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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 118-126, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964295

ABSTRACT

Molecular dynamics simulation technology relies on Newtonian mechanics to simulate the motion of molecular system of the real system by computer simulation. It has been used in the research of self-assembly processes illustration and macroscopic performance prediction of self-assembly nano-drug delivery systems (NDDS) in recent years, which contributes to the facilitation and accurate design of preparations. In this review, the definitions, catalogues, and the modules of molecular dynamics simulation techniques are introduced, and the current status of their applications are summarized in the acquisition and analysis of microscale information, such as particle size, morphology, the formation of microdomains, and molecule distribution of the self-assembly NDDS and the prediction of their macroscale performances, including stability, drug loading capacity, drug release kinetics and transmembrane properties. Moreover, the existing applications of the molecular dynamic simulation technology in the formulation prediction of self-assembled NDDS were also summarized. It is expected that the new strategies will promote the prediction of NDDS formulation and lay a theoretical foundation for an appropriate approach in NDDS studies and a reference for the wider application of molecular dynamics simulation technology in pharmaceutics.

2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2949-2957, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981427

ABSTRACT

This study aims to improve the solubility and bioavailability of daidzein by preparing the β-cyclodextrin-daidzein/PEG_(20000)/Carbomer_(940) nanocrystals. Specifically, the nanocrystals were prepared with daidzein as a model drug, PEG_(20000), Carbomer_(940), and NaOH as a plasticizer, a gelling agent, and a crosslinking agent, respectively. A two-step method was employed to prepare the β-cyclodextrin-daidzein/PEG_(20000)/Carbomer_(940) nanocystals. First, the insoluble drug daidzein was embedded in β-cyclodextrin to form inclusion complexes, which were then encapsulated in the PEG_(20000)/Carbomer_(940) nanocrystals. The optimal mass fraction of NaOH was determined as 0.8% by the drug release rate, redispersability, SEM morphology, encapsulation rate, and drug loading. The inclusion status of daidzein nanocrystals was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis(TGA), and X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis to verify the feasibility of the preparation. The prepared nanocrystals showed the average Zeta potential of(-30.77±0.15)mV and(-37.47±0.64)mV and the particle sizes of(333.60±3.81)nm and(544.60±7.66)nm before and after daidzein loading, respectively. The irregular distribution of nanocrystals before and after daidzein loading was observed under SEM. The redispersability experiment showed high dispersion efficiency of the nanocrystals. The in vitro dissolution rate of nanocrystals in intestinal fluid was significantly faster than that of daidzein, and followed the first-order drug release kinetic model. XRD, FTIR, and TGA were employed to determine the polycrystalline properties, drug loading, and thermal stability of the nanocrystals before and after drug loading. The nanocrystals loaded with daidzein demonstrated obvious antibacterial effect. The nanocrystals had more significant inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than daidzein because of the improved solubility of daidzein. The prepared nanocrystals can significantly increase the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of the insoluble drug daidzein.


Subject(s)
Sodium Hydroxide , Acrylic Resins , Escherichia coli , Nanoparticles
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6526-6532, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008852

ABSTRACT

The fundamental principle of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is holism, and it is crucial for TCM to address the key issue of the "holistic view" of Chinese herbal medicine. While the overall regulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicine have been widely recognized, the holistic internal logic of individual ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines require further clarification. In order to comprehensively understand the mechanism of action of Chinese herbal medicine, this paper combined the holistic view of Chinese herbal medicine with differentiation thinking to explore the intrinsic logical relationships within Chinese herbal medicine. Starting from the perspective of the coexistence of multiple components in Chinese herbal medicine, this paper systematically examined the "self-consistent" phenomenon within single Chinese herbal medicine. This phenomenon refers to the consistent or opposing actions of various components in terms of their physical and chemical properties, pharmacokinetic effects, biological effects, flavors and properties, and TCM efficacy. The paper summarized various logical relationships of syndrome differentiation exhibited by the same Chinese herbal medicine, analyzed the underlying reasons, and focused on analyzing external factors affecting the "self-consistent" phenomenon in the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine, aiming to better elucidate the theoretical basis of the pharmacological effects of Chinese herbal medicine, further enrich the scientific connotation of the holistic view of Chinese herbal medicine, and provide theoretical guidance for the preparation process, compatibility patterns, and formulation design of Chinese herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4536-4544, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008708

ABSTRACT

In recent years, continuous manufacturing technology has attracted considerable attention in the pharmaceutical industry. This technology is highly sought after for its significant advantages in cost reduction, increased efficiency, and improved productivity, making it a growing trend in the future of the pharmaceutical industry. Compared to traditional batch production methods, continuous manufacturing technology features real-time control and environmentally friendly intelligence, enabling pharmaceutical companies to produce drugs more efficiently. However, the adoption of continuous manufacturing technology has been slow in the field of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) pharmaceuticals. On the one hand, there is insufficient research on continuous manufacturing equipment and technology that align with the characteristics of TCM preparations. On the other hand, the scarcity of talent with diverse expertise hampers its development. Therefore, in order to promote the modernization and upgrading of the TCM pharmaceutical industry, this article combined the current development status of the TCM industry to outline the development status and regulatory requirements of continuous manufacturing technology. At the same time, it analyzed the problems with existing TCM manufacturing models and explored the prospects and challenges of applying continuous manufacturing technology in the field of TCM pharmaceuticals. The analysis focused on continuous manufacturing control strategies, technical tools, and pharmaceutical equipment, aiming to provide targeted recommendations to drive the development of the TCM pharmaceutical industry.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Drug Industry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmaceutical Preparations
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5068-5077, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008677

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the drug delivery performance of oral co-loaded puerarin(PUE) and daidzein(DAZ) mixed micelles(PUE/DAZ-FS/PMMs) from the perspectives of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tissue distribution. The changes in PUE plasma concentration in rats were evaluated based on PUE suspension, single drug-loaded micelles(PUE-FS/PMMs), and co-loaded micelles(PUE/DAZ-FS/PMMs). Spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR) were used to monitor systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure for 10 weeks after administration by tail volume manometry. The content of PUE in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, and testes was determined using LC-MS/MS. The results showed that compared with PUE suspension and PUE-FS/PMMs, PUE/DAZ-FS/PMMs significantly increased C_(max) in rats(P<0.01) and had a relative bioavailability of 122%. The C_(max), AUC_(0-t), AUC_(0-∞), t_(1/2), and MRT of PUE/DAZ-FS/PMMs were 1.77, 1.22, 1.22, 1.17, and 1.13 times higher than those of PUE suspension, and 1.76, 1.16, 1.08, 0.84, and 0.78 times higher than those of PUE-FS/PMMs, respectively. Compared with the model control group, PUE/DAZ-FS/PMMs significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure in SHR rats(P<0.05). The antihypertensive effect of PUE/DAZ-FS/PMMs was greater than that of PUE suspension, and even greater than that of PUE-FS/PMMs at high doses. Additionally, the distribution of PMMs in various tissues showed dose dependency. The distribution of PMMs in the kidney and liver, which are metabolically related tissues, was lower than that in the suspension group, while the distribution in the brain was higher than that in the conventional dose group. In conclusion, PUE/DAZ-FS/PMMs not only improved the bioavailability of PUE and synergistically enhanced its therapeutic effect but also prolonged the elimination of the drug to some extent. Furthermore, the micelles facilitated drug penetration through the blood-brain barrier. This study provides a foundation for the development of co-loaded mixed micelles containing homologous components.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Micelles , Tissue Distribution , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Rats, Inbred SHR , Isoflavones/pharmacology
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4908-4918, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008661

ABSTRACT

Currently, the gut-organ axis has become a hot research topic. As increasing attention has been paid to the role of gut microbiota in the health of organs, the complex and integrated dialogue mechanism between the gastrointestinal tract and the associated microbiota has been demonstrated in more and more studies. Skin as the largest organ in the human body serves as the primary barrier protecting the human body from damage. The proposal of the gut-skin axis has established a bidirectional link between the gut and the skin. The disturbance of gut microbiota can lead to the occurrence of skin diseases, the mechanism of which is complex and may involve multiple pathways in immunity, metabolism, and internal secretion. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the connection between the intestine and the skin can be established through the lung, and the interior disorders will definitely cause symptoms on the exterior. This paper reviews the research progress in the gut-skin axis and its correlation with TCM theory and provides ideas and a basis for cli-nical treatment and drug development of skin and intestinal diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Gastrointestinal Tract , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1087-1097, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970580

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore the main active components and potential mechanisms of Panax notoginseng saponins(PNS) and osteopractic total flavone(OTF) in the treatment of osteoporosis(OP) through network pharmacology, molecular docking and in vitro cell experiments, which was expected to provide a theoretical basis for clinical applications. The blood-entering components of PNS and OTF were obtained from literature search and online database, and their potential targets were obtained from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction. The OP targets were obtained by means of searching Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM) and GeneCards. The common targets of the drug and disease were screened by Venn. Cytoscape was used to construct a "drug-component-target-disease" network, and the core components were screened according to the node degree. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the common targets was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape, and the core targets were screened according to the node degree. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of potential therapeutic targets were carried out by R language. Molecular docking was used to determine the binding activity of some active components to key targets by AutoDock Vina. Finally, HIF-1 signaling pathway was selected for in vitro experimental verification according to the results of KEGG pathway analysis. Network pharmacology showed that there were 45 active components such as leachianone A, kurarinone, 20(R)-protopanaxatriol, 20(S)-protopanaxatriol, and kaempferol, and 103 therapeutic targets such as IL6, AKT1, TNF, VEGFA and MAPK3 involved. PI3K-AKT, HIF-1, TNF and other signaling pathways were enriched. Molecular docking revealed that the core components had good binding ability to the core targets. In vitro experiments found that PNS-OTF could up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of HIF-1α, VEGFA and Runx2, indicating that the mechanism of PNS-OTF in treating OP may be related to the activation of HIF-1 signaling pathway, and thus PNS-OTF played a role in promoting angiogenesis and osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, this study predicted the core targets and pathways of PNS-OTF in treating OP based on network pharmacology and carried out in vitro experimental verification, which reflected the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway synergy of PNS-OTF, and provided new ideas for the future clinical treatment of OP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Osteogenesis , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Osteoporosis , Databases, Genetic
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 579-587, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970526

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has a long history and abundant experience in external therapy, which marks human wisdom. In the early history of human, people found that fumigation, coating, and sticking of some tree branches and herb stems can help alleviate scabies and remove parasites in productive labor, which indicates the emergence of external therapy. Pathogen usually enters the body through the surface, so external therapy can be used to treat the disease. External therapy is among the major characteristic of surgery of TCM. As one of the external therapies in TCM, external application to acupoints smooths the zang-fu organs through meridians and collaterals, thereby harmonizing yin and yang. This therapy emerged in the early society, formed the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, improved in the Song and Ming dynasties, and matured in the Qing dynasty. With the efforts of experts in history, it has had a mature theory. According to modern research, it can avoid the first-pass effect of liver and the gastrointestinal irritation and improve the bioavailability of Chinese medicine. Based on the effect of Chinese medicine and the theory of meridian and collateral, it can stimulate the acupoints, exert regulatory effect on acupoints, and give full play to the efficacy of TCM and the interaction of the two. Thereby, it can regulate qi and blood and balance yin and yang, thus being widely used in the treatment of diseases. In this paper, the use of external application to acupoints, the effect on skin immunity, the regulation of neuro-inflammatory mechanism, the relationship between acupoint application and human circulation network, and the development of its dosage form were summarized through literature review. On this basis, this study is expected to lay a foundation for further research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Biological Availability , Fumigation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 696-700, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939518

ABSTRACT

Based on the community research experience of heat-sensitive moxibustion, this study explained technical recommendations for pragmatic randomized controlled trials (pRCTs) of heat-sensitive moxibustion in community from 7 aspects: selection of community research sites, ethical approval and registration, patient recruitment, training of standard operating procedures, ensuring patient compliance, quality control of follow-up visits and patient safety, which aimed to reduce the difficulty of research execution and improve the quality of pRCTs implementation and follow-up visits of heat-sensitive moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Hot Temperature , Moxibustion/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2430-2439, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928122

ABSTRACT

A total of 15 batches of the substance reference of Guizhi Jia Gegen Decoction(GZGGD) were prepared and the characteristic fingerprints of them were established. Furthermore, the similarity of the fingerprints and peak attributes were explored. The extraction rate, and the content and the transfer rate ranges of the index components, puerarin, paeoniflorin, liquiritin, and ammonium glycyrrhizate were determined for the analysis of the quality value transfer. The result demonstrated that the fingerprints of the 15 batches of the samples showed high similarity(>0.99). A total of 15 characteristic peaks were identified from the fingerprints, with 10 for Puerariae Lobatae Radix, 1 for Cinnamomi Ramulus, 2 for Paeoniae Radix Alba, and 2 for Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The content of puerarin was 11.05-18.35 mg·g~(-1) and the average transfer rate was 21.27%-39.49%. The corresponding figures were 7.95-10.90 mg·g~(-1) and 23.28%-43.23% for paeoniflorin, 3.25-4.95 mg·g~(-1) and 32.31%-61.27% for ammonium glycyrrhizate, and 3.65-5.80 mg·g~(-1) and 14.57%-27.05% for liquiritin. The extraction rate of the 15 batches of samples was in the range of 16.85%-21.78%. In this paper, the quality value transfer of the substance reference of GZGGD was analyzed based on characteristic fingerprint, content of index components, and the extraction rate. This study is expected to lay a basis for the quality control and further development of GZGGD.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1064-1072, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928026

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determining the content of strychnine and paeoniflorin in plasma and brain tissue of rats, and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior and brain tissue distribution of paeoniflorin combined with normal and toxic doses of strychnine in rats after percutaneous administration. Compared with those in the toxic-dose strychnine group, the AUC_(0-t), AUC_(0-∞), and C_(max) of strychnine decreased by 51.51%, 45.68%, and 46.03%, respectively(P<0.01), and the corresponding values of paeoniflorin increased by 91.41%, 102.31%, and 169.32%, respectively(P<0.01), in the compatibility group. Compared with the normal-dose strychnine group, the compatibility group showed insignificantly decreased C_(max), AUC_(0-t), and AUC_(0-∞) of strychnine, increased C_(max) and T_(max) of paeoniflorin(P<0.01), 66.88% increase in AUC_(0-t), and 70.55% increase in AUC_(0-∞) of paeoniflorin. In addition, the brain tissue concentration of strychnine decreased and that of paeoniflorin increased after compatibility. The combination of paeoniflorin with normal dose and toxic dose of strychnine can inhibit the percutaneous absorption of strychnine, and greatly promote the percutaneous penetration of paeoniflorin, whereas the interaction mechanism remains to be explored. The UPLC-MS/MS method established in this study is easy to operate and has good precision. It is suitable for in vivo study of pharmacokinetic behavior and brain tissue distribution of paeoniflorin and strychnine after percutaneous administration in rats, which provides reference for the safe and rational clinical use of strychnine and the combined use of drugs, and lays a solid foundation for the development of external preparations containing Strychni Semen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Administration, Cutaneous , Brain , Bridged-Ring Compounds/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Glucosides , Monoterpenes , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Strychnine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Tissue Distribution
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 528-536, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927997

ABSTRACT

UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and serum pharmacochemistry were employed to study the migrating components in rat sera after intragastric administration of the water extracts of Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR) and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix(PTR). After the respective intragastric administration of PLR and PTR extracts, blood samples were collected from the orbital vein. The serum samples were treated by protein precipitation method with methanol and acetonitrile at a ratio of 1∶1 and then passed through Agilent ZORBAX RRHD SB-C_(18) column(3 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) and Agilent SB-C_(18) pre-column(3 mm×5 mm, 1.8 μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) as the mobile phase. The elution was performed at the flow rate of 0.25 mL·min~(-1), the column temperature of 40 ℃, and the injection volume of 2 μL. By comparison of the total ion chromatogram and secondary fragment ion information of PLR and PTR water extracts, PLR-and PTR-containing sera, and blank serum, we found 42 migrating components(including 17 prototype components and 25 metabolites) in the sera of rats treated with PLR and 35 migrating components(including 15 prototype components and 20 metabolites) in the sera of rats treated with PTR. Thirty-three common components were shared by the two treatments, including 13 prototype components and 20 metabolites. The differences of migrating components in the PLR-and PTR-treated rat sera provide a scientific basis for further study of the active components and quality markers of PLR and PTR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Pueraria , Serum
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 271-278, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927934

ABSTRACT

Due to the characteristics of confusing varieties of Chinese medicinal materials, different sources, complex chemical composition, non-standard preparation process, and non-standard pharmaceutical equipment, the quality of Chinese medicinal preparations is difficult to be controlled and evaluated effectively under the current quality control mode and method of Chinese medicinal preparation. The present study proposed an engineering quality view of Chinese medicine pharmacy and a strategy to control the quality of Chinese medicinal preparations based on the current situation. The "overall, dialectical, and dynamic" multi-factor engineering quality view, covering original medicinal materials, preparation technologies, pharmaceutical equipment, and Chinese medicinal preparations, ensures the traceable process, measurable procedures, and feedback quality. The quality control mode of Chinese medicinal preparation with controllable sources, standardized preparation technologies, green pharmaceutical equipment, and intelligent manufacturing is built up.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmacy , Quality Control
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 95-102, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927915

ABSTRACT

In this experiment, Panax notoginseng saponins chitosan nanoparticles(PNS-NPs) were prepared by self-assembly and their appearance, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, polydispersity index(PDI), Zeta potential, and microstructure were characterized. The prepared PNS-NPs were intact in structure, with an average particle size of(209±0.258) nm, encapsulation efficiency of 42.34%±0.28%, a drug loading of 37.63%±0.85%, and a Zeta potential of(39.8±3.122) mV. The intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs in rats was further studied. The established HPLC method of PNS was employed to investigate the effects of pH, perfusion rate, and different drugs(PNS raw materials, Xuesaitong Capsules, and PNS-NPs). The absorption rate constant(K_a) and apparent permeability coefficient(P_(app)) in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were calculated and analyzed. As illustrated by the results, the intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was increased in the perfusion solution at pH 6.8(P<0.05), and perfusion rate had no significant effect on the K_a and P_(app) of PNS-NPs. The intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was significantly different from that of PNS raw materials and Xuesaitong Capsules(P<0.05), and the intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was significantly improved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chitosan/pharmacology , Intestinal Absorption , Nanoparticles , Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1781-1791, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929420

ABSTRACT

Particle design, based on the concept of "quality by design", combines the elements of microbiology, formulation science, heat and mass transfer, solid state physics, powder science, and nanotechnology. It is widely used to develop particles with excellent functional properties. Without affecting the active ingredients, the modification technology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) powder based on particle design theory, could improve the flowability, tabletability, disintegration and dissolution behavior, hygroscopicity, wettability, and other functional properties at the physical structure level. This greatly promotes the development of solid preparations of TCM. The present review aims to summarize and discuss the research progress of powder modification of TCM from the perspective of the theory of particle design, powder modification technology, equipment used for powder modification, application in TCM and modification mechanism mainly based on researches published in recent ten years. This review could provide ideas and theory basis for the development of particle design.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 95-104, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940425

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the long-term safety of triptolide ferulic acid ethosome gel in percutaneous administration. MethodWe mixed triptolide with ferulic acid to make liposomes gel in different doses and then administrated the gel to SD rats of both sexes with intact skin and damaged skin for 12 weeks. The daily dosages calculated based on triptolide for the low-, middle-, and high-dose groups were 63.75, 127.50, 255.00 μg·kg-1, respectively. The body weight of each rat was measured weekly. The rats were sacrificed in the last week for the determination of serum biochemical parameters and organ indexes as well as the observation of histopathology. The toxicity was assessed based on the body weight and all the parameters and indexes. ResultAfter long-term administration, the body weight and serum biochemical parameters did not show significant difference between the gel-treated groups and the blank group with intact skin, which indicated that the percutaneous administration of triptolide and ferulic acid ethosomes gel was relatively safe. However, the rats in the high-dose group showed sparse hair and were easy to die in the case of unhairing with chloral hydrate at the late stage of the study. Comprared with the female rats with intact skin in the blank control group, the female rats with damaged skin in the middle-dose group showed decreased heart index (P<0.05), which indicated certain cardiotoxicity. Moreover, damage appeared in skin and lung, which may be influeneced by dosage, sex, and skin state. ConclusionFerulic acid in combination with triptolide is relatively safe for percutaneous administration, whereas there are some risks of skin and lung damage in the case of long-term administration. Individualized administration scheme should be developed according to liver and kidney function and skin conditons to ensure the safety of clinical medication.

17.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 85-90, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927339

ABSTRACT

Heat-sensitive moxibustion is the appropriate technique of the external treatment in traditional Chinese medicine and it is widely used in community because of its "easy learning, simple operation and clear curative effect". Pragmatic randomized controlled trial is a main intervention design in the real world study, which provides a high-level evidence for the effectiveness assessment of heat-sensitive moxibustion in community management. Focusing on the key links of randomization, e.g. block randomization, stratified randomization, cluster randomization, sample size allocation, allocation concealment and blinding, the paper elaborates the advantages, disadvantages and technical details of two-stage randomization with consideration of patient preference in pragmatic randomized controlled trials of heat-sensitive moxibustion in community. It facilitates improving the quality of evidence, reproducibility and methodological homogeneity among different trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hot Temperature , Moxibustion , Patient Preference , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 210-217, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906225

ABSTRACT

With advanced brewing technology and contemporary table culture, alcohol drinking, which can be traced back to Dukang wine in the Xia dynasty, is very common in China. However, excessive alcohol intake can easily cause alcohol liver damage, ranging from abdominal pain and venous thrombosis to severe hypoglycemia and fat embolism, coma shock and even life-threatening cases. Puerariae Lobatae Radix has a cool property and sweet taste, with functions of antipyretic, promoting the secretion of saliva or body fluid, rash and hangover alleviation, and so on. It was first recorded in Shen Nong's Materia Medica and has been listed as a special anti-alcoholic medicine in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. For example, the ancient medical book Compendium of Materia Medica and other records claim that Puerariae Lobatae Radix has the effect of relieving alcohol and protecting the liver. At the same time, Puerariae Lobatae Radix has a long history in both medicine and food. It was listed in the List of Articles That Both Serve as Food and Medicine published by the National Health Commission. Therefore, there are many products containing pueraria for hangover and liver protection. Prior to this, many scholars have carried out relevant researches on the anti-alcoholism efficacy of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, but there is a lack of systematic summaries. The author has consulted relevant domestic and foreign literatures in recent years. The related products were summarized and it was found that the anti-alcoholic effect of pueraria root mainly came from puerarin, pueraria flavonoids and pueraria polysaccharide, puerarin polypeptide, pueraria daidzein and its derivatives, including the main mechanisms such as inhibiting alcohol absorption, accelerating metabolism, anti-oxidation, protection of liver and cardiomyocytes, and neuroprotection. Related products are abundant and well evaluated, but research on related genes needs to be deepened. This article reviews the main anti-alcoholic components, mechanism of action and related products of pueraria, and puts forward suggestions for future research directions, hoping to provide reference for further related research.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 211-216, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906008

ABSTRACT

Volatile oil is widely distributed in Chinese medicinal materials with complex chemical components. The main components are terpenes, aromatics, aliphatics, and nitrogen and sulfur containing. It has a variety of pharmacological activities. Such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-aging and so on. It is widely used in medical and health care, agricultural efficiency enhancement, and daily products. In recent years, there have been a large number of studies on the pain relief of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) essential oils, but there is no systematic generalization. The author found that the mechanism of TCM essential oils to exert analgesic effects mainly includes regulation of the central nervous system, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antispasmodic and analgesic effects by consulting Chinese and foreign literatures in recent years, but the exact mechanism needs to be further verified. This article reviews the research progress of TCM essential oil pain relief from the aspects of pain classification, generation, analgesic mechanism and combination of other technologies, in order to provide reference for related research in the future.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 215-223, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906474

ABSTRACT

Oral nanoparticles (NPs) has gradually become a approach to improve oral bioavailability of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ drugs, and the transmembrane transport mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract largely depends on physicochemical characteristics of NPs. It would be beneficial to design the NPs with high transport efficiency and effectively improve the oral bioavailability of drugs by adopting a reasonable research model to analyze the transmembrane mechanism of the oral NPs and exactly reveal the relationship between the physicochemical properties and the transport mechanism of NPs. This review focused on summarizing the transmembrane approaches of oral NPs, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the common cell models, concluding the potential interaction between the physicochemical properties and transmembrane process of NPs, and proposing the research strategy of transport mechanism based on in situ intestinal perfusion, with the purpose of discovering a suitable research model for studying the transport mechanism of different NPs, providing a basis for regulating the transport performance of the NPs to improve the oral bioavailability, and expanding the application of oral NPs in the development of new drugs.

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