, somnolence, irritability, and bad temper.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Switching from brand-name to generic levetiracetam is safe and effective and holds promise for clinical application, but more prospective randomized controlled trials are required in future.


Subject(s)
Child , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Humans , Levetiracetam , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928122

ABSTRACT

A total of 15 batches of the substance reference of Guizhi Jia Gegen Decoction(GZGGD) were prepared and the characteristic fingerprints of them were established. Furthermore, the similarity of the fingerprints and peak attributes were explored. The extraction rate, and the content and the transfer rate ranges of the index components, puerarin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, and ammonium glycyrrhizate were determined for the analysis of the quality value transfer. The result demonstrated that the fingerprints of the 15 batches of the samples showed high similarity(>0.99). A total of 15 characteristic peaks were identified from the fingerprints, with 10 for Puerariae Lobatae Radix, 1 for Cinnamomi Ramulus, 2 for Paeoniae Radix Alba, and 2 for Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The content of puerarin was 11.05-18.35 mg·g~(-1) and the average transfer rate was 21.27%-39.49%. The corresponding figures were 7.95-10.90 mg·g~(-1) and 23.28%-43.23% for paeoniflorin, 3.25-4.95 mg·g~(-1) and 32.31%-61.27% for ammonium glycyrrhizate, and 3.65-5.80 mg·g~(-1) and 14.57%-27.05% for liquiritin. The extraction rate of the 15 batches of samples was in the range of 16.85%-21.78%. In this paper, the quality value transfer of the substance reference of GZGGD was analyzed based on characteristic fingerprint, content of index components, and the extraction rate. This study is expected to lay a basis for the quality control and further development of GZGGD.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928026

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determining the content of strychnine and paeoniflorin in plasma and brain tissue of rats, and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior and brain tissue distribution of paeoniflorin combined with normal and toxic doses of strychnine in rats after percutaneous administration. Compared with those in the toxic-dose strychnine group, the AUC_(0-t), AUC_(0-∞), and C_(max) of strychnine decreased by 51.51%, 45.68%, and 46.03%, respectively(P<0.01), and the corresponding values of paeoniflorin increased by 91.41%, 102.31%, and 169.32%, respectively(P<0.01), in the compatibility group. Compared with the normal-dose strychnine group, the compatibility group showed insignificantly decreased C_(max), AUC_(0-t), and AUC_(0-∞) of strychnine, increased C_(max) and T_(max) of paeoniflorin(P<0.01), 66.88% increase in AUC_(0-t), and 70.55% increase in AUC_(0-∞) of paeoniflorin. In addition, the brain tissue concentration of strychnine decreased and that of paeoniflorin increased after compatibility. The combination of paeoniflorin with normal dose and toxic dose of strychnine can inhibit the percutaneous absorption of strychnine, and greatly promote the percutaneous penetration of paeoniflorin, whereas the interaction mechanism remains to be explored. The UPLC-MS/MS method established in this study is easy to operate and has good precision. It is suitable for in vivo study of pharmacokinetic behavior and brain tissue distribution of paeoniflorin and strychnine after percutaneous administration in rats, which provides reference for the safe and rational clinical use of strychnine and the combined use of drugs, and lays a solid foundation for the development of external preparations containing Strychni Semen.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Brain , Bridged-Ring Compounds/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Glucosides , Monoterpenes , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Strychnine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Tissue Distribution
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927997

ABSTRACT

UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and serum pharmacochemistry were employed to study the migrating components in rat sera after intragastric administration of the water extracts of Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR) and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix(PTR). After the respective intragastric administration of PLR and PTR extracts, blood samples were collected from the orbital vein. The serum samples were treated by protein precipitation method with methanol and acetonitrile at a ratio of 1∶1 and then passed through Agilent ZORBAX RRHD SB-C_(18) column(3 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) and Agilent SB-C_(18) pre-column(3 mm×5 mm, 1.8 μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) as the mobile phase. The elution was performed at the flow rate of 0.25 mL·min~(-1), the column temperature of 40 ℃, and the injection volume of 2 μL. By comparison of the total ion chromatogram and secondary fragment ion information of PLR and PTR water extracts, PLR-and PTR-containing sera, and blank serum, we found 42 migrating components(including 17 prototype components and 25 metabolites) in the sera of rats treated with PLR and 35 migrating components(including 15 prototype components and 20 metabolites) in the sera of rats treated with PTR. Thirty-three common components were shared by the two treatments, including 13 prototype components and 20 metabolites. The differences of migrating components in the PLR-and PTR-treated rat sera provide a scientific basis for further study of the active components and quality markers of PLR and PTR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Pueraria , Rats , Serum
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927934

ABSTRACT

Due to the characteristics of confusing varieties of Chinese medicinal materials, different sources, complex chemical composition, non-standard preparation process, and non-standard pharmaceutical equipment, the quality of Chinese medicinal preparations is difficult to be controlled and evaluated effectively under the current quality control mode and method of Chinese medicinal preparation. The present study proposed an engineering quality view of Chinese medicine pharmacy and a strategy to control the quality of Chinese medicinal preparations based on the current situation. The "overall, dialectical, and dynamic" multi-factor engineering quality view, covering original medicinal materials, preparation technologies, pharmaceutical equipment, and Chinese medicinal preparations, ensures the traceable process, measurable procedures, and feedback quality. The quality control mode of Chinese medicinal preparation with controllable sources, standardized preparation technologies, green pharmaceutical equipment, and intelligent manufacturing is built up.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmacy , Quality Control
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927915

ABSTRACT

In this experiment, Panax notoginseng saponins chitosan nanoparticles(PNS-NPs) were prepared by self-assembly and their appearance, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, polydispersity index(PDI), Zeta potential, and microstructure were characterized. The prepared PNS-NPs were intact in structure, with an average particle size of(209±0.258) nm, encapsulation efficiency of 42.34%±0.28%, a drug loading of 37.63%±0.85%, and a Zeta potential of(39.8±3.122) mV. The intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs in rats was further studied. The established HPLC method of PNS was employed to investigate the effects of pH, perfusion rate, and different drugs(PNS raw materials, Xuesaitong Capsules, and PNS-NPs). The absorption rate constant(K_a) and apparent permeability coefficient(P_(app)) in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were calculated and analyzed. As illustrated by the results, the intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was increased in the perfusion solution at pH 6.8(P<0.05), and perfusion rate had no significant effect on the K_a and P_(app) of PNS-NPs. The intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was significantly different from that of PNS raw materials and Xuesaitong Capsules(P<0.05), and the intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was significantly improved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chitosan/pharmacology , Intestinal Absorption , Nanoparticles , Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927656

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to examine the sleep arrangements and soothing methods and to assess their associations with sleep problems among children aged < 3 years in China.@*Methods@#A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2019 from six provinces in China. A total of 1,195 caregivers of children aged 0-35 months were included in the study. Data on sleep arrangements, soothing methods, and sleep problems (i.e., frequent night awakenings and difficulty falling asleep) were assessed using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. The reasons for bed-sharing in sleep arrangements were recorded using a self-designed questionnaire.@*Results@#The bed-sharing practice was very prevalent at any age, which ranged from 69.9% to 78.3%. Most infants fell asleep while feeding or being rocked/held before age 12 months. By age 35 months, 62.4% of the children fell asleep in bed near parents. The most common reasons for bed-sharing were breastfeeding/feeding and convenience. Parental involvement when falling asleep was significantly related with frequent night awakenings and difficulty falling asleep. No association was found between bed-sharing and sleep.@*Conclusion@#Bed-sharing and parental involvement were very common among Chinese children aged < 3 years. Children who fall asleep with parental involvement were more likely to have sleep problems.


Subject(s)
Asians , Beds , Child, Preschool , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior , Infant, Newborn , Male , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Hygiene , Sleep Wake Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927339

ABSTRACT

Heat-sensitive moxibustion is the appropriate technique of the external treatment in traditional Chinese medicine and it is widely used in community because of its "easy learning, simple operation and clear curative effect". Pragmatic randomized controlled trial is a main intervention design in the real world study, which provides a high-level evidence for the effectiveness assessment of heat-sensitive moxibustion in community management. Focusing on the key links of randomization, e.g. block randomization, stratified randomization, cluster randomization, sample size allocation, allocation concealment and blinding, the paper elaborates the advantages, disadvantages and technical details of two-stage randomization with consideration of patient preference in pragmatic randomized controlled trials of heat-sensitive moxibustion in community. It facilitates improving the quality of evidence, reproducibility and methodological homogeneity among different trials.


Subject(s)
Hot Temperature , Humans , Moxibustion , Patient Preference , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 419-427, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922924

ABSTRACT

GC-MS metabolomics was used to investigate the effects of fudosteine on lung cancer A549 cells in an inflammatory microenvironment. Eleven metabolites (malic acid, isoleucine, lactose, galactinol, creatinine, gluconic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, uridine and tagatose) were identified in the metabolomics results and could be used as biomarkers of fudosteine treatment. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the metabolic pathways of amino acids including isoleucine, valine, leucine, glycine, serine and threonine were significantly altered, as were the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates such as galactose and pentose phosphate. Fudosteine significantly reduced the level of inflammatory factors in A549 cells and corrected the inflammatory microenvironment by interfering with the effects of amino acid metabolites and amino acid metabolism pathways. This study reveals that fudosteine may be able to inhibit the continuous inflammatory response and prevent the further progression of lung cancer by suppressing the inflammatory microenvironment.

11.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(1): e20210199, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339652

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Kazakhstan is located in the hinterland of Central Asia. Its virtuous geographical advantages and huge grain production potential make it one of the most important grain exporters in the world. The research on the problem of the grain trade in Kazakhstan is of great significance for food security. This study measured its international competitiveness using the International Market Share Index, the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index, Trade competitiveness index and calculated the international competitiveness and analyzed the influencing factors of grain export by constructing an extended gravity model and measured its export potential. Results showed that Kazakhstan has a low share of the international grain market; however, wheat, barley, and buckwheat have strong export advantages; the level of economic development and economic distance has significantly promoted the scale of grain exports. While geographical distance, the difference in GDP per capita, and the fact whether trading partner countries have joined the Eurasian Economic Union have caused obstacles to grain exports. Kazakhstan's export potential to 6 countries including Russia, Kyrgyzstan and China shows an upward" trend, its export potential to 6 countries including Tajikistan and Ukraine showing a "stable" trend, and its export to 9 countries included Poland and Germany. The potential showed a "declining" trend.


RESUMO: O Cazaquistão está localizado no interior da Ásia Central. Suas virtuosas vantagens geográficas e grande potencial de produção de grãos a tornam um dos exportadores de grãos mais importantes do mundo. A pesquisa sobre o problema do comércio de grãos no Cazaquistão é de grande importância para a segurança alimentar. Este estudo mede sua competitividade internacional por meio do índice IMS, índice RCA, índice TC e calcula a competitividade internacional e analisa os fatores influenciadores da exportação de grãos por meio da construção de um modelo gravimétrico estendido e mede seu potencial exportador. Os resultados mostram que o Cazaquistão tem uma baixa participação no mercado internacional de grãos; no entanto, trigo, cevada e trigo sarraceno têm fortes vantagens de exportação; o nível de desenvolvimento econômico e a distância econômica têm promovido significativamente a escala das exportações de grãos. Embora a distância geográfica, a diferença no PIB per capita e o fato de os países parceiros comerciais terem aderido à União Econômica da Eurásia têm causado obstáculos às exportações de grãos. O potencial de exportação do Cazaquistão para seis países, incluindo Rússia, Quirguistão e China mostra uma tendência de "alta", seu potencial de exportação para seis países, incluindo Tajiquistão e Ucrânia, mostra uma tendência" estável "e sua exportação para nove países, incluindo Polônia e Alemanha. O potencial mostra uma tendência de "declínio".

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 816-822, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876525

ABSTRACT

This study integrates metabolomics and network pharmacology techniques to systematically analyze the possible mechanism of Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid (PDL) in the treatment of acute respiratory infections. GC-MS metabolomics analysis found 8 endogenous metabolites, 3-phosphoglycerate, α-aminoadipate, D-ribulose-5-phosphate, β-mannosylglyceric acid, D-fructose, urea, D-maltose and ornithine in the serum of mice with acute respiratory infection induced by LPS; these substances can be used as biomarkers for PDL use in the treatment of acute respiratory infections. Biological network studies revealed 10 potential targets for intervention by PDL in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, including GPI, G6PD, H6PD, PFKM, TALDO1, TKT, GAPDH, HK1, PKLR and TPI1. All animal experiments were carried out with approval of the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. Our findings indicate that the strategy of combining metabolomics and network analysis can provide information on the possible mechanism of PDL in acute respiratory infections, and reveal that PDL may ameliorate the pathological process of acute respiratory infections by regulating disordered metabolic pathways.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 751-760, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876520

ABSTRACT

Multi-template molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction not only has the advantages of high selectivity, large adsorption capacity, easy preparation, reuse and low environmental pollution, but also can realize the enrichment and separation of many kinds of compounds. It has attracted wide attention in the extraction and separation of traditional Chinese medicine components. This study summarizes the latest development of multi-template molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. At the same time, based on the classification of active components of traditional Chinese medicine (flavonoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanol, terpenes, etc.), the latest application of multi-template molecular imprinting solid phase extraction in multi-component separation of traditional Chinese medicine was reviewed, with a view to better application of multi-template molecularly imprinted polymer in active multi-component extraction and separation of traditional Chinese medicine and provide reference for the material basic research of the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876166

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the risk of dietary lead exposure among adults in Xiacheng District of Hangzhou City. Methods:During 2013-2018, commercial foods were randomly collected in Xiacheng District of Hangzhou City for lead content testing. In combination with lead test result and dietary consumption data, the margin of exposure (MOE) method was used to assess the exposure risk of dietary lead. Results:A total of 827 samples from 14 kinds of commercial foods were collected, and the median of lead content was between 0.002 5 mg/kg and 0.100 0 mg/kg. The detection rate was 53.20%, and the over-standard rate was 1.09%. The median of daily dietary lead exposure among adults was 0.174 2 μg/kg BW, and the MOE value was 7.46. Vegetables and fruits were the dominant contributor to dietary intake of lead, accounting for 39.18% and 12.18%, respectively. Conclusion:The exposure of dietary lead among adults in Xiacheng District of Hangzhou City is at an acceptable level. The contribution of vegetables and fruits to dietary lead is higher than other foods, and needs more attention.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 487-495, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873772

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles have better applicability in the detection, treatment of cancer and various difficult diseases, but mononuclear phagocytosis system can seriously shorten the time of nanoparticles in vivo circulation, reduce the drug efficacy. The protein crown formed on the surface of the nanoparticle after entering the body can change its surface properties, interfere with the recognition of phagocytes, and thus affect its circulation time in vivo. This article outlines the general composition and formation process of protein crowns. It also summarizes the influence of the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as particle size, surface charge, hydrophilicity and surface materials on the formation of protein crowns. The protein crown affects the circulation of nanoparticles in vivo, mainly because the adsorbed opsonic protein promotes cell phagocytosis. Therefore, we also introduce the method of using protein crowns to promote the long circulation of nanoparticles in vivo. By designing appropriate physical and chemical properties, surface modification, and directed design of protein crowns, the adsorption of proteins on the surface of nanoparticles can be reduced. Therefore, it can reduce the clearance of nanoparticles in the mononuclear phagocytic system (mainly the phagocytes of the liver and spleen), and achieve the goal of long circulation of nanoparticles in the body.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1704-1711, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881555

ABSTRACT

In this study, artemether (ARM)-loaded mixed micelles (MM) composed of the sodium glycocholate (SGC) and soybean lecithin (SL) were prepared by film dispersion method. The effects of hydration medium, SL mass ratio and total concentration of excipients on the solubilization of ARM were investigated and the stability of MM was evaluated. Results showed that the particle size distribution of SGC-SL-MM prepared by phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4, 0.05 mol·L-1) was uniform, with an average size of 3.58 ± 0.14 nm and the polydispersity index (PDI) value was 0.16 ± 0.04. The solubility of ARM increased significantly from 0.64 ± 0.04 mg·mL-1 to 13.7 ± 0.13 mg·mL-1 along with the concentration of total excipient increasing from 1.0% to 30.0% (w/w). The calculated results of Arrhenius parameter and storage stability showed that the degradation rate constant of ARM in MM was smaller than that in acetonitrile-PBS (pH 7.4) at either 37 ℃ or 60 ℃. The experimental ARM-MM was clear after storing for two months at 25 ℃ and the degradation of ARM was less than 7.0%. In conclusion, the SGC-SL-MM can not only improve the solubility of ARM in aqueous solution, but also improve its chemical stability in aqueous solution at low temperature.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909236

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of triptolide on radiosensitization of lung cancer A549 cells and the underlying mechanism.Methods:During June-September 2019, lung cancer A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of triptolide for 24 and 48 hours in Animal Experiment Center, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, China. The inhibitory effects of triptolide on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells were determined using MTT method. Appropriate concentrations of triptolide and double distilled water were added to the experimental and control groups, respectively. The effects of triptolide on radiosensitization of lung cancer A549 cells was determined by colony formation assay. Radiosensitization ratio was calculated. Lung cancer A549 cells were divided into blank control, triptolide, radiotherapy, and radiotherapy + triptolide groups. The effects of triptolide on apoptosis and cell cycle of lung cancer A549 cells were determined by flow cytometry.Results:The 10% inhibitory concentration (IC 10) and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of triptolide for treating lung cancer A549 cells were 36.61 nmol/L and 259.38 nmol/L, respectively at 24 hours, and they were 9.05 nmol/L and 61.49 nmol/L, respectively at 48 hours. Triptolide had an radiosensitization effect on lung cancer A549 cells, with the radiosensitization ratio of 1.135. The apoptosis rate in the radiotherapy + triptolide group was significantly higher than that in the radiotherapy [(45.47 ± 8.29)% vs. (5.25 ± 0.59)%, t = 6.847, P = 0.002]. The proportion of lung cancer A549 cells at the G2/M phase in the radiotherapy group was significantly higher than that in the radiotherapy + triptolide group [(27.82 ± 0.96)% vs. (11.98 ± 0.55)%, t = 20.176, P < 0.05]. The proportion of lung cancer A549 cells at the G2/M phase in the black group was significantly higher than that in the triptolide group [(17.31 ± 3.42)% vs. (8.05 ± 0.71)%, t = 3.749, P = 0.02]. Conclusion:Triptolide has a radiosensitization effect on lung cancer A549 cells, and the underlying mechanism may be related to its participation in cell apoptosis and cycle regulation.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907619

ABSTRACT

Fire needling therapy has a wide range of indications, mainly including nervous system diseases, such as stroke sequela, post herpetic neuralgia, primary headache and trigeminal neuralgia; dermatological diseases like herpes zoster; orthopedic diseases, such as cervical spondylosis, tennis elbow, arthritis, cervical vertigo, cervical headache; gynecological diseases, such as dysmenorrhea; surgical related diseases, such as varicose veins, benign prostatic hyperplasia. The fire needling therapy has showed definite clinical effect for anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, neuroprotection and repair, endocrine regulation and other functions. However, most of the clinical studies are not standardized in scientific research design, lack of large sample RCT studies, or there is no unified standard for needling specifications. The research of needling mechanism is not enough and needs more experiments.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906474

ABSTRACT

Oral nanoparticles (NPs) has gradually become a approach to improve oral bioavailability of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ drugs, and the transmembrane transport mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract largely depends on physicochemical characteristics of NPs. It would be beneficial to design the NPs with high transport efficiency and effectively improve the oral bioavailability of drugs by adopting a reasonable research model to analyze the transmembrane mechanism of the oral NPs and exactly reveal the relationship between the physicochemical properties and the transport mechanism of NPs. This review focused on summarizing the transmembrane approaches of oral NPs, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the common cell models, concluding the potential interaction between the physicochemical properties and transmembrane process of NPs, and proposing the research strategy of transport mechanism based on in situ intestinal perfusion, with the purpose of discovering a suitable research model for studying the transport mechanism of different NPs, providing a basis for regulating the transport performance of the NPs to improve the oral bioavailability, and expanding the application of oral NPs in the development of new drugs.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906459

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study whether Tanreqing injection (TRQ) can alleviate the body injury in the process of infection by inhibiting the production and release of <italic>α</italic>-hemolysin of <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> under sub-minimal inhibitory concentration, and to provide experimental basis for better guidance of clinical medication. Method:The effects of TRQ on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and bacterial growth of <italic>S.aureus</italic> were determined firstly by microplate method and time-growth curve. The different sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of TRQ were co-cultured with bacteria or bacterial supernatants, and then co-incubated with defibrillated rabbit blood to detect the inhibitory and neutralizing effects of TRQ on <italic>S.aureus</italic> <italic>α</italic>-hemolysin. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) cell viability assay was used to detect the protective effect of TRQ on <italic>S. aureus</italic>-mediated damage to human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the effect of sub-minimal inhibitory concentration of TRQ on the mRNA expression of <italic>S.aureus</italic> <italic>α</italic>-hemolysin regulatory genes hla and agrA. Result:The MIC of TRQ to <italic>S.aureus </italic>was 1/8 of the stock solution, and the sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (1/64MIC-1/16MIC) TRQ used in this study did not affect the growth of bacteria. 1/64MIC-1/16 MIC TRQ had the effect of inhibiting and neutralizing the hemolytic activity of <italic>α</italic>-hemolysin, with a protective effect on <italic>S.aureus</italic> supernatant-mediated A549 cell damage, and its inhibitory effect on <italic>α</italic>-hemolysin was closely related to the inhibition of hla and agrA mRNA expression. Conclusion:The sub-minimal inhibitory concentration TRQ can inhibit and neutralize the hemolytic activity of <italic>α</italic>-hemolysin of <italic>S.aureus</italic>, with a protective effect on A549 cell damage mediated by <italic>S.aureus</italic> infection, and its mechanism of inhibiting <italic>α</italic>-hemolysin is closely related to the interference with agr regulatory system.

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