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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 254-266, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003430

ABSTRACT

Oral administration is the most convenient way of drug delivery, but due to the existence of intestinal barrier, the oral bioavailability of drugs is generally low, especially for drugs with low water solubility, poor permeability and macromolecules. For decades, researchers have demonstrated that nano-delivery system is one of the most effective strategies to solve this problem, but nano-delivery systems have shown limited improvement in the oral bioavailability of drugs. Therefore, researchers have proposed to use transporter-mediated nano-delivery systems to promote the oral absorption of drugs. The intestinal tract were highly expressed as a transporter for ingesting various nutrients(such as glucose, oligopeptides and bile acids), which was an excellent target of oral drug delivery system. Its substrate were modified on the nano-delivery system, and the loaded drugs could cross the intestinal barrier and enter the systemic circulation more efficiently through the targeting effect of transporters. At present, more and more evidences supported the potential of transporters in the field of oral drug delivery system. Therefore, this paper reviewed the research on intestinal transporters-mediated nano-delivery system to promote oral absorption of drugs, including the distribution of intestinal transporters, three strategies of transporter substrate modification, the transport properties of different types of transporters and their effects of mediating the nano-delivery system for promoting the oral absorption of drugs or treating diseases, with the aim of providing an important theoretical reference for the development of intestinal targeted nano-delivery systems.

2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 89(3): 469-476, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447713

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To explore whether Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)-Epac1 signaling is activated in 1-Desamino-8-D-arginine-Vasopressin-induced Endolymphatic Hydrops (DDAVP-induced EH) and to provide new insight for further in-depth study of DDAVP-induced EH. Methods Eighteen healthy, red-eyed guinea pigs (36 ears) weighing 200-350 g were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, which received intraperitoneal injection of sterile saline (same volume as that in the other two groups) for 7 consecutive days; the DDAVP-7d group, which received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/mL/kg DDAVP for 7 consecutive days; and the DDAVP-14d group, which received intraperitoneal injection of 10 μg/mL/kg DDAVP for 14 consecutive days. After successful modeling, all animals were sacrificed, and cochlea tissues were collected to detect the mRNA and protein expression of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP-1 and 2 (Epac1, Epac2), and Repressor Activator Protein-1 (Rap1) by Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Results Compared to the control group, the relative mRNA expression of Epac1, Epac2, Rap1A, and Rap1B in the cochlea tissue of the DDAVP-7d group was significantly higher (p< 0.05), while no significant difference in Rap1 GTPase activating protein (Rap1gap) mRNA expression was found between the two groups. The relative mRNA expression of Epac1, Rap1A, Rap1B, and Rap1gap in the cochlea tissue of the DDAVP-14d group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p< 0.05), while no significant difference in Epac2 mRNA expression was found between the DDAVP-14d and control groups. Comparison between the DDAVP-14d and DDAVP-7d groups showed that the DDAVP-14d group had significantly lower Epac2 and Rap1A (p< 0.05) and higher Rap1gap (p < 0.05) mRNA expression in the cochlea tissue than that of the DDAVP-7d group, while no significant differences in Epac1 and Rap1B mRNA expression were found between the two groups. Western blotting showed that Epac1 protein expression in the cochlea tissue was the highest in the DDAVP-14d group, followed by that in the DDAVP-7d group, and was the lowest in the control group, showing significant differences between groups (p< 0.05); Rap1 protein expression in the cochlea tissue was the highest in the DDAVP-7d group, followed by the DDAVP-14d group, and was the lowest in the control group, showing significant differences between groups (p< 0.05); no significant differences in Epac2 protein expression in the cochlea tissue were found among the three groups. Conclusion DDAVP upregulated Epac1 protein expression in the guinea pig cochlea, leading to activation of the inner ear cAMP-Epac1 signaling pathway. This may be an important mechanism by which DDAVP regulates endolymphatic metabolism to induce EH and affect inner ear function. Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence Level 5.

3.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1405-1408, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978643

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare the changes in retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL)and macular ganglion cell complex(GCC)measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT)in non-glaucoma subjects with low, moderate, and high myopia.METHODS: A total of 400 subjects(400 eyes)with myopia who attended our hospital from December 2019 to November 2022 were selected to participate in this study, and the subjects were divided into the following groups according to their degree of myopia: low myopia group(142 cases, 142 eyes, 35.5%), moderate myopia group(139 cases, 139 eyes, 34.8%)and high myopia group(119 cases, 119 eyes, 29.8%). RNFL thickness profiles were measured, including mean, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal RNFL thickness. GCC parameters were measured, including mean, superior, superior temporal, inferior, inferior temporal, superior nasal, and inferior nasal. Correlation between RNFL thickness measured by OCT, mean GCC parameters, and axial length was evaluated.RESULTS: The mean RNFL thickness above, below and nasal side was significantly higher in the low and moderate myopia groups and the temporal RNFL thickness was significantly lower than the high myopia group(all P&#x003C;0.05); the mean GCC thickness above, above temporal, below, below temporal, above nasal, below nasal and mean GCC thickness were significantly higher in the low and moderate myopia groups than in the high myopia group(all P&#x003C;0.05); In the moderate myopia group, the mean RNFL and GCC thickness were both negatively correlated with axial length(r=-0.387, -0.309, all P&#x003C;0.05). In the high myopia group, both RNFL and GCC thickness means were negatively correlated with eye axis length(r=-0.499, -0.503, all P&#x003C;0.01).CONCLUSION:RNFL and GCC thicknesses tend to be thinner in subjects with high myopia than in subjects with low and moderate myopia.

4.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1080-1086, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976474

ABSTRACT

AIM:To observe the toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles(ZnO NPs)on cornea by constructing intoxicated model in vivo and in vitro.METHODS:Human corneal epithelial cells(HCEpiC)were cultured in vitro and exposed to different concentrations(0.5, 5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/mL)of ZnO NPs for 24h. The cell culture medium without nano-solution was used as the blank control group. The viability of the cells was assessed by MTT assay. Three different concentrations(25, 50 and 100 μg/mL)of ZnONPs dispersions were exposed to the conjunctival sac of anesthetized mice three times a day for 7d consecutively. The phosphate buffered saline(PBS)eye group was the PBS control group. Corneal morphology was observed on 1, 3, 5 and 7d, and the eyes were removed on 8d for various laboratory examinations, including corneal pathological changes and expression levels of inflammatory factors(TNF-α, IL-6).RESULTS:After treatment of HCEpiC cells with different concentrations of ZnO NPs for 24h, the MTT results showed that Zno NPs cause damage to cells at 0.5 μg/mL, and the cell survival rate was about 80%(P&#x003C;0.05). Half of the cells were killed at a dose of 5 μg/mL, the damaging effect on cells in the concentration range of 5~250 μg/mL was concentration-dependent(P&#x003C;0.0001). After 7d of conjunctival capsule spotting in mice, dot-like staining of fluorescein was seen in the 25 μg/mL ZnO NPs and 50 μg/mL ZnO NPs groups. Localized circular fluorescein stained areas were seen in the corneas of the 100 μg/mL ZnO NPs group. HE staining showed that the corneal epithelial layer, stromal layer thickness and stromal layer immune cell number did not change significantly in the 25 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL ZnO NPs groups(all P&#x003E;0.05), while the corneal epithelial layer thinned, the corneal stromal layer thickened and the stromal layer immune cells increased significantly in the 100 μg/mL ZnO NPs group(all P&#x003C;0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of corneal stromal immune cells producing TNF-α and IL-6 and the mean integral optical density(IOD)values of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher in the 100 μg/mL ZnO NPs group than in the PBS control group(P&#x003C;0.05), and the degree of inflammation response was concentration-dependent. Compared with the PBS control group, no significant increase in immune cell count and IOD values in the 25 μg/mL ZnO NPs and 50 μg/mL ZnO NPs groups(P&#x003E;0.05).CONCLUSION:The toxic damaging effect of ZnO NPs on the cornea was confirmed from both in vitro and in vivo, which provided a theoretical basis for the ocular safety evaluation of ZnO NPs.

5.
International Eye Science ; (12): 958-962, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973785

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare the efficacy of 25-gauge(25G)vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens transciliary sulcus scleral suture fixation and sutureless scleral tunnel interlamellar fixation in the treatment of complete lens dislocation.METHODS: Retrospective case-control study. A total of 40 patients(40 eyes)diagnosed with complete lens luxation in the vitreous cavity in our hospital from May 2015 to September 2021 were selected, among which 21 eyes(suture group)underwent 25G vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens fixation via ciliary sulci scleral suture, and 19 eyes(sutureless group)underwent 25G vitrectomy combined with interlamellar scleral tunnel fixation of intraocular lens. The patients in both groups were followed up until 3mo after surgery to observe the operative time, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal endothelial cell count(CECC), central corneal thickness(CCT)and postoperative complications.RESULTS: The operation time was significantly shorter in the sutureless group than in the suture group(31.79±6.01min vs. 45.38±8.04min, P&#x003C;0.001). BCVA in both groups was significantly improved after surgery(all P&#x003C;0.05), and the BCVA(LogMAR)at 1wk after operation in the sutureless group was significantly better than that in the suture group(0.32±0.14 vs. 0.57±0.25, P&#x003C;0.001). At 3mo after surgery, CECC in both groups was lower than that before surgery(all P&#x003C;0.01). The CCT at 1wk after operation in the suture group was greater than that before operation and at 3mo after operation(all P&#x003C;0.01), and there was no significant change in CCT before and after surgery in the sutureless group. During follow-up period, the total complication rate in the sutureless group was lower than that in the suture group(26% vs. 38%, P&#x003E;0.05).CONCLUSION: 25G vitrectomy combined with intraocular lens sutureless scleral tunnel interlamellar fixation in the treatment of complete lens luxation has shorter operation time, faster postoperative visual acuity improvement and fewer postoperative complications.

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1056-1060, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973191

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the current status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among hospitalized patients aged 1-18 years, as well as the status of immunity after hepatitis B vaccination. Methods Related data were collected from the patients aged 1-18 years who were hospitalized in Henan Provincial People's Hospital from July 2020 to July 2021, including serological markers for hepatitis B (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBc) and hepatitis B vaccination. The epidemiological situation of HBV infection was analyzed, as well as the immune effect after vaccination. The trend chi-square test was used for trend analysis. Results A total of 10 658 hospitalized patients were collected, among whom there were 6 372 male patients (59.79%) and 4 286 female patients (40.21%). In this population, the patients with positive HBsAg accounted for 0.28% (30/10 658), with a relatively high proportion of 0.68% and 0.62%, respectively, in the 17-and 18-year age groups; the patients with positive anti-HBs accounted for 51.82% (5 523/10 658), with a relatively high proportion of > 63% in the 1-4 years age groups, and there was a reduction in the proportion of patients with positive anti-HBs (fluctuating around 40%) in the 5-18 years age groups. With the increase in age, the positive rate of anti-HBs tended to decrease in both male and female patients (male: χ 2 =8.217, P =0.004; female: χ 2 =10.048, P =0.002). Conclusion Based on the data of hospitalized patients, HBV infection in the population aged 1-18 years in Henan Province has the characteristics of low prevalence rate and high immunity, and the reduction in the proportion of patients with positive anti-HBs at more than five years after vaccination should be taken seriously in this region.

7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 175-184, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973147

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveIn the treatment of acute gouty arthritis (AGA), western medicine is mostly used for anti-inflammatory and analgesic purposes to control the blood uric acid level, but some patients are still at risk of poor control and recurrent attacks. Chinese medicinal prescriptions, potent in resisting inflammation and relieving pain, are able to stabilize the blood uric acid level, reduce acute attacks, and improve the clinical efficacy of western medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence to support their use as evidence-based medicine. This study employed network Meta-analysis (NMA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of common Chinese medicinal prescriptions in the treatment of AGA, aiming to provide evidence-based medical evidence for the clinical use of Chinese medicinal prescriptions in the treatment of AGA. MethodChinese and English databases were searched for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Chinese medicinal prescriptions against AGA from database inception to December 1, 2022. Stata software and Review Manager were used for statistical analysis. ResultForty-four papers with 3 564 cases involved were included in the current NMA. In terms of reducing blood uric acid, the cumulative probability results showed that Mahuang Lianyao Chixiaodou Tang showed optimal efficacy (87.60%). In terms of relieving joint pain, Danggui Niantongtang and Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimutang showed optimal efficacy (92.00% and 82.30%). In terms of improving erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Simiaowan was superior to other prescriptions (87.00%). In terms of reducing C-reactive protein (CRP), Simiaowan and Baihutang modified with Guizhitang showed superior efficacy (76.00% and 66.10%). In terms of safety, except for the basic treatment group, Mahuang Lianyao Chixiaodou Tang had the lowest probability of adverse events, and Danggui Niantongtang had the highest probability of adverse reactions during treatment. According to the results of cluster analysis, Mahuang Lianyao Chixiaodou Tang and Simiaowan are effective and safe. ConclusionAccording to the results of NMA, Chinese medicinal prescriptions can assist in the treatment of AGA and improve the effectiveness of western medicine. For patients with AGA, clinicians can choose Mahuang Lianyao Chixiaodou Tang or Simiaowan as an auxiliary drug for routine western medicine treatment.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 671-676, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971911

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia is one of the manifestations of malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis. Most studies have shown that sarcopenia is associated with overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), leading to an increased risk of events such as reduced quality of life, poor clinical prognosis, and even death in patients with liver cirrhosis, but there are few studies on the association between sarcopenia and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). This article reviews the research advances in sarcopenia and hepatic encephalopathy to provide a reliable basis for clinical treatment, and it is pointed out that the nutritional status of patients can be improved to prevent MHE and even reduce the onset of OHE, thereby improving patient prognosis, increasing quality of life, and reducing the risk of death.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 174-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971702

ABSTRACT

The development of drug-resistant influenza and new pathogenic virus strains underscores the need for antiviral therapeutics. Currently, neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are commonly used antiviral drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention and treatment of influenza. Here, we show that vitisin B (VB) inhibits NA activity and suppresses H1N1 viral replication in MDCK and A549 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which frequently occur during viral infection, increase virus replication by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway, downmodulating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) expression, and decreasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response activity. VB decreased virus-induced ROS generation by increasing G6PD expression and Nrf2 activity, and inhibiting NF-κB translocation to the nucleus through IKK dephosphorylation. In addition, VB reduced body weight loss, increased survival, decreased viral replication and the inflammatory response in the lungs of influenza A virus (IAV)-infected mice. Taken together, our results indicate that VB is a promising therapeutic candidate against IAV infection, complements existing drug limitations targeting viral NA. It modulated the intracellular ROS by G6PD, Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway, and NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-targeting drug strategy, providing new approaches for drug discovery against IAV infection.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 100-112, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971694

ABSTRACT

Chronic alcohol consumption causes liver steatosis, cell death, and inflammation. Melatonin (MLT) is reported to alleviate alcoholic liver disease (ALD)-induced injury. However, its direct regulating targets in hepatocytes are not fully understood. In the current study, a cell-based screening model and a chronic ethanol-fed mice ALD model were used to test the protective mechanisms of MLT. MLT ameliorated ethanol-induced hepatocyte injury in both cell and animal models (optimal doses of 10 μmol/L and 5 mg/kg, respectively), including lowered liver steatosis, cell death, and inflammation. RNA-seq analysis and loss-of-function studies in AML-12 cells revealed that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) was a key downstream effector of MLT. Biophysical assay found that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the hepatocyte surface was a direct binding and regulating target of MLT. Liver specific knock-down of Tert or Egfr in the ALD mice model impaired MLT-mediated liver protection, partly through the regulation of nuclear brahma-related gene-1 (BRG1). Long-term administration (90 days) of MLT in healthy mice did not cause evident adverse effect. In conclusion, MLT is an efficacious and safe agent for ALD alleviation. Its direct regulating target in hepatocytes is EGFR and downstream BRG1-TERT axis. MLT might be used as a complimentary agent for alcoholics.

11.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 105-122, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971612

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant and heterogeneous brain tumor, contains various types of tumor and non-tumor cells. Whether GBM cells can trans-differentiate into non-neural cell types, including mural cells or endothelial cells (ECs), to support tumor growth and invasion remains controversial. Here we generated two genetic GBM models de novo in immunocompetent mouse brains, mimicking essential pathological and molecular features of human GBMs. Lineage-tracing and transplantation studies demonstrated that, although blood vessels in GBM brains underwent drastic remodeling, evidence of trans-differentiation of GBM cells into vascular cells was barely detected. Intriguingly, GBM cells could promiscuously express markers for mural cells during gliomagenesis. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing showed that patterns of copy number variations (CNVs) of mural cells and ECs were distinct from those of GBM cells, indicating discrete origins of GBM cells and vascular components. Importantly, single-cell CNV analysis of human GBM specimens also suggested that GBM cells and vascular cells are likely separate lineages. Rather than expansion owing to trans-differentiation, vascular cell expanded by proliferation during tumorigenesis. Therefore, cross-lineage trans-differentiation of GBM cells is very unlikely to occur during gliomagenesis. Our findings advance understanding of cell lineage dynamics during gliomagenesis, and have implications for targeted treatment of GBMs.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Glioblastoma/pathology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , DNA Copy Number Variations , Brain/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 261-272, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971551

ABSTRACT

The extracellular domain (p75ECD) of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) antagonizes Aβ neurotoxicity and promotes Aβ clearance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The impaired shedding of p75ECD is a key pathological process in AD, but its regulatory mechanism is largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the presence and alterations of naturally-occurring autoantibodies against p75ECD (p75ECD-NAbs) in AD patients and their effects on AD pathology. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of p75ECD-NAbs was increased in AD, and negatively associated with the CSF levels of p75ECD. Transgenic AD mice actively immunized with p75ECD showed a lower level of p75ECD and more severe AD pathology in the brain, as well as worse cognitive functions than the control groups, which were immunized with Re-p75ECD (the reverse sequence of p75ECD) and phosphate-buffered saline, respectively. These findings demonstrate the impact of p75ECD-NAbs on p75NTR/p75ECD imbalance, providing a novel insight into the role of autoimmunity and p75NTR in AD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Autoantibodies , Mice, Transgenic
13.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 156-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the difference in sensitivity between X-ray and three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography (3D-CT) for the diagnosis of distal fibular avulsion fracture, and the radiographic presentation of the ossicle.@*METHODS@#From January to October 2018, 92 patients with distal fibular avulsion fracture were visited for surgical treatment in Department of Sports Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, and 60 cases were finally enrolled according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Intraoperative detection was regarded as the gold standard, and the diagnostic sensitivity of preoperative ankle X-ray and 3D-CT for the distal fibular avulsion fractures was statistically determined. The ossicle maximum diameter as well as the degree of its displacement were also measured. On 3D-CT, the distance from the ossicle center point to the anterior fibular tuberosity (a), the distance to the fibular tip (b), and the a/b value was used to present the ossicle displacement.@*RESULTS@#Among the 60 patients, 36 and the 52 patients were correctly detected by X-ray and 3D-CT, respectively, and the sensitivities was 60.0% and 86.7%, respectively (P=0.004). The mean diameter of the ossicle on X-ray and 3D-CT was (9.2±3.9) mm and (10.5±3.2) mm, respectively. The mean distance from the ossicle center to the anterior fibular tuberosity (a) was (17.5±3.6) mm and the mean distance to the fibular tip (b) was (17.4±4.8) mm, with mean a/b values of 1.1±0.7. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for each measurement ranged from 0.891-0.998 with a high degree of consistency.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with X-ray, 3D-CT has higher sensitivity in diagnosing distal fibular avulsion fractures, can help clinicians evaluate ossicle's location and choose surgical methods, and is recommended to be performed in patients with suspected distal fibula avulsion fractures in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fibula/surgery , Fractures, Avulsion , Ankle , X-Rays , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Ankle Fractures , Ankle Joint , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 94-100, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study microstructure, friction and wear behaviors of silicon-lithium spray coating on the surface of zirconia ceramics and to preliminarily evaluate its esthetic so as to provide support and guidance for the clinical application.@*METHODS@#Zirconia ceramic specimens were randomly divided into three groups: coating group (two subgroups), polishing group (two subgroups), and glazing group (four subgroups), with 10 samples in each subgroup. The two subgroups of coating group were the zirconia ceramics with the untreated and preliminary polishing surfaces sprayed with silicon-lithium coating, respectively. The two subgroups of polishing group were preliminary polishing and fine polishing of zirconia ceramics, respectively. The four subgroups of glazing group were preliminarily polished zirconia ceramics glazed with Biomic and Stain/Glaze products, respectively; and untreated zirconia ceramics glazed with Biomic and Stain/Glaze products, respectively. The above 8 subgroups of zirconia ceramic specimens were used as friction pairs with 80 steatite ceramics for 50 000 chewing cycles under 50 N vertical load and artificial saliva lubrication using chewing simulation. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microstructure of the surface and section of the coating group, and the thickness of the coating and glazing were measured. The linear roughness of the coating and polishing groups was mea-sured using a laser confocal scanning microscope. Vickers hardness was measured using a microhardness tester and the esthetic of zirconia ceramic full crown sprayed with silicon-lithium coating was preliminarily evaluated. White light interferometer was used to measure the width, the maximum depth and the volume of the wear scars of each group, and the wear depth of steatite ceramics and wear rate of zirconia ceramic specimens were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Dunn's multiple comparisons test were used to analyze the wear depth of each group (α=0.05).@*RESULTS@#The microstructures of the silica-lithium spray coatings on the untreated and preliminarily polished zirconia ceramic surfaces showed the protruding defects, and the line roughness of coating group was larger than that of the polishing group. The median thickness of the silica-lithium spray coating on the preliminarily polished zirconia ceramic was 13.0 μm (interquartile range, IQR: 11.6, 17.9), while that of the silica-lithium spray coating on the untreated zirconia ceramic was 4.4 μm (IQR: 4.1, 4.7). The Vickers hardness and wear rate of the coating group were between the polishing group and the glazing group. The wear depths of the wear scars of steatite ceramics were the glazing group, coating group, and polishing group in descending order, and there was statistically significant difference between glazing and polishing groups (P < 0.05). With the increase of polishing procedure, the wear depth of steatite ceramics decreased in each subgroups. The orders of maximum depth and volume of wear scars of zirconia ceramic were the glazing group, coating group, and polishing group in descending order, and there was statistically significant difference in the maximum depth of wear scars between glazing and polishing groups (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The silica-lithium spray coating on the zirconia ceramic, can be used as a new method for zirconia ceramic surface treatment, because it can increase the esthetic of zirconia ceramics compared with polishing and reduce the wear of steatite ceramics compared with glazing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Silicon , Materials Testing , Friction , Lithium , Cicatrix , Surface Properties , Silicon Dioxide , Zirconium/chemistry , Ceramics , Dental Porcelain
15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 59-64, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971150

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the scientificity and feasibility of the ten-fold rehydration formula for emergency resuscitation of pediatric patients after extensive burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. The total burn area of 30%-100% total body surface area (TBSA) and body weight of 6-50 kg in 433 pediatric patients (250 males and 183 females, aged 3 months to 14 years) with extensive burns who met the inclusion criteria and admitted to the burn departments of 72 Class A tertiary hospitals were collected. The 6 319 pairs of simulated data were constructed after pairing each body weight of 6-50 kg (programmed in steps of 0.5 kg) and each total burn area of 30%-100% TBSA (programmed in steps of 1%TBSA). They were put into three accepted pediatric rehydration formulae, namely the commonly used domestic pediatric rehydration formula for burn patients (hereinafter referred to as the domestic rehydration formula), the Galveston formula, and the Cincinnati formula, and the two rehydration formulae for pediatric emergency, namely the simplified resuscitation formula for emergency care of patients with extensive burns proposed by the World Health Organization's Technical Working Group on Burns (TWGB, hereinafter referred to as the TWGB formula) and the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula proposed by the author of this article--rehydration rate (mL/h)=body weight (kg) × 10 (mL·kg-1·h-1) to calculate the rehydration rate within 8 h post injury (hereinafter referred to as the rehydration rate). The range of the results of the 3 accepted pediatric rehydration formulae ±20% were regarded as the reasonable rehydration rate, and the accuracy rates of rehydration rate calculated using the two pediatric emergency rehydration formulae were compared. Using the maximum burn areas (55% and 85% TBSA) corresponding to the reasonable rehydration rate calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula at the body weight of 6 and 50 kg respectively, the total burn area of 30% to 100% TBSA was divided into 3 segments and the accuracy rates of the rehydration rate calculated using the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae in each segment were compared. When neither of the rehydration rates calculated by the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae was reasonable, the differences between the two rehydration rates were compared. The distribution of 433 pediatric patients in the 3 previous total burn area segments was counted and the accuracy rates of the rehydration rate calculated using the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae were calculated and compared. Data were statistically analyzed with McNemar test. Results: Substitution of 6 319 pairs of simulated data showed that the accuracy rates of the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula was 73.92% (4 671/6 319), which was significantly higher than 4.02% (254/6 319) of the TWGB formula (χ2=6 490.88,P<0.05). When the total burn area was 30%-55% and 56%-85% TBSA, the accuracy rates of the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula were 100% (2 314/2 314) and 88.28% (2 357/2 670), respectively, which were significantly higher than 10.98% (254/2 314) and 0 (0/2 670) of the TWGB formula (with χ2 values of 3 712.49 and 4 227.97, respectively, P<0.05); when the total burn area was 86%-100% TBSA, the accuracy rates of the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula and the TWGB formula were 0 (0/1 335). When the rehydration rates calculated by the 2 pediatric emergency rehydration formulae were unreasonable, the rehydration rates calculated by the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula were all higher than those of the TWGB formula. There were 93.07% (403/433), 5.77% (25/433), and 1.15% (5/433) patients in the 433 pediatric patients had total burn area of 30%-55%, 56%-85%, and 86%-100% TBSA, respectively, and the accuracy rate of the rehydration rate calculated using the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula was 97.69% (423/433), which was significantly higher than 0 (0/433) of the TWGB formula (χ2=826.90, P<0.05). Conclusions: The application of the pediatric ten-fold rehydration formula to estimate the rehydration rate of pediatric patients after extensive burns is more accurate and convenient, superior to the TWGB formula, suitable for application by front-line healthcare workers that are not specialized in burns in pre-admission rescue of pediatric patients with extensive burns, and is worthy of promotion.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Burns/therapy , Hospitalization , Resuscitation , Fluid Therapy/methods , Body Surface Area , Retrospective Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 223-228, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960926

ABSTRACT

In recent years,with the change in lifestyle and social environment and the increase in pressure in both life and work,male fertility has decreased significantly in China,and the incidence of male infertility has increased year by year,which has brought great challenges to andrologists. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a definite curative effect in the treatment of male infertility and is widely applied in clinical practice. In order to clarify the role of TCM in different types and each stage of male infertility,the China Association of Chinese Medicine (CACM) invited outstanding young andrologists in the clinic of TCM and western medicine to discuss topics such as idiopathic oligospermia and teratospermia,abnormal semen liquefaction,varicocele,immune infertility,improving success ratio of assisted reproductive technology,and ameliorating depression or anxiety. They conducted in-depth discussions on the advantages,characteristics,disadvantages,diseases responding specifically,and advantageous aspects of TCM treatment. The causes of male infertility and related links of treatment were summarized. Due to the unclear etiology and complex pathogenesis of male infertility,western medicine cannot achieve a good curative effect,while TCM,taking the holistic view as the core,specializes in improving functional diseases and can correspond to multiple targets and factors,with comprehensive treatments such as internal treatment and external treatment. This study summarized the advantageous diseases and advantageous stages of TCM treatment alone and integrated TCM and western medicine treatment and put forward suggestions for the treatment of the diseases by TCM and western medicine in order to promote the therapeutic effects and advantages of TCM among andrologists,increase mutual learning and communication between TCM and western physicians,provide patients with excellent and personalized treatment plans in clinical practice,and improve the curative effect of male infertility and fertility of males in China.

17.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 89-92, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-959055

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the residents' satisfaction with the enforcement of The Regulations of Tianjin Municipality on Smoking Control in Public Places (hereinafter referred to as The Regulations) and its influencing factors. Methods From November to December 2020, 16 districts of Tianjin were selected as the research site, and one street was randomly selected from each district. The accidental sampling was used to conduct a questionnaire survey on 4,160 permanent residents in Tianjin. χ2 test was used in univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze and adjust the confounding factors. The public satisfaction and its influencing factors were analyzed. Results A total of 4 022 questionnaires were collected and 2 730 were included in the study. In 2020, 89.3 percent of Tianjin residents were satisfied with the enforcement of the Regulations. Compared with residents aged 15-24, residents in other age groups were less satisfied with the enforcement of the Regulations. Compared with residents with primary school education or below, residents with high school education or bachelor's degree or the same educational level were less satisfied with the enforcement of the Regulations. Residents with chronic diseases (OR=1.885 , P<0.01) and exposure to second-hand smoke in the last 30 days (OR=1.903, P<0.01) were less satisfied with the enforcement of the Regulations, while those who supported the Regulations (OR=0.511, P<0.01) and residents who had been exposed to public service advertisements on tobacco control in the last 30 days (OR=0.043, P<0.01) were more satisfied with the enforcement of the Regulations. Conclusion The residents of Tianjin are highly satisfied with the enforcement of the Regulations. Age, education background, support for the Regulations, chronic disease, exposure to secondhand smoke in the last 30 days and exposure to public service advertisements in the last 30 days are the main influencing factors of satisfaction with the enforcement of tobacco control regulations.

18.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 180-184, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970689

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the research progress on live-cell super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, discusses the current research status and hotspots in this field, and summarizes the technological application of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy for live-cell imaging. To date, this field has gained progress in numerous aspects. Specifically, the structured illumination microscopy, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, and the recently introduced minimal photon fluxes microscopy are the current research hotspots. According to the current progress in this field, future development trend is likely to be largely driven by artificial intelligence as well as advances in fluorescent probes and relevant labelling methods.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Fluorescent Dyes , Technology
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1217-1231, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970434

ABSTRACT

The construction of efficient and stable Lactobacillus expression vector is critical for strain improvement and development of customized strains. In this study, four endogenous plasmids were isolated from Lacticaseibacillus paracasei ZY-1 and subjected to functional analysis. The Escherichia coli-Lactobacillus shuttle vectors pLPZ3N and pLPZ4N were constructed by combining the replicon rep from pLPZ3 or pLPZ4, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat from pNZ5319 and the replicon ori from pUC19. Moreover, the expression vectors pLPZ3E and pLPZ4E with the promoter Pldh3 of lactic acid dehydrogenase and the mCherry red fluorescent protein as a reporter gene were obtained. The size of pLPZ3 and pLPZ4 were 6 289 bp and 5 087 bp, respectively, and its GC content, 40.94% and 39.51%, were similar. Both shuttle vectors were successfully transformed into Lacticaseibacillus, and the transformation efficiency of pLPZ4N (5.23×102-8.93×102 CFU/μg) was slightly higher than that of pLPZ3N. Furthermore, the mCherry fluorescent protein was successfully expressed after transforming the expression plasmids pLPZ3E and pLPZ4E into L. paracasei S-NB. The β-galactosidase activity of the recombinant strain obtained from the plasmid pLPZ4E-lacG constructed with Pldh3 as promoter was higher than that of the wild-type strain. The construction of shuttle vectors and expression vectors provide novel molecular tools for the genetic engineering of Lacticaseibacillus strains.


Subject(s)
Lacticaseibacillus , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei , Plasmids/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Lactobacillus/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 60-75, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study investigated the effects of bis (2-butoxyethyl) phthalate (BBOP) on the onset of male puberty by affecting Leydig cell development in rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty 35-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to five groups mg/kg bw per day that were gavaged for 21 days with BBOP at 0, 10, 100, 250, or 500 mg/kg bw per day. The hormone profiles; Leydig cell morphological metrics; mRNA and protein levels; oxidative stress; and AKT, mTOR, ERK1/2, and GSK3β pathways were assessed.@*RESULTS@#BBOP at 250 and/or 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). BBOP at 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased Leydig cell number mg/kg bw per day and downregulated Cyp11a1, Insl3, Hsd11b1, and Dhh in the testes, and Lhb and Fshb mRNAs in the pituitary gland (P < 0.05). The malondialdehyde content in the testis significantly increased, while Sod1 and Sod2 mRNAs were markedly down-regulated, by BBOP treatment at 250-500 mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BBOP at 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased AKT1/AKT2, mTOR, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and GSK3β and SIRT1 levels mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). Finally, BBOP at 100 or 500 μmol/L induced ROS and apoptosis in Leydig cells after 24 h of treatment in vitro (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#BBOP delays puberty onset by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis in Leydig cells in rats.@*UNLABELLED@#The graphical abstract is available on the website www.besjournal.com.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Leydig Cells/metabolism , Testosterone , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sexual Maturation , Testis , Oxidative Stress , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis
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