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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887736


Objective@#This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people.@*Methods@#Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL @*Conclusion@#The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arsenic/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Dietary Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Seafood/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Young Adult
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707047


Objective To analyze the intake of arsenic in Chinese materia medica by Chinese population; To assess its health risk. Methods Totally 2056 Chinese materia medica samples were collected from representative manufacturers and markets in China from 2008 to 2016 and their arsenic contents were detected. The consumption data of Chinese materia medica were collected among population aged 18 and above from 5739 individuals by face to face questionnaire surveys in 5 provinces (Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jiangxi, Guizhou and Gansu) with the method of multistage stratified random sampling. A deterministic estimate was used to assess the exposure of arsenic by Chinese materia medica. At the same time, the Chinese standard limit of arsenic in Chinese materia medica was used to do the theory assessment. Results The average concentration of arsenic in Chinese materia medica was 0.81 mg/kg. The residue level of arsenic in animal Chinese materia medica (average concentration: 3.29 mg/kg) was higher than that in medicinal plants (average concentration: 0.71 mg/kg). The consumption data showed that average intake of Chinese materia medica as medicines was 207 g, and P95was 540 g; the average intake of Chinese herbals as medicinal food was 43 g, and P95was 500 g. The assessment using arsenic content data showed that common use of Chinese materia medica had low level of risk. However, the population with chronic and high consumption of Chinese materia medica as medicine or as food had certain level of health risk. Arsenic content in animal herbals was about 5 times higher than that of medicinal plants. But according to the consumption, the risk was not higher than that of medicinal plants. The assessment using the standard limit of arsenic (2 mg/kg) in herbals showed that recent standard could protect most people, but risk remained in those with chronic consumption of Chinese materia medica as medicineand high consumption of Chinese materia medica as medicinal food. Conclusion The current standard limit of arsenic (2 mg/kg) in Chinese materia medica is appropriate. The health risk of arsenic exposure from Chinese materia medica among Chinese population is at a low level, but those with chronic and high Chinese materia medica consumption need more attention.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264557


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the dietary intake levels of trans fatty acids (TFA) in a Chinese population and establish a basis for health risk assessment of trans fatty acids.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68 ± 0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89 ± 2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86 ± 0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83 ± 1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41 ± 0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29% of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and ⋝18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42% demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices.</p>

Adolescent , Analysis of Variance , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Diet Surveys , Dietary Fats , Metabolism , Energy Intake , Female , Food , Reference Standards , Food Analysis , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trans Fatty Acids , Metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235590


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 μg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 μg/L and higher than 300 μg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 μg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed.</p>

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Diet , Drinking Water , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Female , Goiter , Epidemiology , Humans , Iodine , Male , Nutritional Status , Sodium Chloride, Dietary